Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms <p>Sudan JMS is a joint project of continuous medical education program at Faculty of Medicine - Omdurman Islamic University, The National Centre for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Ibn Sina Hospital and Omdurman teaching Hospital (Sudan). Sudan JMS is published every three months. High-quality papers written in English or Arabic language dealing with aspects of medical sciences are welcomed. Sudan JMS publishes original articles, case reports, Letter to the Editor, commentaries and peer reviews.</p><p>Other websites related to this journal: <a title="http://www.sudjms.net/" href="http://www.sudjms.net/" target="_blank">http://www.sudjms.net/</a> and <a title="https://www.knepublishing.com/index.php/SJMS" href="https://www.knepublishing.com/index.php/SJMS" target="_blank">https://www.knepublishing.com/index.php/SJMS</a></p> en-US <p>Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal.</p><p>This content is freely available and published under a Creative Commons Attribution License.</p> info@sudjms.net (Editor-in-Chief) sudanjms@yahoo.co.uk (Dr. Aamir Yassin) Thu, 04 Nov 2021 12:07:08 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Healthcare Worker Stress and Burnout in the time of COVID-19: A Call for Action https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216886 <p>No Abstract.</p> Ahmed S. A. El Sayed Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216886 Wed, 03 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Interventional Study on Adherence to Pharmacotherapy and Drug Pattern in Elderly Patients at Civil Hospital of Ba https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216887 <p><strong><span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 575.681px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12494);" role="presentation">Background</span></strong><span dir="ltr" style="left: 346.902px; top: 575.681px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08711);" role="presentation"><strong>:</strong> To assess the contributing factors to adherence of pharmacotherapy and </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 600.588px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09547);" role="presentation">perception of elderly patients.</span><br role="presentation"><strong><span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 625.495px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.13216);" role="presentation">Methods</span></strong><span dir="ltr" style="left: 318.883px; top: 625.495px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06582);" role="presentation">: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the outpatient clinic </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 650.401px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01907);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 268.345px; top: 650.401px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.919569);" role="presentation">Civil</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 308.345px; top: 650.401px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06138);" role="presentation">Hospital</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 380.418px; top: 650.401px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03791);" role="presentation">Badin,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 436.82px; top: 650.401px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08557);" role="presentation">Pakistan</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 510.409px; top: 650.401px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01669);" role="presentation">from</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 552.856px; top: 650.401px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11068);" role="presentation">January</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 622.317px; top: 650.401px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10103);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 644.308px; top: 650.401px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.16789);" role="presentation">June</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 689.787px; top: 650.401px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04123);" role="presentation">2019.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 738.938px; top: 650.401px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">A</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 757.331px; top: 650.401px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0689);" role="presentation">total</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 798.408px; top: 650.401px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02027);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 820.29px; top: 650.401px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.18721);" role="presentation">300</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 859.176px; top: 650.401px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12816);" role="presentation">samples</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 675.306px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11185);" role="presentation">were</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 291.541px; top: 675.306px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15986);" role="presentation">selected</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 365.367px; top: 675.306px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10103);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 386.646px; top: 675.306px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09425);" role="presentation">analyze</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 453.258px; top: 675.306px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15318);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 484.619px; top: 675.306px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08541);" role="presentation">results.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 547.011px; top: 675.306px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">A</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 564.655px; top: 675.306px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11183);" role="presentation">self-designed</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 678.591px; top: 675.306px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06203);" role="presentation">proforma</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 756.381px; top: 675.306px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07127);" role="presentation">(prescribing</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 856.545px; top: 675.306px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06354);" role="presentation">indicator</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 700.213px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08567);" role="presentation">form) was used for collecting data including patient demographics, diagnosis, and the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 725.12px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10534);" role="presentation">current medications prescribed for each patient.</span><br role="presentation"><strong><span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 750.026px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11659);" role="presentation">Results</span></strong><span dir="ltr" style="left: 306.573px; top: 750.026px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04314);" role="presentation"><strong>:</strong> Of the 300 selected participants, 221(73.7%) were male, while 79 (26.3%) were </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 774.933px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06795);" role="presentation">female.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 310.993px; top: 774.933px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.997354);" role="presentation">Majority</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 381.367px; top: 774.933px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02027);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 403.45px; top: 774.933px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15318);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 435.76px; top: 774.933px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.13033);" role="presentation">subjects</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 508.893px; top: 774.933px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.998249);" role="presentation">in</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 529.66px; top: 774.933px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15318);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 561.97px; top: 774.933px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.20115);" role="presentation">age</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 598.975px; top: 774.933px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10703);" role="presentation">group</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 652.728px; top: 774.933px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02027);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 674.81px; top: 774.933px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.20148);" role="presentation">60–69</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 736.253px; top: 774.933px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.985861);" role="presentation">(52%)</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 787.851px; top: 774.933px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14646);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 824.655px; top: 774.933px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12549);" role="presentation">70–79</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 882.609px; top: 774.933px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1158);" role="presentation">years</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 799.84px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.931046);" role="presentation">(27%)</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 296.637px; top: 799.84px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04554);" role="presentation">followed</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 372.18px; top: 799.84px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05489);" role="presentation">by</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 399.103px; top: 799.84px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1584);" role="presentation">those</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 451.45px; top: 799.84px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.18757);" role="presentation">aged</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 500.052px; top: 800.388px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: monospace;" role="presentation">&gt;</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 512.563px; top: 799.84px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09289);" role="presentation">79</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 540.18px; top: 799.84px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.860199);" role="presentation">(21%).</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 591.029px; top: 799.84px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0273);" role="presentation">Antibiotics</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 682.116px; top: 799.84px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11237);" role="presentation">were</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 729.221px; top: 799.84px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12302);" role="presentation">prescribed</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 822.298px; top: 799.84px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10103);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 845.604px; top: 799.84px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.891886);" role="presentation">17.2%</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 895.358px; top: 799.84px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14646);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 824.746px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08495);" role="presentation">vitamins to 14.7%. Patients’ responses related to nonadherence factor were 92.7% for</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 849.653px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05495);" role="presentation">the cost, 32.7% for the long treatment duration, and 24% for the lack of knowledge. Out </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 874.56px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01907);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 268.637px; top: 874.56px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15318);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 301.02px; top: 874.56px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0689);" role="presentation">total</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 342.39px; top: 874.56px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10095);" role="presentation">patients,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 416.619px; top: 874.56px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03752);" role="presentation">28%</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 458.007px; top: 874.56px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11237);" role="presentation">were</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 504.089px; top: 874.56px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03559);" role="presentation">forgetful,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 581.294px; top: 874.56px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01808);" role="presentation">26.7%</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 635.961px; top: 874.56px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09289);" role="presentation">complained</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 735.724px; top: 874.56px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.13414);" role="presentation">about</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 788.399px; top: 874.56px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07382);" role="presentation">complex</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 862.573px; top: 874.56px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08395);" role="presentation">therapy,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 899.466px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04131);" role="presentation">26.3%</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 303.194px; top: 899.466px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1122);" role="presentation">blamed</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 370.555px; top: 899.466px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03329);" role="presentation">financial</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 444.162px; top: 899.466px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08582);" role="presentation">problems,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 530.5px; top: 899.466px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.918984);" role="presentation">19.7%</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 581.422px; top: 899.466px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11839);" role="presentation">patients</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 652.527px; top: 899.466px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14646);" role="presentation">had</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 690.335px; top: 899.466px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.13436);" role="presentation">side</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 731.285px; top: 899.466px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08553);" role="presentation">effects,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 796.271px; top: 899.466px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14646);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 834.061px; top: 899.466px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.943758);" role="presentation">14.3%</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 886.153px; top: 899.466px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11237);" role="presentation">were</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 924.373px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09208);" role="presentation">negligent in taking the medication.</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 949.28px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09651);" role="presentation"><strong>Conclusion</strong>:</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 352.205px; top: 949.28px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08581);" role="presentation">Patient</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 416.15px; top: 949.28px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0302);" role="presentation">conformity</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 508.643px; top: 949.28px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.13626);" role="presentation">can</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 546.305px; top: 949.28px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.20611);" role="presentation">be</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 575.967px; top: 949.28px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1563);" role="presentation">enhanced</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 664.534px; top: 949.28px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05489);" role="presentation">by</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 692.643px; top: 949.28px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09534);" role="presentation">dropping</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 773.757px; top: 949.28px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07893);" role="presentation">polypharmacy</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 895.365px; top: 949.28px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14646);" role="presentation">and </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 974.186px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08654);" role="presentation">simplifying complex&nbsp; management, use of extended formulations, rate of medications, </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 999.093px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1098);" role="presentation">and by creating awareness among elderly patients.</span></p> Muhammad Shehnshah, Mudassar Iqbal Arain, Muhammad Ali Ghoto, Abdullah Dayo, Saira Shahnaz, Ramesha Anwar Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216887 Wed, 03 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Item Analysis of Multiple-choice Questions (MCQs): Assessment Tool For Quality Assurance Measures https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216888 <p><span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 546.723px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11196);" role="presentation"><strong>Background</strong>:</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 361.307px; top: 546.723px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06877);" role="presentation">Integration</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 456.832px; top: 546.723px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02027);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 482.238px; top: 546.723px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15662);" role="presentation">assessment</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 586.037px; top: 546.723px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01492);" role="presentation">with</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 628.905px; top: 546.723px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11904);" role="presentation">education</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 718.238px; top: 546.723px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03301);" role="presentation">is</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 740.74px; top: 546.723px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.993555);" role="presentation">vital</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 782.914px; top: 546.723px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14646);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 823.042px; top: 546.723px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11388);" role="presentation">ought</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 879.279px; top: 546.723px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10103);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 904.813px; top: 546.723px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.20611);" role="presentation">be </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 571.63px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09901);" role="presentation">performed</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 340.381px; top: 571.63px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05267);" role="presentation">regularly</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 420.071px; top: 571.63px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10103);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 446.007px; top: 571.63px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15728);" role="presentation">enhance</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 525.495px; top: 571.63px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07009);" role="presentation">learning.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 604.746px; top: 571.63px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10404);" role="presentation">There</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 662.043px; top: 571.63px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15081);" role="presentation">are</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 697.97px; top: 571.63px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06754);" role="presentation">many</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 751.577px; top: 571.63px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15662);" role="presentation">assessment</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 855.778px; top: 571.63px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12775);" role="presentation">methods</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 596.536px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00457);" role="presentation">like</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 281.02px; top: 596.536px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04502);" role="presentation">Multiple-choice</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 409.97px; top: 596.536px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09824);" role="presentation">Questions,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 502.262px; top: 596.536px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07865);" role="presentation">Objective</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 585.861px; top: 596.536px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08965);" role="presentation">Structured</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 675.797px; top: 596.536px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.995173);" role="presentation">Clinical </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 740.381px; top: 596.536px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03788);" role="presentation">Examination,</span>&nbsp; <span dir="ltr" style="left: 849.02px; top: 596.536px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07865);" role="presentation">Objective</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 621.443px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08941);" role="presentation">Structured</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 338.116px; top: 621.443px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0573);" role="presentation">Practical</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 414.39px; top: 621.443px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03788);" role="presentation">Examination,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 524.728px; top: 621.443px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12345);" role="presentation">etc.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 562.536px; top: 621.443px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09203);" role="presentation">The</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 602.262px; top: 621.443px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11249);" role="presentation">selection</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 683.23px; top: 621.443px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02027);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 707.486px; top: 621.443px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15318);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 741.952px; top: 621.443px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10951);" role="presentation">appropriate</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 842.938px; top: 621.443px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11922);" role="presentation">method</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 912.984px; top: 621.443px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03301);" role="presentation">is </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 646.35px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08457);" role="presentation">based on the curricula blueprint and the target competencies. Although MCQs has the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 671.256px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08959);" role="presentation">capacity</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 319.285px; top: 671.256px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10103);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 341.441px; top: 671.256px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15274);" role="presentation">test</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 377.203px; top: 671.256px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09783);" role="presentation">students’</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 456.162px; top: 671.256px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09472);" role="presentation">higher</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 513.769px; top: 671.256px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06139);" role="presentation">cognition,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 598.372px; top: 671.256px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01522);" role="presentation">critical</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 656.399px; top: 671.256px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08932);" role="presentation">appraising,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 750.792px; top: 671.256px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06223);" role="presentation">problem-solving,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 890.463px; top: 671.256px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15474);" role="presentation">data</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 696.163px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07833);" role="presentation">interpretation,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 365.221px; top: 696.163px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14646);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 403.157px; top: 696.163px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10713);" role="presentation">testing</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 464.801px; top: 696.163px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0452);" role="presentation">curricular</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 546.683px; top: 696.163px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12409);" role="presentation">contents</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 622.81px; top: 696.163px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.998249);" role="presentation">in</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 644.71px; top: 696.163px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">a</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 662.043px; top: 696.163px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10588);" role="presentation">short</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 710.171px; top: 696.163px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04068);" role="presentation">time,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 756.418px; top: 696.163px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14343);" role="presentation">there</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 805.842px; top: 696.163px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15081);" role="presentation">are</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 839.157px; top: 696.163px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09197);" role="presentation">constraints </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 721.07px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.998249);" role="presentation">in</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 270.244px; top: 721.07px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03988);" role="presentation">its</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 297.806px; top: 721.07px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06681);" role="presentation">analysis.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 375.084px; top: 721.07px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09203);" role="presentation">The</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 415.669px; top: 721.07px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11762);" role="presentation">authors</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 485.331px; top: 721.07px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04056);" role="presentation">aim</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 523.431px; top: 721.07px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10103);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 548.655px; top: 721.07px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.13952);" role="presentation">accentuate</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 645.988px; top: 721.07px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14041);" role="presentation">some</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 699.559px; top: 721.07px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11553);" role="presentation">consequential</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 821.166px; top: 721.07px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09303);" role="presentation">points</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 879.559px; top: 721.07px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.13414);" role="presentation">about</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 745.975px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08364);" role="presentation">psychometric</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 363.121px; top: 745.975px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07789);" role="presentation">analysis</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 436.564px; top: 745.975px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06086);" role="presentation">displaying</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 527.322px; top: 745.975px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03988);" role="presentation">its</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 555.303px; top: 745.975px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07493);" role="presentation">roles,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 608.399px; top: 745.975px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1504);" role="presentation">assessing</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 696.637px; top: 745.975px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03988);" role="presentation">its</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 724.6px; top: 745.975px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.995134);" role="presentation">validity</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 790.153px; top: 745.975px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14646);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 830.39px; top: 745.975px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999489);" role="presentation">reliability</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 911.395px; top: 745.975px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.998249);" role="presentation">in</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 770.881px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05004);" role="presentation">discriminating</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 365.769px; top: 770.881px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15318);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 399.979px; top: 770.881px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08144);" role="presentation">examinee’s</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 497.276px; top: 770.881px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09042);" role="presentation">performance,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 611.322px; top: 770.881px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14646);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 650.025px; top: 770.881px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05568);" role="presentation">impart</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 708.838px; top: 770.881px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14041);" role="presentation">some</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 761.294px; top: 770.881px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12019);" role="presentation">guide</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 815.212px; top: 770.881px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10103);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 839.322px; top: 770.881px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15318);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 873.513px; top: 770.881px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0271);" role="presentation">faculty </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 795.788px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10686);" role="presentation">members when constructing their exam questions bank.</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 820.695px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11388);" role="presentation"><strong>Methods</strong>:</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 329.422px; top: 820.695px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14548);" role="presentation">Databases</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 420.271px; top: 820.695px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12589);" role="presentation">such</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 464.015px; top: 820.695px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.19192);" role="presentation">as</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 488.198px; top: 820.695px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09385);" role="presentation">Google</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 553.056px; top: 820.695px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07658);" role="presentation">Scholar</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 619.157px; top: 820.695px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14646);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 655.431px; top: 820.695px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07967);" role="presentation">PubMed</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 728.326px; top: 820.695px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11237);" role="presentation">were</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 773.805px; top: 820.695px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15738);" role="presentation">searched</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 853.75px; top: 820.695px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00071);" role="presentation">for</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 881.074px; top: 820.695px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04571);" role="presentation">freely </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 845.601px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09275);" role="presentation">accessible English articles published since 2010. Synonyms and keywords were used</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 870.508px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07886);" role="presentation">in the search. First, the abstracts of the articles were viewed and read to select suitable</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 895.415px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07324);" role="presentation">match,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 305.587px; top: 895.415px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.13887);" role="presentation">then</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 347.705px; top: 895.415px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.93255);" role="presentation">full</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 377.678px; top: 895.415px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08239);" role="presentation">articles</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 441.093px; top: 895.415px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11237);" role="presentation">were</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 486.829px; top: 895.415px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.16374);" role="presentation">perused</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 559.23px; top: 895.415px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14646);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 595.778px; top: 895.415px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07779);" role="presentation">summarized.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 703.212px; top: 895.415px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.977362);" role="presentation">Finally,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 763.431px; top: 895.415px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07861);" role="presentation">recapitulation</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 878.043px; top: 895.415px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02027);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 899.851px; top: 895.415px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15318);" role="presentation">the </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 920.321px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11404);" role="presentation">relevant data was done to the best of the authors’ knowledge.</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 945.228px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09651);" role="presentation"><strong>Results</strong>:</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 314.507px; top: 945.228px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06889);" role="presentation">The searched articles showed the capacity of MCQs item analysis in assessing</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 970.135px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08762);" role="presentation">questions’</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 337.495px; top: 970.135px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.982692);" role="presentation">validity,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 405.002px; top: 970.135px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.989393);" role="presentation">reliability,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 487.961px; top: 970.135px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03988);" role="presentation">its</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 515.285px; top: 970.135px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08959);" role="presentation">capacity</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 590.902px; top: 970.135px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.998249);" role="presentation">in</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 614.427px; top: 970.135px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05004);" role="presentation">discriminating</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 734.591px; top: 970.135px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11636);" role="presentation">against</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 801.678px; top: 970.135px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15318);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 836.746px; top: 970.135px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08144);" role="presentation">examinee’s</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 995.041px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0929);" role="presentation">performance and correct technical flaws for question bank&nbsp; construction.</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 1019.95px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09651);" role="presentation"><strong>Conclusion</strong>:</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 350.215px; top: 1019.95px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0337);" role="presentation">Item</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 391.694px; top: 1019.95px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07789);" role="presentation">analysis</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 462.014px; top: 1019.95px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03301);" role="presentation">is</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 481.503px; top: 1019.95px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">a</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 498.032px; top: 1019.95px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06573);" role="presentation">statistical</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 578.471px; top: 1019.95px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06249);" role="presentation">tool</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 615.548px; top: 1019.95px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.17499);" role="presentation">used</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 661.795px; top: 1019.95px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10103);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 684.315px; top: 1019.95px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.19894);" role="presentation">assess</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 744.735px; top: 1019.95px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09783);" role="presentation">students’</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 824.041px; top: 1019.95px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10084);" role="presentation">performance </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 1044.85px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12389);" role="presentation">on</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 276.199px; top: 1044.85px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">a</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 295.03px; top: 1044.85px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.13248);" role="presentation">test,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 338.153px; top: 1044.85px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02904);" role="presentation">identify </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 405.824px; top: 1044.85px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10986);" role="presentation">under performed</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 545.568px; top: 1044.85px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06157);" role="presentation">items,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 601.641px; top: 1044.85px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14646);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 641.057px; top: 1044.85px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11465);" role="presentation">determine</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 731.65px; top: 1044.85px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15318);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 766.573px; top: 1044.85px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08224);" role="presentation">root</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 807.596px; top: 1044.85px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.17559);" role="presentation">causes</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 872.838px; top: 1044.85px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02027);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 897.532px; top: 1044.85px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06201);" role="presentation">this</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 1069.76px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10967);" role="presentation">under performance</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 406.883px; top: 1069.76px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00071);" role="presentation">for</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 440.089px; top: 1069.76px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07377);" role="presentation">improvement</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 556.582px; top: 1069.76px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10103);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 584.125px; top: 1069.76px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15222);" role="presentation">ensure</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 650.938px; top: 1069.76px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0703);" role="presentation">effective</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 730.829px; top: 1069.76px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14646);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 772.947px; top: 1069.76px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12383);" role="presentation">accurate</span>&nbsp; <span dir="ltr" style="left: 853.166px; top: 1069.76px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09783);" role="presentation">students’</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.482px; top: 1094.67px; font-size: 18.2648px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10401);" role="presentation">competency judgment.</span></p> Amani H. Elgadal, Abdalbasit A. Mariod Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216888 Wed, 03 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Self-medication Practices During COVID-19 Pandemic in Hyderabad and Karachi, Pakistan https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216889 <p><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 238.555px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11266);" role="presentation"><strong>Background</strong>:</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 144.962px; top: 238.555px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01658);" role="presentation">Lack</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 162.941px; top: 238.555px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 172.181px; top: 238.555px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10913);" role="presentation">appropriate</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 212.426px; top: 238.555px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10757);" role="presentation">treatment</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.294px; top: 238.555px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999551);" role="presentation">for</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 257.874px; top: 238.555px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.953624);" role="presentation">COVID-19</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 292.517px; top: 238.555px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05134);" role="presentation">infection</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 323.064px; top: 238.555px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11564);" role="presentation">led</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 336.097px; top: 238.555px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 349.463px; top: 238.555px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12946);" role="presentation">general </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 248.619px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08972);" role="presentation">population</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 137.516px; top: 248.619px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 147.339px; top: 248.619px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08638);" role="presentation">Pakistan</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 178.063px; top: 248.619px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07356);" role="presentation">toward</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 203.621px; top: 248.619px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06896);" role="presentation">self-medication</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 256.28px; top: 248.619px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14689);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 272.051px; top: 248.619px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0695);" role="presentation">symptomatic</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 316.392px; top: 248.619px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09337);" role="presentation">treatment;</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 352.696px; top: 248.619px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08286);" role="presentation">almost</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 258.683px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05162);" role="presentation">80%</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 116.49px; top: 258.683px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 125.442px; top: 258.683px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 138.527px; top: 258.683px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08996);" role="presentation">population</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 175.576px; top: 258.683px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1058);" role="presentation">collected</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 207.717px; top: 258.683px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09608);" role="presentation">medications</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 249.49px; top: 258.683px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999551);" role="presentation">for</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 260.782px; top: 258.683px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06979);" role="presentation">future</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 282.325px; top: 258.683px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1851);" role="presentation">use</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 296.657px; top: 258.683px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07656);" role="presentation">during</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 320.067px; top: 258.683px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10475);" role="presentation">pandemic.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 356.504px; top: 258.683px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05458);" role="presentation">Thus, </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 268.747px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 112.733px; top: 268.747px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09099);" role="presentation">current</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 138.284px; top: 268.747px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09595);" role="presentation">study</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 158.513px; top: 268.747px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10357);" role="presentation">aimed</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 181.17px; top: 268.747px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10318);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 190.226px; top: 268.747px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.19994);" role="presentation">assess</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 214.596px; top: 268.747px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 227.74px; top: 268.747px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1851);" role="presentation">use</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 242.132px; top: 268.747px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 251.136px; top: 268.747px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08724);" role="presentation">medication</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 289.528px; top: 268.747px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.19165);" role="presentation">as</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 299.595px; top: 268.747px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0695);" role="presentation">symptomatic</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 343.109px; top: 268.747px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10757);" role="presentation">treatment</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 278.811px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08704);" role="presentation">preventive strategy.</span></p> <p><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 288.875px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11499);" role="presentation"><strong>Methods</strong>:</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 132.508px; top: 288.875px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09015);" role="presentation">This descriptive cross–sectional study was conducted on a local population </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 298.939px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06325);" role="presentation">of Hyderabad and Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. The study duration was six months (April– </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 309.003px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.13053);" role="presentation">September</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 138.616px; top: 309.003px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08787);" role="presentation">2020).</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 162.661px; top: 309.003px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">A</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 170.838px; top: 309.003px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06963);" role="presentation">total</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 188.182px; top: 309.003px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 197.769px; top: 309.003px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.17817);" role="presentation">698</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 214.109px; top: 309.003px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14698);" role="presentation">responders</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 254.08px; top: 309.003px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10961);" role="presentation">were</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 273.335px; top: 309.003px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15902);" role="presentation">selected</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 304.215px; top: 309.003px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01742);" role="presentation">via</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 316.709px; top: 309.003px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09804);" role="presentation">random</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 344.777px; top: 309.003px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08044);" role="presentation">sampling </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 319.067px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08815);" role="presentation">method. The number of participants were recruited based on 95% confidence interval</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 329.131px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07848);" role="presentation">with 5% margin error. Data were transferred into analysis sheet descriptively. </span></p> <p><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 339.195px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09804);" role="presentation"><strong>Results</strong>:</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 128.051px; top: 339.195px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0394);" role="presentation">Most</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 146.532px; top: 339.195px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08775);" role="presentation">participants</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 186.71px; top: 339.195px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15634);" role="presentation">responded</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 224.49px; top: 339.195px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10318);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 233.538px; top: 339.195px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.667px; top: 339.195px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1851);" role="presentation">use</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 261.044px; top: 339.195px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 270.041px; top: 339.195px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05774);" role="presentation">different</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 299.525px; top: 339.195px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09297);" role="presentation">over-the-counter</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 355.859px; top: 339.195px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.921225);" role="presentation">(OTC) </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 349.259px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11489);" role="presentation">products</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 132.18px; top: 349.259px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999551);" role="presentation">for</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 145.051px; top: 349.259px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15072);" role="presentation">headache.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 183.067px; top: 349.259px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09065);" role="presentation">The</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 199.857px; top: 349.259px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1851);" role="presentation">use</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 215.784px; top: 349.259px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 226.316px; top: 349.259px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06574);" role="presentation">antibiotics</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 263.335px; top: 349.259px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01561);" role="presentation">with</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 280.922px; top: 349.259px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08307);" role="presentation">prescription</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 323.359px; top: 349.259px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.17045);" role="presentation">due</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 340.098px; top: 349.259px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10318);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 350.681px; top: 349.259px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05961);" role="presentation">allergic </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 359.323px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07237);" role="presentation">conditions,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 137.036px; top: 359.323px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09924);" role="presentation">cough,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 161.399px; top: 359.323px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07393);" role="presentation">respiratory</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 198.271px; top: 359.323px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08569);" role="presentation">tract</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 215.046px; top: 359.323px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0657);" role="presentation">infections</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 248.582px; top: 359.323px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05365);" role="presentation">including</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 280.457px; top: 359.323px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14784);" role="presentation">sore</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 297.093px; top: 359.323px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08421);" role="presentation">throat,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 320.296px; top: 359.323px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14689);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 335.042px; top: 359.323px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04074);" role="presentation">urinary</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 359.751px; top: 359.323px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08569);" role="presentation">tract </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 369.387px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06545);" role="presentation">infections</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 133.021px; top: 369.387px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10351);" role="presentation">was</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 148.114px; top: 369.387px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1117);" role="presentation">also</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 163.753px; top: 369.387px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07915);" role="presentation">found</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 184.735px; top: 369.387px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11531);" role="presentation">among</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 209.555px; top: 369.387px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 222.382px; top: 369.387px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0106);" role="presentation">majority.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 251.482px; top: 369.387px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06265);" role="presentation">Few</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 267.416px; top: 369.387px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14768);" role="presentation">respondents</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 310.274px; top: 369.387px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14689);" role="presentation">had</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 324.909px; top: 369.387px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06896);" role="presentation">self-medication</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 379.451px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06624);" role="presentation">practice with sedatives due to difficulty in falling asleep, and 9.5% had self-medication </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 389.516px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09679);" role="presentation">practice</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 128.379px; top: 389.516px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.17045);" role="presentation">due</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 143.989px; top: 389.516px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10318);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 153.45px; top: 389.516px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06976);" role="presentation">pain.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 172.159px; top: 389.516px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.061);" role="presentation">About</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 194.861px; top: 389.516px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05455);" role="presentation">20.8%</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 218.087px; top: 389.516px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 227.496px; top: 389.516px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 241.039px; top: 389.516px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08996);" role="presentation">population</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 278.546px; top: 389.516px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.16872);" role="presentation">agreed</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 304.687px; top: 389.516px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10838);" role="presentation">that</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 320.09px; top: 389.516px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06834);" role="presentation">lockdown</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 354.297px; top: 389.516px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10351);" role="presentation">was</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 370.106px; top: 389.516px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">a </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 399.58px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07644);" role="presentation">contributing factor in the self-medication practice.</span></p> <p><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 409.644px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09814);" role="presentation"><strong>Conclusion</strong>:</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 141.585px; top: 409.644px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09226);" role="presentation">Pharmacists</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 183.963px; top: 409.644px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14689);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 199.587px; top: 409.644px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12005);" role="presentation">healthcare</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 236.983px; top: 409.644px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09264);" role="presentation">professionals</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 282.918px; top: 409.644px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14708);" role="presentation">are</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 296.682px; top: 409.644px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12047);" role="presentation">advised</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 325.34px; top: 409.644px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10318);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 335.059px; top: 409.644px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11589);" role="presentation">counsel</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 363.606px; top: 409.644px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 419.708px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12912);" role="presentation">general</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 126.756px; top: 419.708px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0586);" role="presentation">public</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 148.896px; top: 419.708px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10065);" role="presentation">regarding</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 182.646px; top: 419.708px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 195.673px; top: 419.708px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1851);" role="presentation">use</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 209.954px; top: 419.708px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 218.847px; top: 419.708px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0784);" role="presentation">medication.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 258.833px; top: 419.708px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">A</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 266.317px; top: 419.708px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12943);" role="presentation">close</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 286.074px; top: 419.708px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07482);" role="presentation">collaboration</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 330.54px; top: 419.708px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03574);" role="presentation">is</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 338.252px; top: 419.708px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10224);" role="presentation">required</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 367.988px; top: 419.708px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12918);" role="presentation">at </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 429.772px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07654);" role="presentation">this stage to fight against COVID-19 and preventing the situation from worsening.</span></p> Mudassar Iqbal Arain, Saira Shahnaz, Ramesha Anwar, Khurram Anwar Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216889 Wed, 03 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the Power and Promise of In Silico Clinical Trials with Application in COVID-19 Infection https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216891 <p><strong><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 310.82px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11266);" role="presentation">Background:</span></strong> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 146.557px; top: 310.82px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.953624);" role="presentation">COVID-19</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 182.794px; top: 310.82px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11064);" role="presentation">pandemic</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 219.223px; top: 310.82px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15958);" role="presentation">has</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 235.186px; top: 310.82px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04857);" role="presentation">dramatically</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 278.457px; top: 310.82px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10604);" role="presentation">engulfed</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 311.565px; top: 310.82px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 326.525px; top: 310.82px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0391);" role="presentation">world</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 348.968px; top: 310.82px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11097);" role="presentation">causing </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 320.884px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10228);" role="presentation">catastrophic</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 141.258px; top: 320.884px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14946);" role="presentation">damage</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 170.011px; top: 320.884px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10318);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 178.683px; top: 320.884px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09914);" role="presentation">human</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 203.112px; top: 320.884px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07011);" role="presentation">society.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 229.305px; top: 320.884px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08422);" role="presentation">Several</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 255.66px; top: 320.884px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11559);" role="presentation">therapeutic</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 294.598px; top: 320.884px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14689);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 309.167px; top: 320.884px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09964);" role="presentation">vaccines</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 339.463px; top: 320.884px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11764);" role="presentation">have</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 357.375px; top: 320.884px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.19338);" role="presentation">been </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 330.948px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1701);" role="presentation">suggested</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 136.461px; top: 330.948px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999551);" role="presentation">for</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 147.907px; top: 330.948px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 161.14px; top: 330.948px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.16919);" role="presentation">disease</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 188.898px; top: 330.948px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0002);" role="presentation">in</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 197.466px; top: 330.948px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 210.706px; top: 330.948px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15207);" role="presentation">past</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 227.223px; top: 330.948px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08293);" role="presentation">months,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 255.578px; top: 330.948px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01561);" role="presentation">with</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 271.734px; top: 330.948px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08594);" role="presentation">over</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 288.812px; top: 330.948px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03257);" role="presentation">150</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 303.049px; top: 330.948px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00924);" role="presentation">clinical</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 327.824px; top: 330.948px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03307);" role="presentation">trials</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 345.913px; top: 330.948px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05429);" role="presentation">currently </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 341.012px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0739);" role="presentation">running</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 127.494px; top: 341.012px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08244);" role="presentation">or</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 137.42px; top: 341.012px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12945);" role="presentation">under</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 159.664px; top: 341.012px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12289);" role="presentation">process.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 189.879px; top: 341.012px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10234);" role="presentation">Nevertheless,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 237.216px; top: 341.012px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.18587);" role="presentation">these</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 258.472px; top: 341.012px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03307);" role="presentation">trials</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 277.003px; top: 341.012px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14708);" role="presentation">are</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 290.627px; top: 341.012px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07406);" role="presentation">extremely</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 325.61px; top: 341.012px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1158);" role="presentation">expensive</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 361.788px; top: 341.012px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14689);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 351.076px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09663);" role="presentation">require a long time, which presents the need for alternative cost-effective methods to </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 361.14px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08877);" role="presentation">tackle this urgent requirement for validated therapeutics and vaccines. Bearing this in </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 371.204px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08985);" role="presentation">mind, here we assess the use of in silico clinical trials as a significant development in</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 381.268px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 112.482px; top: 381.268px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02088);" role="presentation">field</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 128.793px; top: 381.268px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 137.553px; top: 381.268px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00924);" role="presentation">clinical</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 161.982px; top: 381.268px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11931);" role="presentation">research,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 194.093px; top: 381.268px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04729);" role="presentation">which</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 215.474px; top: 381.268px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10427);" role="presentation">holds</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 235.6px; top: 381.268px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 248.493px; top: 381.268px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03893);" role="presentation">possibility</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 282.893px; top: 381.268px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10318);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 291.705px; top: 381.268px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14098);" role="presentation">reduce</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 316.65px; top: 381.268px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 329.544px; top: 381.268px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06209);" role="presentation">time</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 345.98px; top: 381.268px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14689);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 360.689px; top: 381.268px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12102);" role="presentation">cost </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 391.333px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07874);" role="presentation">needed for clinical trials on COVID-19 and other diseases.</span><br role="presentation"><strong><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 401.397px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11499);" role="presentation">Methods:</span></strong> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 133.836px; top: 401.397px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05489);" role="presentation">Using</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 155.586px; top: 401.397px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 169.151px; top: 401.397px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08047);" role="presentation">PubMed</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 199.329px; top: 401.397px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15712);" role="presentation">database,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 234.039px; top: 401.397px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10062);" role="presentation">we</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.681px; top: 401.397px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10142);" role="presentation">analyzed</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 278.734px; top: 401.397px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01007);" role="presentation">six</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 290.586px; top: 401.397px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08672);" role="presentation">relevant</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 319.591px; top: 401.397px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04133);" role="presentation">scientific</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 350.935px; top: 401.397px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08144);" role="presentation">articles</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 411.461px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10039);" role="presentation">regarding</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 133.28px; top: 411.461px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 146.247px; top: 411.461px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11559);" role="presentation">possible</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 175.761px; top: 411.461px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07676);" role="presentation">application</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 213.622px; top: 411.461px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 222.448px; top: 411.461px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0002);" role="presentation">in</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 230.751px; top: 411.461px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01169);" role="presentation">silico</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 249.482px; top: 411.461px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00924);" role="presentation">clinical</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 273.978px; top: 411.461px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03307);" role="presentation">trials</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 291.801px; top: 411.461px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0002);" role="presentation">in</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 300.096px; top: 411.461px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10854);" role="presentation">testing</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 324.459px; top: 411.461px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 337.419px; top: 411.461px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11559);" role="presentation">therapeutic </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 421.525px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10045);" role="presentation">and investigational methods of managing different diseases.</span><br role="presentation"><strong><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 431.589px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09804);" role="presentation">Results:</span></strong> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 129.282px; top: 431.589px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08296);" role="presentation">Successful</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 167.039px; top: 431.589px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1851);" role="presentation">use</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 182.28px; top: 431.589px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 192.132px; top: 431.589px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0002);" role="presentation">in</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 201.446px; top: 431.589px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01169);" role="presentation">silico</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 221.196px; top: 431.589px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03307);" role="presentation">trials</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 240.038px; top: 431.589px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10351);" role="presentation">was</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 256.282px; top: 431.589px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14196);" role="presentation">observed</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 290.275px; top: 431.589px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0002);" role="presentation">in</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 299.597px; top: 431.589px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06744);" role="presentation">many</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 320.682px; top: 431.589px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 330.528px; top: 431.589px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 344.513px; top: 431.589px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08987);" role="presentation">reviewed</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 441.653px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10954);" role="presentation">evidence.</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 451.717px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09814);" role="presentation"><strong>Conclusion</strong>:</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 141.242px; top: 451.717px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.949237);" role="presentation">In</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 149.589px; top: 451.717px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01169);" role="presentation">silico</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 168.269px; top: 451.717px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00924);" role="presentation">clinical</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 192.72px; top: 451.717px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03307);" role="presentation">trials</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 210.484px; top: 451.717px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.13476);" role="presentation">can</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 224.632px; top: 451.717px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.20556);" role="presentation">be</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 235.548px; top: 451.717px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.17611);" role="presentation">used</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 253.961px; top: 451.717px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0002);" role="presentation">in</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 262.205px; top: 451.717px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03882);" role="presentation">refining</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 288.988px; top: 451.717px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00924);" role="presentation">clinical</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 313.439px; top: 451.717px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03307);" role="presentation">trials</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 331.211px; top: 451.717px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999551);" role="presentation">for</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 342.326px; top: 451.717px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.953624);" role="presentation">COVID-19 </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 461.781px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04253);" role="presentation">infection.</span></p> Abdelrahman H. Abdelmoneim, Safinaz I. Khalil, Hiba Awadelkareem Osman Fadl, Ayesan Rewane, Sahar G. Elbager Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216891 Wed, 03 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge and Adherence to COVID-19 Preventive Measures: A Continental Review https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216892 <p><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 215.547px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11266);" role="presentation"><strong>Background</strong>:</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 144.284px; top: 215.547px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09001);" role="presentation">The</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 159.45px; top: 215.547px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1274);" role="presentation">burden</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 185.178px; top: 215.547px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 194.086px; top: 215.547px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 207.127px; top: 215.547px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07078);" role="presentation">novel</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 227.304px; top: 215.547px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07314);" role="presentation">coronavirus</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 267.32px; top: 215.547px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.16919);" role="presentation">disease</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 294.878px; top: 215.547px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.914266);" role="presentation">(COVID-19)</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 332.392px; top: 215.547px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15958);" role="presentation">has</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 346.437px; top: 215.547px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.19338);" role="presentation">been</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 365.707px; top: 215.547px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12608);" role="presentation">on </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 225.612px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07065);" role="presentation">the rise since it was first reported in December 2019. COVID-19 has devastated global</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 235.676px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0829);" role="presentation">economy,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 133.021px; top: 235.676px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0586);" role="presentation">public</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 155.17px; top: 235.676px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09015);" role="presentation">health,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 179.473px; top: 235.676px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07639);" role="presentation">social</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 200.64px; top: 235.676px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06762);" role="presentation">interaction,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 238.943px; top: 235.676px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14689);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 253.792px; top: 235.676px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15958);" role="presentation">has</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 267.83px; top: 235.676px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07943);" role="presentation">claimed</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 295.705px; top: 235.676px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00954);" role="presentation">millions</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 322.754px; top: 235.676px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 331.654px; top: 235.676px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03607);" role="presentation">lives</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 348.718px; top: 235.676px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04627);" role="presentation">globally </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 245.74px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01092);" role="presentation">within</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 121.56px; top: 245.74px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">a</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 128.364px; top: 245.74px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03479);" role="presentation">few</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 142.741px; top: 245.74px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08606);" role="presentation">months.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 171.251px; top: 245.74px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08844);" role="presentation">Due</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 187.547px; top: 245.74px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10318);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 196.78px; top: 245.74px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 210.086px; top: 245.74px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14851);" role="presentation">severe</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 234.663px; top: 245.74px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08627);" role="presentation">effect</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 255.704px; top: 245.74px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 264.885px; top: 245.74px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14043);" role="presentation">some</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 285.565px; top: 245.74px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 294.738px; top: 245.74px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 308.052px; top: 245.74px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0819);" role="presentation">instituted</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 340.651px; top: 245.74px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10011);" role="presentation">guidelines</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 255.804px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10636);" role="presentation">on citizens and the economy, some of the policies in place to curtail the spread were </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 265.868px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07761);" role="presentation">receded. Hence, the present review aims to assess existing literature on the knowledge </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 275.931px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08006);" role="presentation">and adherence of Africans toward the COVID-19 preventive measures.</span><br role="presentation"><strong><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 285.995px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11499);" role="presentation">Methods:</span></strong> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 134.775px; top: 285.995px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10314);" role="presentation">Studies</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 162.828px; top: 285.995px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12135);" role="presentation">focused</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 192.659px; top: 285.995px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12608);" role="presentation">on</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 205.058px; top: 285.995px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.993032);" role="presentation">Africans’</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 236.859px; top: 285.995px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10841);" role="presentation">knowledge</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 276.824px; top: 285.995px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14689);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 293.141px; top: 285.995px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15833);" role="presentation">adherence</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 331.91px; top: 285.995px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10318);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 342.331px; top: 285.995px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.953624);" role="presentation">COVID-19</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 296.059px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08584);" role="presentation">preventive</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 137.25px; top: 296.059px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14074);" role="presentation">measures</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 172.425px; top: 296.059px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10961);" role="presentation">were</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 192.197px; top: 296.059px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15902);" role="presentation">selected</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 223.585px; top: 296.059px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09456);" role="presentation">using</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 244.892px; top: 296.059px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0943);" role="presentation">Google</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 272.494px; top: 296.059px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05253);" role="presentation">Scholar,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 301.683px; top: 296.059px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0986);" role="presentation">Scopus,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 330.946px; top: 296.059px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14689);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 346.991px; top: 296.059px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08047);" role="presentation">PubMed</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 306.123px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.16338);" role="presentation">databases.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 137.191px; top: 306.123px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07838);" role="presentation">Preprints</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 168.447px; top: 306.123px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10838);" role="presentation">that</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 183.237px; top: 306.123px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11764);" role="presentation">have</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 201.333px; top: 306.123px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10665);" role="presentation">not</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 214.278px; top: 306.123px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.19338);" role="presentation">been</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 233.438px; top: 306.123px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09588);" role="presentation">peer-reviewed,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 284.125px; top: 306.123px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05604);" role="presentation">reviews,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 312.857px; top: 306.123px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14689);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 327.595px; top: 306.123px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.993023);" role="presentation">non-COVID-19 </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 316.187px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11266);" role="presentation">studies were excluded.</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 326.251px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09804);" role="presentation"><strong>Results</strong>:</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 127.942px; top: 326.251px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.875464);" role="presentation">All</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 138.444px; top: 326.251px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15902);" role="presentation">selected</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 168.253px; top: 326.251px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1292);" role="presentation">studies</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 193.627px; top: 326.251px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12538);" role="presentation">showed</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 221.229px; top: 326.251px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">a</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 227.37px; top: 326.251px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07191);" role="presentation">satisfactory</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 266.094px; top: 326.251px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10841);" role="presentation">knowledge</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 304.213px; top: 326.251px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 312.73px; top: 326.251px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14768);" role="presentation">respondents</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 355.41px; top: 326.251px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1352);" role="presentation">about</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 336.316px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09365);" role="presentation">COVID-19 but poor level of adherence to the preventive measures. Good knowledge</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 346.38px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14689);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 114.836px; top: 346.38px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07191);" role="presentation">satisfactory</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 154.343px; top: 346.38px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05227);" role="presentation">level</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 172.462px; top: 346.38px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 181.761px; top: 346.38px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15833);" role="presentation">adherence</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 219.459px; top: 346.38px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10351);" role="presentation">was</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 235.15px; top: 346.38px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08305);" role="presentation">common</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 266.154px; top: 346.38px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04733);" role="presentation">mostly</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 290.207px; top: 346.38px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11531);" role="presentation">among</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 315.639px; top: 346.38px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 329.071px; top: 346.38px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00924);" role="presentation">clinical</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 354.032px; top: 346.38px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10786);" role="presentation">health </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 356.444px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07878);" role="presentation">workers, highly educated, and those with higher professional qualification, while poor</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 366.508px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10818);" role="presentation">knowledge</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 137.915px; top: 366.508px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14689);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 152.587px; top: 366.508px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11714);" role="presentation">poor</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 170.144px; top: 366.508px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0971);" role="presentation">practice</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 198.241px; top: 366.508px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10351);" role="presentation">was</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 213.363px; top: 366.508px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14196);" role="presentation">observed</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.228px; top: 366.508px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04733);" role="presentation">mostly</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 269.704px; top: 366.508px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11531);" role="presentation">among</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 294.561px; top: 366.508px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03377);" role="presentation">rural</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 311.433px; top: 366.508px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07078);" role="presentation">dwellers,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 342.651px; top: 366.508px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15095);" role="presentation">people</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 367.737px; top: 366.508px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 376.572px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11359);" role="presentation">poor educational background, and those unable to read and write.</span><br role="presentation"><strong><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 386.636px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09814);" role="presentation">Conclusion:</span></strong> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 140.753px; top: 386.636px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05843);" role="presentation">This review identified a relatively good knowledge about COVID-19 from </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 396.7px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09912);" role="presentation">all the studies, however, the level of adherence to preventive measures was poor. We</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 406.764px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10726);" role="presentation">recommend</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 140.616px; top: 406.764px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10838);" role="presentation">that</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 155.288px; top: 406.764px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 168.1px; top: 406.764px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12561);" role="presentation">populace</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 200.485px; top: 406.764px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.16422);" role="presentation">adhere</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 225.806px; top: 406.764px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10318);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 234.537px; top: 406.764px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 247.349px; top: 406.764px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03569);" role="presentation">laid</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 261.224px; top: 406.764px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10011);" role="presentation">guidelines</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 296.989px; top: 406.764px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10318);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 305.72px; top: 406.764px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15186);" role="presentation">ensure</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 330.319px; top: 406.764px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 343.131px; top: 406.764px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15224);" role="presentation">spread</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 367.737px; top: 406.764px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 416.828px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10325);" role="presentation">the virus is curbed while also enhancing the eradication of the pandemic <br></span></p> Olabode E. Omotoso, Elizabeth F. Omotoso, Kehinde O. Paimo, John O. Teibo, Abolaji O. Olagunju Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216892 Wed, 03 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Association of Serum Adenosine Deaminase Levels in Cytologically Suggested Cases of Tubercular Lymphadenitis: The https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216893 <p><strong><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 219.219px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11266);" role="presentation">Background:</span></strong> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 144.012px; top: 219.219px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08043);" role="presentation">Tuberculosis</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 187.179px; top: 219.219px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.885635);" role="presentation">(TB),</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 203.807px; top: 219.219px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">a</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 209.977px; top: 219.219px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08361);" role="presentation">communicable</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 259.343px; top: 219.219px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14591);" role="presentation">disease,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 288.156px; top: 219.219px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.16786);" role="presentation">caused</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 313.884px; top: 219.219px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05695);" role="presentation">by</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 323.941px; top: 219.219px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07097);" role="presentation">Mycobacterium </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 229.283px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09969);" role="presentation">tuberculosis</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 140.143px; top: 229.283px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04849);" role="presentation">requires a simple, rapid test, which can be easily carried out in a laboratory. </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 239.347px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04123);" role="presentation">Unfortunately,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 146.328px; top: 239.347px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14695);" role="presentation">despite</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 172.476px; top: 239.347px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">a</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 178.558px; top: 239.347px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10092);" role="presentation">battery</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 203.311px; top: 239.347px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 211.762px; top: 239.347px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07128);" role="presentation">investigations,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 259.807px; top: 239.347px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12608);" role="presentation">no</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 270.295px; top: 239.347px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07088);" role="presentation">definite</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 296.62px; top: 239.347px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15349);" role="presentation">test</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 310.621px; top: 239.347px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03574);" role="presentation">is</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 317.905px; top: 239.347px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07063);" role="presentation">available</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 348.614px; top: 239.347px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.882035);" role="presentation">till</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 358.032px; top: 239.347px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12921);" role="presentation">date. </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 249.411px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10529);" role="presentation">Adenosine</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 137.095px; top: 249.411px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.13664);" role="presentation">deaminase</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 175.141px; top: 249.411px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.888226);" role="presentation">(ADA),</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 197.997px; top: 249.411px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">a</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 204.522px; top: 249.411px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07687);" role="presentation">biochemical</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 246.006px; top: 249.411px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07672);" role="presentation">marker</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 271.166px; top: 249.411px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15958);" role="presentation">has</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 285.196px; top: 249.411px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.19338);" role="presentation">been</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 304.451px; top: 249.411px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14772);" role="presentation">proposed</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 338.097px; top: 249.411px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.19165);" role="presentation">as</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 348.054px; top: 249.411px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">a</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 354.578px; top: 249.411px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07758);" role="presentation">useful</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 259.475px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09148);" role="presentation">surrogate marker for TB as its levels can be measured in body fluids.</span><br role="presentation"><strong><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 269.539px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11499);" role="presentation">Methods:</span></strong> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 134.078px; top: 269.539px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">A</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 143.082px; top: 269.539px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07401);" role="presentation">one-and-a-half-year</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 210.228px; top: 269.539px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1091);" role="presentation">prospective</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 252.104px; top: 269.539px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09595);" role="presentation">study</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 273.75px; top: 269.539px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 284.171px; top: 269.539px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.997842);" role="presentation">154</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 299.36px; top: 269.539px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.19205);" role="presentation">cases</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 322.091px; top: 269.539px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12073);" role="presentation">presenting</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 360.683px; top: 269.539px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01561);" role="presentation">with </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 279.604px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07244);" role="presentation">lymphadenitis</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 147.989px; top: 279.604px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0156);" role="presentation">from</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 166.144px; top: 279.604px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11074);" role="presentation">January</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 195.208px; top: 279.604px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06697);" role="presentation">2019</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 214.5px; top: 279.604px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10318);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 224.382px; top: 279.604px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.16902);" role="presentation">June</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 243.755px; top: 279.604px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1942);" role="presentation">2020</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 264.915px; top: 279.604px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10351);" role="presentation">was</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 281.151px; top: 279.604px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11642);" role="presentation">undertaken.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 323.389px; top: 279.604px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05489);" role="presentation">Using</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 345.537px; top: 279.604px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04745);" role="presentation">cytology, </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 289.668px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07244);" role="presentation">lymphadenitis</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 147.767px; top: 289.668px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.13126);" role="presentation">subjects</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 177.997px; top: 289.668px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10961);" role="presentation">were</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 197.274px; top: 289.668px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07718);" role="presentation">divided</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 224.441px; top: 289.668px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04719);" role="presentation">into</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 239.785px; top: 289.668px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05903);" role="presentation">two</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 254.84px; top: 289.668px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09019);" role="presentation">groups:</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 282.288px; top: 289.668px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07328);" role="presentation">Tubercular</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 320.112px; top: 289.668px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.927678);" role="presentation">(104</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 335.987px; top: 289.668px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07612);" role="presentation">patients)</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 366.674px; top: 289.668px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.19165);" role="presentation">as </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 299.731px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">a</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 105.921px; top: 299.731px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.19091);" role="presentation">case</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 123.501px; top: 299.731px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10833);" role="presentation">group</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 144.985px; top: 299.731px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14689);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 159.635px; top: 299.731px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06562);" role="presentation">Reactive</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 189.591px; top: 299.731px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12431);" role="presentation">(50</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 203.068px; top: 299.731px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07612);" role="presentation">patients)</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 232.847px; top: 299.731px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.19165);" role="presentation">as</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 242.604px; top: 299.731px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">a</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 248.936px; top: 299.731px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05902);" role="presentation">control</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 273.498px; top: 299.731px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08128);" role="presentation">group.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 296.524px; top: 299.731px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.875464);" role="presentation">All</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 307.211px; top: 299.731px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.19205);" role="presentation">cases</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 328.223px; top: 299.731px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10961);" role="presentation">were</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 346.585px; top: 299.731px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04543);" role="presentation">followed</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 309.795px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08257);" role="presentation">by serum ADA assay by colorimetric method. Nonparametric tests were performed to </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 319.859px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10851);" role="presentation">compare the two groups.</span><br role="presentation"><strong><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 329.923px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09804);" role="presentation">Results:</span></strong> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 127.87px; top: 329.923px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09065);" role="presentation">The</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 142.874px; top: 329.923px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12734);" role="presentation">mean</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 163.384px; top: 329.923px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.19957);" role="presentation">age</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 178.166px; top: 329.923px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 186.912px; top: 329.923px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15329);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 199.798px; top: 329.923px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08775);" role="presentation">participants</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 239.725px; top: 329.923px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10351);" role="presentation">was</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 254.87px; top: 329.923px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1402);" role="presentation">28.99</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 276.261px; top: 329.923px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">±</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 283.799px; top: 329.923px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04051);" role="presentation">13.26</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 303.542px; top: 329.923px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11486);" role="presentation">years</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 323.387px; top: 329.923px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01561);" role="presentation">with</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 339.196px; top: 329.923px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">a</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 345.572px; top: 329.923px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.919876);" role="presentation">F:M</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 359.757px; top: 329.923px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0536);" role="presentation">ratio</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 339.987px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01884);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 108.032px; top: 339.987px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.812132);" role="presentation">1.81:1.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 126.829px; top: 339.987px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05045);" role="presentation">Involvement</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 168.174px; top: 339.987px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02004);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 176.609px; top: 339.987px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05291);" role="presentation">cervical</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 203.4px; top: 339.987px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03637);" role="presentation">lymph</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 225.105px; top: 339.987px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.17012);" role="presentation">nodes</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 247.401px; top: 339.987px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10351);" role="presentation">was</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 262.236px; top: 339.987px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09804);" role="presentation">most</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 280.162px; top: 339.987px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10554);" role="presentation">frequent</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 309.521px; top: 339.987px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02387);" role="presentation">(89.42%</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 337.492px; top: 339.987px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09666);" role="presentation">cases).</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 361.478px; top: 339.987px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09065);" role="presentation">The </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 350.051px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05537);" role="presentation">mean S.ADA level for tubercular and reactive lymphadenitis was 41.71</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 324.74px; top: 350.051px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">±</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 331.839px; top: 350.051px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.990531);" role="presentation">11.53 U/L and</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 360.115px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.906552);" role="presentation">21.16</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 116.997px; top: 360.115px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">±</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 124.42px; top: 360.115px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.97374);" role="presentation">4.16</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 139.342px; top: 360.115px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.931258);" role="presentation">U/L,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 154.516px; top: 360.115px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08552);" role="presentation">respectively</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 195.595px; top: 360.115px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">(</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 197.427px; top: 360.115px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">P</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 201.892px; top: 360.115px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05364);" role="presentation">-value</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 223.699px; top: 360.115px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">&lt;</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 231.121px; top: 360.115px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05367);" role="presentation">0.05).</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 251.616px; top: 360.115px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09065);" role="presentation">The</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 266.51px; top: 360.115px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02535);" role="presentation">cut-off</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 289.344px; top: 360.115px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08372);" role="presentation">value</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 309.028px; top: 360.115px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10088);" role="presentation">calculated</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 344.335px; top: 360.115px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10351);" role="presentation">was</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 359.368px; top: 360.115px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.13508);" role="presentation">32.6</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 370.179px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.931258);" role="presentation">U/L.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 115.405px; top: 370.179px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09065);" role="presentation">The</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 130.925px; top: 370.179px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03208);" role="presentation">sensitivity,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 166.639px; top: 370.179px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02895);" role="presentation">specificity,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 202.691px; top: 370.179px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.99864);" role="presentation">PPV,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 220.094px; top: 370.179px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.977025);" role="presentation">NPV,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 238.397px; top: 370.179px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14689);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 253.608px; top: 370.179px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09509);" role="presentation">accuracy</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 285.351px; top: 370.179px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10961);" role="presentation">were</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 304.288px; top: 370.179px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10088);" role="presentation">calculated</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 340.23px; top: 370.179px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.19165);" role="presentation">as</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 350.555px; top: 370.179px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.954084);" role="presentation">79.81%, </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 380.243px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04653);" role="presentation">100%, 100%, 70.42%, and 86.36%, respectively.</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 390.308px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09814);" role="presentation"><strong>Conclusion</strong>:</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 141.757px; top: 390.308px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">A</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 150.252px; top: 390.308px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04349);" role="presentation">statistically</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 188.969px; top: 390.308px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04603);" role="presentation">significant</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 225.184px; top: 390.308px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12748);" role="presentation">increase</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 256.1px; top: 390.308px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10351);" role="presentation">was</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 272.41px; top: 390.308px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07915);" role="presentation">found</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 294.603px; top: 390.308px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0002);" role="presentation">in</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 303.976px; top: 390.308px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11093);" role="presentation">serum</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 327.666px; top: 390.308px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.925304);" role="presentation">ADA</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 346.102px; top: 390.308px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07639);" role="presentation">levels</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 368.273px; top: 390.308px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0002);" role="presentation">in</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 400.372px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09102);" role="presentation">tubercular</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 135.501px; top: 400.372px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07244);" role="presentation">lymphadenitis</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 183.576px; top: 400.372px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.19205);" role="presentation">cases</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 205.4px; top: 400.372px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11756);" role="presentation">compared</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 241.18px; top: 400.372px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10318);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 250.744px; top: 400.372px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08921);" role="presentation">reactive</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 279.461px; top: 400.372px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06621);" role="presentation">lymphadenitis.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 329.256px; top: 400.372px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10045);" role="presentation">Hence,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 355.294px; top: 400.372px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.934237);" role="presentation">it</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 362.371px; top: 400.372px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.13476);" role="presentation">can </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 410.436px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.20556);" role="presentation">be</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 110.556px; top: 410.436px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.17611);" role="presentation">used</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 129.021px; top: 410.436px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.19165);" role="presentation">as</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 138.918px; top: 410.436px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14412);" role="presentation">an</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 149.457px; top: 410.436px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09906);" role="presentation">adjunct</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 175.894px; top: 410.436px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10318);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 184.779px; top: 410.436px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.972248);" role="presentation">FNAC</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 206.485px; top: 410.436px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14689);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 221.268px; top: 410.436px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03574);" role="presentation">is</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 228.928px; top: 410.436px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">a</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 235.393px; top: 410.436px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.95298);" role="presentation">fairly</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 253.195px; top: 410.436px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09518);" role="presentation">sensitive</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 284.022px; top: 410.436px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14689);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 298.805px; top: 410.436px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0688);" role="presentation">specific</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 325.92px; top: 410.436px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.13327);" role="presentation">test.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 342.208px; top: 410.436px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08229);" role="presentation">Since</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 362.511px; top: 410.436px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.934237);" role="presentation">it</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 368.91px; top: 410.436px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03574);" role="presentation">is </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 420.5px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02684);" role="presentation">difficult to always demonstrate AFB in FNAC smears, ADA can be helpful in establishing</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 99.5961px; top: 430.564px; font-size: 7.38029px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0984);" role="presentation">a definite diagnosis despite smear negativity.</span></p> Ina Garg, Deepti Arora, Himanshu Joshi, Ashutosh Kumar, Seema Awasthi Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216893 Wed, 03 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Serum Gonadotropin and Prolactin Level among Sudanese Patients with Chronic Renal Failure https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216924 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Generally, patients on hemodialysis for chronic renal failure also have endocrine defects and sexual function disorders. In this study, we aimed to assess the serum prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in patients with chronic renal failure.<br><strong>Methods:</strong> This hospital-based case–control study was conducted at Jabal Aulia Teaching Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan. The study was carried out between August 2019 and February 2020. A total of 100 subjects were enrolled – 50 chronic renal failure patients and 50 as controls. The serum hormones were estimated using Tosoh 360. SPSS version 25 was used to analyze the results.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The serum PRL, LH, and FSH were significantly increased among chronic renal failure patients than their healthy&nbsp; counterparts (p-value = 0.000). The age of patients was positive correlated with plasma hormones, PRL (r = 0.332, p = 0.001), LH<br>(r = 0.387, p = 0.000), and FSH (r = 0.320, p = 0.001). No correlation was found between the duration of the disease and serum hormones.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Patients with chronic renal failure had a highly significant increase of serum PRL, LH, and FSH and also the age of the patients was positively correlated with serum hormones.</p> Maha Fathalla, AbdElkarim A. Abdrabo, GadAllah Modawe Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216924 Thu, 04 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Using Logbooks to Enhance Students’ Learning: Lessons From a Mixed-methods Study in an Undergraduate Surgical Rotation https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216925 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Logbooks are frequently used in medical education to enhance and monitor students’ learning. However, some barriers that may diminish their benefits have been reported. This study aims to evaluate the usefulness of logbooks to students’ learning and identify the factors, which may contribute to their outcomes in learning milieus.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: The study used a mixed-methods approach. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from the medical students in the fourth- and sixth-year classes and their teachers in the department of surgery at the Faculty of Medicine at University of Tabuk in the academic year 2016–2017. Data were collected using questionnaires, focused group discussions, and personal interviews.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Eighty-nine (49 fourth year and 40 sixth year) students and six teachers participated in the study. Logbooks were perceived as useful to students’ learning by 83.3% of the teachers and 75.3% of the students. Logbooks enhanced students’ learning through identification of areas of weaknesses, encouraged seeing more patients’ problems and reading in-depth about some topics, and improved students’ writing skills. Barriers to learning from logbooks included poor-quality feedback, no opportunities for feedback discussion, and unfair marking. Differences in the students’ perceptions of the usefulness of logbooks were observed based on their learning stage.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Logbooks are useful to students’ learning in many aspects; however, certain factors could diminish their benefits. Students’ attitude toward the logbook was more favorable during their early clinical experience. Faculty development programs<br>and careful supervision of students’ work may improve the outcome of logbooks in clinical placements.</p> Ahmad AbdulAzeem Abdullah Omer Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216925 Thu, 04 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Intraosseous Hemangioma of Nasal Bone: Unusual Location of a Common Tumor with Literature Review https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216927 <p>Hemangiomas are very common benign vascular tumors of head and neck. Intraosseous hemangiomas are rare and very few cases of&nbsp; involvement of nasal bone have been found in literature. A slowly growing hard nasal mass should draw clinical suspicion and should be included in differential diagnosis as it carries with it the risk of uncontrollable hemorrhage during surgical procedures. Clinical&nbsp; examination and radiology are contributory but histopathological examination is confirmatory for diagnosis.</p> Tagwa Abdullah M. Osman, Sohaila Fatima, Shiza Wajih Siddiqui Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216927 Thu, 04 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Gum Arabic in Diabetes and its Complications: A Narrative Review https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216929 <p>Gum Arabic (GA) is a gummy exudation from Acacia species, rich in soluble fibers. It is a dietary fiber used traditionally by the natives of many countries of the Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan, and India as therapeutic natural product for treating various diseases including kidney diseases, impotence, obesity, and epilepsy. Diabetes represent a global health problem causing many&nbsp; complications and health risk to people of different ages. The current study aimed at identifying the role of Gum Arabic in treating diseases especially diabetes. Many studies have been conducted on the role of Gum Arabic in experimentally induced diabetes as well as randomized clinical studies. This narrative review was written based on a database search in common libraries such as PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, and Scopus. The libraries were searched for English articles published between 1995 and 2020 focusing on the role of Gum Arabic in different preclinical and clinical trials of early and advanced level of diabetes.</p> Suzy Munir Salama, Hammad Ali Fadlalmola, Manal Mohammed Abdel Hafeez, Samia Ali Mohamed Ahmed, Rafiah Awad Mohamed, Nora Mohammed Ali Elatta, Abdalbasit Adam Mariod Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216929 Thu, 04 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Early Milestones of Team-based Learning: The Key is Sustained Practice https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216932 <p><strong>Background</strong>: To explore students’ perceptions of team-based learning (TBL) initial implementation in a medical school in Saudi Arabia.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: This descriptive study used the validated TBL-Student Assessment Instrument (TBL-SAI) to gauge students’ perception of TBL in three subscales: accountability, preference, and satisfaction. Study participants were fourth-year students at the College of Medicine in Prince Sattam Bin Abdul Aziz University, studying a nine-week introductory surgery course in the academic year 2019–2020. Descriptive statistics using the mean scores were used to highlight the results.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Thirty-three students participated in the study. While the mean scores for the three subscales were: accountability 30 (SD 6.6) (neutral score = 24), preference 43.2 (SD 10.8) (neutral score = 48), and satisfaction 25.2 (SD 8.9) (neutral score = 27), the mean of the total questionnaires’ scores was 98.4 (SD 21.8) (neutral score = 99). Students expressed a minor level of accountability, poor preference and satisfaction, and an overall low rating of TBL activities.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Low students’ engagement with TBL is likely attributed to their unfamiliarity with this approach and the hostility that they may experience when challenged to refrain from passive learning habits and take an active role toward their learning. Lack of the necessary skills and experience to facilitate TBL encounters and the educational climate where didactic teaching is pervasive may be other factors. Exposure to TBL may initially be associated with poor students’ perception. Perseverance, strong commitment alongside adequate institutional support are necessarily required to mitigate poor outcomes.</p> Ahmad AbdulAzeem Abdullah Omer Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216932 Thu, 04 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence and Severity of Dental Fluorosis among Primary School Children Aged 12–14 Years in Abosied and Alfetehab Localities, Omdurman, Sudan https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216933 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Dental fluorosis is a disease of dental hard tissues resulting from excess fluoride intake during the developmental stages of teeth causing hypomineralization of the enamel. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis among<br>school children in Omdurman locality.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: Students in the sixth grade of school were examined to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis using Dean’s index.<br><strong>Results</strong>: The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 68.3%. The majority of students were diagnosed with very mild (23.2%) and mild (26.5%) forms. There was no difference in the grade of fluorosis between children who were born outside and in Omdurman.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Prevalence of dental fluoride was found to be very high among school children with no difference between males and females.</p> Hagir Abd Rahman Mahmoud Ali, Moneer Mohammed Alhassn Algdal Copyright (c) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/sjms/article/view/216933 Thu, 04 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000