Chlamydia and Vaginitis in Sexually Active Females: Classical Identification Methods for Effective Control

  • MT Niemogha
  • SI Smith
  • HA Goodluck
  • T Gbaja-biamila
  • T Fesobi
  • A Umurhuru
  • OO Oduyebo
  • AA Adeiga
  • AA Solayide
  • AO Adagbada
  • T Bamidele
  • AZ Musa
Keywords: Chlamydia, Culture, Microscopy, Staining techniques, Vaginitis


Laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia and vaginitis in sexually active females has been limited by unavailability of a sequential method/rapid technique for simple diagnosis. Six hundred (600) adult females from hotel/brothel, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) Clinic, Obstetrics/Gynaecology Clinic, Family Planning Clinic and Healthy controls were investigated for Chlamydia, Candida, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis (BV). This was done using microscopy: wet mount, stained vaginal secretion and stained smear after culture. Results showed that there were 72% infections in the female groups. The brothel and STI group had infection in the range (70-86%). Chlamydial infection was highest in the STI group while Candida infection was highest in the healthy (control) females. Bacterial vaginosis was distributed in all groups. As p-value increased, f-value increased indicating constant co-infection of Candida and BV in Chlamydia positive females. Microscopy by direct detection from sample and stained smear after culture were in the range: 56-86%. Direct microscopy for BV was 78.5% and stained smear after culture, 57.1%. Sensitivity and specificity of the techniques showed that detection of Chlamydia was less sensitive by direct microscopy of sample but sensitivity and specificity of stained smear after culture were high. Immunoassay (32.2%) was also less sensitive. Sensitivity and specificity of wet mount microscopy for Candida, Trichomoniasis and BV were in the range 62.5 – 80% and 62.5-97.8% respectively. Wet mount has high sensitivity and specificity for detecting agents of vaginitis and may be useful for routine use and for diagnosis where disease is absent, thus, making identification more cost effective.

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eISSN: 2076-6270
print ISSN: 2076-6270