South African Journal of Sports Medicine https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sasma The <em>South African Journal of Sports Medicine</em>is an international, refereed journal published for professionals with a primary interest in sports medicine and exercise science practice. The journal publishes original research and reviews covering diagnostics, therapeutics and rehabilitation in healthy and physically challenged individuals of all ages and levels of sport and exercise participation. Original manuscripts, i.e., those that have not been published elsewhere except in abstract form, will be accepted from all countries and subject to peer review by the Editors and Editorial <p>Other websites related to this journal: <a title="http://www.sajsm.org.za/index.php/sajsm" href="http://www.sajsm.org.za/index.php/sajsm" target="_blank">http://www.sajsm.org.za/index.php/sajsm</a></p> en-US The journal owns copyright Mike.Lambert@uct.ac.za (Mike Lambert,) gertrude@hmpg.co.za (Publisher) Mon, 18 May 2020 17:57:57 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Physical and physiological profile of U18, U19, U21 and senior elite netball players https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sasma/article/view/195915 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Physical and physiological profile data for elite netball players in South Africa and internationally are limited but are necessary for conditioning programme information.<br><strong>Objective</strong>: To determine the physical and physiological profiles of U18, U19, U21 and senior level elite netball players at provincial level in the Free State, South Africa. The information provided is by age group and playing position. The fitness of the players for South African and New Zealand netball is also given using the fitness normative data (norms).<br><strong>Methods</strong>: This cross-sectional, descriptive study consisted of 77 elite South African netball players. Anthropometric measurements were taken according to international standards. Fitness tests included the Star Execution Balance Test, standing broad jump, double- and single-leg vertical jump, Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1(IR1) test, sprints over 5, 10 and 40 m, horizontal pull-ups and press-ups, the prone bridge test and anaerobic Octorepeater tests with 10 m and 20 m repeated shuttle sprints. In keeping with the descriptive nature of the study, descriptive statistics were calculated for numerical data by age group and playing position.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Players generally did not meet the accepted fitness standards in the following areas: press-ups (all age groups), horizontal pull-ups (senior and U21), standing broad jump (senior and U21), vertical squat jump (senior and U21), 5 m and 10 m sprints (senior and U21); anaerobic Octorepeater (senior players), and the aerobic Yo-Yo IR1 test (all age groups).<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Strength and conditioning coaches should develop training programmes to address fitness areas where players do not meet the international standards.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: sport, fitness tests, body composition, performance tests, fitness norms</p> C.J. Sinclair, F. Coetzee, R. Schall Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sasma/article/view/195915 Mon, 18 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nutritional supplements use, cost, source of information, and practices by Johannesburg North gym goers https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sasma/article/view/195916 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Nutritional supplements are defined as any dietary supplement manufactured product that is generally intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid. Currently, the use of nutritional supplements is on the increase worldwide,&nbsp; predominantly in Western countries but also more recently expanding to other parts of the world for what has become a multibillion-dollar global industry. As a result, consumer demand has caused the increase in the advertising and marketing of these products. This contributes to early exposure to nutritional supplements by potential consumers and is an influencing factor for the use of performance-enhancing and/or appearance substances by adolescents. For the nutritional supplement industry the container is thus the manifestation of innovative ideas for the enterprising business-minded mogul. For the consumer, body image and ideal body discrepancy, and social influences manifest in the belief that the perfection of body development cannot be achieved without the use of nutritional supplements. This makes the consumer a captive audience for the industry and a challenge for the health care provider when suggesting alternatives to nutritional supplements, based on cost-benefit, and risk assessment.<br><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the association between commercial gym goers and nutritional supplements, in particular the commencement of use, reasons and purpose for use, and the financial and risk implications of use.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: A self-administered questionnaire based on a cross-sectional quantitative design and systematic convenience sampling was given to the 364 recruited males and female gym goers.<br><strong>Results</strong>: This study’s finding shows that the main reasons why females attend gyms are for muscle gain (57%), weight loss (48%), staying healthy (47%), and a ‘spiritual motive’ (39%) In males, it is predominantly for muscle gain (54%). Protein supplements were the most popular products that were consumed (84%) followed by carbohydrates (72%) and vitamins (71%). It was found that the consumption of nutritional supplements often starts at high school age and continues into adulthood. The analysis shows that natural source protein products are better priced than nutritional supplement products.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study shows the importance of educating gym goers, the general public, and the guardians of minors to make a behaviour change towards nutritional supplement consumption. The change should also incorporate a cost-benefit risk assessment which is practical for the&nbsp; consumer when comparing supplement use as alternative sources of protein.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> alternative protein, body image, cost, gender, spiritual motives</p> Y. Coopoo, X. McCreanor, G. Gabriels Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sasma/article/view/195916 Mon, 18 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Experiences and rehabilitation needs of runners with anterior knee pain in under-resourced communities in Ekurhuleni, Gauteng, South Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sasma/article/view/195917 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Anterior knee pain (AKP) is a common knee injury resulting from overuse, and impact negatively on the quality of life of many runners. Runners with AKP in under-resourced poor communities present with poor health outcomes.<br><strong>Aim:</strong> To determine the experiences and rehabilitation needs of runners in under-resourced communities in Ekurhuleni, South Africa.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: The study was qualitative, based on the focus group interview method. Interviews were conducted with 12 runners. They were aged from 18 to 45 years and had a history of AKP. Permission was obtained from club managers and consent from each participant. An interview schedule with predetermined questions was used to collect the data. Two researchers conducted the interview, a facilitator and moderator. The interview session lasted for 80 minutes. Audio recordings of the interview session were made, transcribed verbatim and notes taken, with the final result provided in a written report. The data approach was thematic and deductive in nature.<br><strong>Results:</strong> All 12 recruited participants participated. The participants were comprised of six females and six males, eight youths and four adults; seven had ≤5 years of running experience and five had 10 years. The following themes and subthemes emerged: 1) The negative impact of AKP on health (physical, emotional and social); 2) Limited rehabilitation services (availability, accessibility, affordability, adequacy and appropriateness); 3) Rehabilitation needs (knowledge and professional intervention).<br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study showed the negative impact of AKP on health and the problem of the paucity of rehabilitation services. A community based rehabilitation programme is therefore recommended for runners.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> patellofemoral pain syndrome, encounters, health needs, running, poorly-resourced communities</p> S.H. Kunene, N.P. Taukobong, S. Ramklass Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sasma/article/view/195917 Mon, 18 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Rugby World Cup 2019 injury surveillance study https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sasma/article/view/195918 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Full contact team sports, such as rugby union, have high incidences of injury. Injury surveillance studies underpin player welfare programmes in rugby union.<br><strong>Objective</strong>: To determine the incidence, severity, nature and causes of injuries sustained during the Rugby World Cup 2019.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: A prospective, whole population study following the definitions and procedures recommended in the consensus statement for epidemiologic studies in rugby union. Output measures included players’ age (years), stature (cm), body mass (kg), playing position, and group-level incidence (injuries/1000 player-hours), severity (days-absence), injury burden (days absence/1000 player-hours), location (%), type (%) and inciting event (%) of injuries.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Overall incidences of injury were 79.4 match injuries/1000 player-match-hours (95% CI: 67.4 to 93.6) and 1.5 training injuries/1000 player-training-hours (95% CI: 1.0 to 2.3). The overall mean severity of injury was 28.9 (95% CI: 20.0 to 37.8) days absence during matches and 14.8 (95% CI: 4.1 to 25.5) days absence during training. The most common locations and types of match injuries were head/face (22.4%), posterior thigh (12.6%), ligament sprain (21.7%) and muscle strain (20.3%); the ankle (24.0%), posterior thigh (16.0%), muscle strain (44.0%) and ligament sprain (16.0%) were the most common locations and types of injuries during training. Tackling (28.7%), collisions (16.9%) and running (16.9%) were responsible for most match injuries and non-contact (36.0%) and contact (32.0%) rugby skills activities for training injuries.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The incidence, severity, nature and inciting events associated with match and training injuries at Rugby World Cup 2019 were similar to those reported for Rugby World Cups 2007, 2011 and 2015.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Rugby World Cup, injury incidence, injury severity, injury burden, injury risk</p> C.W. Fuller, A. Taylor, M. Douglas, M. Raftery Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sasma/article/view/195918 Mon, 18 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Rugby World Cup 2019 injury surveillance study https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sasma/article/view/195919 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Full contact team sports, such as rugby union, have high incidences of injury. Injury surveillance studies underpin player welfare programmes in rugby union.<br><strong>Objective</strong>: To determine the incidence, severity, nature and causes of injuries sustained during the Rugby World Cup 2019.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: A prospective, whole population study following the definitions and procedures recommended in the consensus statement for epidemiologic studies in rugby union. Output measures included players’ age (years), stature (cm), body mass (kg), playing position, and group-level incidence (injuries/1000 player-hours), severity (days-absence), injury burden (days absence/1000 player-hours), location (%), type (%) and inciting event (%) of injuries.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Overall incidences of injury were 79.4 match injuries/1000 player-match-hours (95% CI: 67.4 to 93.6) and 1.5 training injuries/1000 player-training-hours (95% CI: 1.0 to 2.3). The overall mean severity of injury was 28.9 (95% CI: 20.0 to 37.8) days absence during matches and 14.8 (95% CI: 4.1 to 25.5) days absence during training. The most common locations and types of match injuries were head/face (22.4%), posterior thigh (12.6%), ligament sprain (21.7%) and muscle strain (20.3%); the ankle (24.0%), posterior thigh (16.0%), muscle strain (44.0%) and ligament sprain (16.0%) were the most common locations and types of injuries during training. Tackling (28.7%), collisions (16.9%) and running (16.9%) were responsible for most match injuries and non-contact (36.0%) and contact (32.0%) rugby skills activities for training injuries.<br>Conclusion: The incidence, severity, nature and inciting events associated with match and training injuries at Rugby World Cup 2019 were similar to those reported for Rugby World Cups 2007, 2011 and 2015.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Rugby World Cup, injury incidence, injury severity, injury burden, injury risk</p> L. Pote, G. King, C.J. Christie Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sasma/article/view/195919 Mon, 18 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A “scattered” SCAT in a football goalkeeper: a case report https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sasma/article/view/195920 <p><strong>Background</strong>: In an acute field-side setting, it is often challenging to differentiate benign sports-related concussion (SRC) from potential, more sinister, intracranial pathology. Moreover, recovery in the ensuing days and weeks is often complex as the resolution of classical signs and symptoms does not always follow a standard pattern.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: To highlight the value of a structured and repeated thorough clinical assessment approach toward SRC, particularly as atypical and unexpected sequences in patient recovery patterns may require further specialist referral and intervention.<br><strong>Findings:</strong> A football goalkeeper sustained a concussion in which symptoms failed to resolve as expected. Deterioration in his clinical condition led to an eventual diagnosis of Chiari malformation (type I), which required surgical intervention.<br><strong>Implications</strong>: Non-typical recovery patterns of concussion may be indicative of increased severity when considered retrospectively. However, clinicians should not discount the possibility of underlying conditions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: concussion, soccer, sports-related head injury</p> S. Bosch, P.L. Viviers, R. de Villiers, W. Derman Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sasma/article/view/195920 Mon, 18 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular health in the workplace: a case study https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sasma/article/view/195921 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality, contributing a higher proportion of CV risk compared to other traditionally recognised risk factors. However, CRF is not included in usual workplace wellness protocols and, as such, employers are not aware of the importance of this factor.<br><strong>Aim</strong>: The aim of this case study was to explore the effect of a 12-week exercise intervention programme on CRF, CV health and medical health claims in a male participant who was employed by a corporate company with existing chronic diseases.<br><strong>Findings</strong>: Health outcome measures improved after the 12-week exercise intervention programme. CRF showed the greatest improvement and medical health claims were lowered during the three-month post-intervention period.<br><strong>Implications</strong>: CRF should be included as a health outcome measure in worksite wellness programmes and monitored.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: cardiopulmonary fitness, exercise interventions, medical health claims, corporate wellness</p> G. Torres, P.J. Gradidge, D. Constantinou Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sasma/article/view/195921 Mon, 18 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Workloads of forward and backline adolescent rugby players: a pilot study https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sasma/article/view/197272 <p><strong>Background</strong>: There is minimal research on workloads of adolescent rugby players. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to determine the workloads placed on a cohort of South African adolescent rugby players (n = 17), during an in-season period.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Session RPE ratings were collected daily, 30 minutes after the training session concluded, during an 11-week in-season period. The training load was calculated as the session ratings of perceived exertion multiplied by the session’s duration (min).<br><strong>Results</strong>: The main finding of the study was that the adolescents in this investigation had similar workloads to elite players but higher workloads than other studies on adolescent rugby players. The forwards (3311±939 arbitrary units; AU) had a higher workload than backline players (2851±1080 AU). There was no difference between forwards and backline players with regards to the acute:chronic workload ratio.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Workloads are high in these adolescent players, particularly in the forwards, and are similar to the workloads of elite level rugby players.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: rugby union, session rating of perceived exertion, workload monitoring, AC ratio, cost effectiveness</p> D. Barnard, L. Pote, C.J. Christie Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sasma/article/view/197272 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Testosterone boosters: a report of a supplement’s misleading labelling claims https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sasma/article/view/197273 <p>No Abstract.</p> R.W. de Lange Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sasma/article/view/197273 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000