Hospital Acquired Infection in Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Southwest, Nigeria: A Ten Year Review (2000-2009)
Surveillance and proper hygiene have been identified as key components in the fight against HAIs and antimicrobial resistance in hospital setting. This study assesses the pattern of hospital acquired infections (HAIs) and state of hygiene in a tertiary hospital in southwest, Nigeria. Data collected routinely between January 2000 and December 2009 by the infection control committee on HAI and primary data generated on hygiene in the wards were analysed using appropriate statistical techniques. A total of 37,957 patients were admitted during the period under review and 1129 cases (3.0%) of HAI were reported. The highest prevalence of 9.0% was reported in 2006. The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) had the highest period prevalence of 14.7% followed by Orthopaedics ward (7.7%). Surgical ward contributed the highest number of cases with 433. Gram negative organisms were the most implicated (78%) of which Klebsiella species was 38% while Staphylococcus aureus was the only Gram positive organism identified (28%). Hand washing was practised universally by health workers but facilities for proper hand washing were inadequate. The pattern of HAI has not changed significantly in the past 10 years and Klebsiella was the most implicated organism in HAIs and ICU. Facilities for proper hand washing are suboptimal. We recommend the introduction of hand washing policy for the hospital and the provision of an environment conducive for its implementation by the hospital management as well as adequate support for the infection control committee in the discharge of her duties.
Keywords: Hand washing, Hospital-acquired, Hygiene, Infection control