Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research <p>The <em>Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research</em> publishes papers in all fields of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences including Basic Medical Sciences, Clinical Sciences, Dental Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Biotechnology in relation to Medicine, Environment and Health, Nursing Sciences, Health Education and Primary Health Care.<br />Note: the journal's maiden issue is now open access - other issues of this journal are subscription based.</p><p>Other websites related to this journal:<a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a></p> College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone en-US Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research 2076-6270 Copyright is owned by the journal INSULIN RESISTANCE IN APPARENTLY HEALTHY ADULT NIGERIANS: ASSOCIATION WITH MAGNESIUM STATUS <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p><p>Magnesium plays a critical role in glucose metabolism and evidence suggest that magnesium deficiency is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity. However, it is likely that these relationships are affected by genetic and environmental factors that can differ among different populations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of insulin resistance and its association with magnesium status among apparently healthy adult Nigerians. Fasting plasma levels of magnesium, glucose and insulin were determined in 120 apparently healthy adults. Insulin resistance was calculated as HOMA-IR. Prevalence of insulin resistance was estimated and the association between plasma magnesium levels and HOMA-IR was determined. About 19.2% of the study subjects were classified as having insulin resistance. Prevalence was higher among males compared to females (21.0% vs. 17.0%) and among obese compared to normal-weight subjects (26.1% vs. 14.9%). Subjects with hypomagnesemia had a higher prevalence of insulin resistance compared with subjects who had normal plasma magnesium levels (50.0% vs. 14.4%). Insulin resistance was inversely associated with plasma magnesium level independent of age, gender and BMI. Insulin resistance is relatively common among apparently healthy individuals in this study. Magnesium deficiency was found to be a significant predictor of insulin resistance. We recommend further studies that will investigate whether optimization of magnesium status in general population or among individuals at risk of developing type 2 diabetes will be a useful approach in lowering insulin resistance and prevent or delay onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus in our setting.</p> F.I. AKINNIBOSUN, O.H. ONYEMEKEIHIA Copyright (c) 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 10 2 5 11 10.4314/sljbr.v10i2. ABORTION PROCUREMENT AND POST-ABORTION CARE SERVICES: EXPERIENCES OF NIGERIAN ADOLESCENTS <p>ABSTRACT <br /> <br />Introduction: The prevention of abortion-related complications and mortality is dependent on the availability, accessibility and usability of emergency post-abortion care (PAC) throughout the health care system. Unfortunately, Nigerian adolescents are often unable to obtain adequate post-abortion care services due to numerous challenges and barriers. This study attempted to explore experiences with abortion and post-abortion care services from the adolescents’ perspective which is the first step in enhancing optimal utilization of adolescents’ PAC services <br /> <br />Methods: A qualitative exploratory research design was used. 20 semi-structured interviews were conducted with adolescent patients during hospitalization. The adolescent patients were duly counselled and informed consent obtained prior to the in-depth interview. The semi-structured interview guide was used for data collection and the data were analyzed using content analysis. <br /> <br />Results: Findings from the interviews revealed that adolescents found it difficult to discuss issues of pregnancy and abortion with their parents or guardians due to fear, stigmatization or rejection. The adolescents experienced negligence of care, shame and stigma due to failure of health care providers to ensure privacy, as well as delay in treatment due to hospital protocol and non-availability of prescribed drugs which significantly affected the PAC care services they received Conclusion: The adolescents experienced fear, shame, and stigmatization, negligence of care and lack of access to adequate PAC services. These findings highlight the need to review health actions directed towards adolescents with abortion complications and plan interventions aimed at improving provision of adolescents’ friendly PAC services, in order to meet the reproductive health needs of these adolescents.</p> Olayinka A. Onasoga, Sathasivan Arunachallam Copyright (c) 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 10 2 12 19 10.4314/sljbr.v10i2. LIPID PROFILE AND DISEASE SEVERITY IN SICKLE CELL DISEASE PATIENTS IN LAGOS STATE. NIGERIA <p>ABSTRACT <br /> <br />Background: Sickle cell anaemia is an autosomal recessive disorder that arises due to the substitution of glutamic acid with valine. This occurs at position 6 of the haemoglobin b chain, resulting in the synthesis of abnormal haemoglobin and the consequent production of the characteristic sickled red blood cells. Studies have documented several alterations in lipid homeostasis in this population. Both hyper and hypolipidaemias are known to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality and it is therefore imperative to evaluate their relationships with sickle cell anaemia. Aim: The aim of this study was to establish baseline serum lipid levels in sickle cell anaemia patients in LASUTH and correlate this with severity scores in the patients. Subjects and Methods: Serum Total cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), Low-density lipoproteins (LDL), High-density lipoproteins (HDL) and Very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) were measured in 57 Haemoglobin SS (HbSS) patients in steady state. All patients used had been fasting for at least 10 hours prior to sample collection. The LDL/HDL was also calculated. Their disease severity was calculated using an objective scoring method. Results: Our results showed that there was no significant correlation between serum lipid levels and disease severity score. Keywords: sickle cell disease, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, high-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, disease severity. </p> Uche Ebele Olowoselu Olusola Augustine Benjamin Ismail Ayobami Akinbami Akinsegun Dosunmu Adedoyin Balogun Abdulhafeez Copyright (c) 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 10 2 24 31 10.4314/sljbr.v10i2. PREVALENCE OF CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS INFECTION IN INFERTILE WOMEN ATTENDING FERTILITY CLINICS IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA: A PUBLIC HEALTH CONCERN <p>ABSTRACT </p><p>This study was carried out to deduce the prevalence of Chlamydia infection amongst infertile women attending fertility clinics in Benin City, Nigeria. Fifty infertile women with either primary or secondary infertility and with their ages ranging from 24 to 51 years were enrolled for this study. The serum of each patient was screened for Chlamydia antibodies with the enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) index of 0.90 or less was reported as seronegative for IgG antibody, while IgG index of 1.00 or greater were positive for IgG antibody. Findings in the present study revealed that 24 % to 52 % of the patients that attend the fertility clinics in Benin City, Nigeria were most likely to be infected with Chlamydia; with the primary infertile patients accounting for 32 % of the cases and secondary infertile patients for 68 % of the cases. Prevalence of Chlamydia infection was also found to be quite high amongst women aged between 36 and 40 years old. Since lack of symptoms often makes the clinical diagnosis of Chlamydia infection somewhat difficult, thus increasing the prevalence of this disease; routine screening is recommended to enable early therapeutic interventions of positive cases. </p> F.I. AKINNIBOSUN O.H. ONYEMEKEIHIA Copyright (c) 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 10 2 32 39 10.4314/sljbr.v10i2. OCULOPLASTIC TRAINING AND ITS ROLE IN EYE CARE SERVICES IN A NIGERIA TERTIARY HOSPITAL <p>ABSTRACT <br />Oculoplasty subspecialty in Ophthalmology was barely 7 years in Nigeria. National statistics show an increased number of cases that should have benefitted from this expertise that is rare. As a result of this deficit, a consultant ophthalmologist was sent to Sankara Nethralaya Eye Hospital, Chennai, India for 3 months oculoplastic training with the help of International Council Ophthalmology (ICO). <br />To evaluate the role of oculoplastic training in eye-service care in our hospital, all patients seen at our oculoplastic unit during the 8 months period from April to November 2017, had information extracted from their medical record. The data obtained was analysed using SPSS version 20. <br />Out of 53 patients seen 30 (56.65) were males and 23 (43.4%) were females. Majority 10 (18.9%) were diagnosed with a traumatic irreparable ruptured globe, while 10 (18.9%) had congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Page 7 of 23 Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Oculoplastic training and its role in eye care services in a Nigeria tertiary hospital for Review Only 2 Thirty-six (67.9%) patients had surgery and 10 (18.9%) were successfully managed with lacrimal sac massage for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction in children. Majority 10(18.9%) of the surgery were evisceration with primary ocular implants. One patient with clinically significant orbital floor fracture was referred. Four cases of congenital ptosis declined surgery. This expertise resulted in increased patient turnout by 30% and income to the department, while it saves cost to patients who need not be referred. <br />The skills acquired from oculoplastic training have help in rendering oculoplastic services to the people of Kebbi State and its environs at a reduced cost. Also, there is improved internally generated revenue to the hospital. The importance of skill transfers and subspecialty training is underscored. Keywords: oculoplastic; subspecialty training; Kebbi State; tertiary hospital</p> Monsudi Kehinde Fasasi Ayodapo Abayomi Olusola Copyright (c) 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 10 2 40 47 10.4314/sljbr.v10i2. AN APPROACH TO DEVELOPING A NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASE MODEL OF CARE IN SIERRA LEONE ABSTRACT: Due to the rising and endemic burdens of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in sub-Saharan Africa including Sierra Leone, innovative approaches to developing NCD care models are urgently needed and should leverage on lessons learned from other countries. We discuss an approach that can be used to develop NCD chronic care clinics in Sierra Leone with a focus on task shifting, integrating care, developing an NCD package, developing and standardising guidelines, and piloting and decentralising NCD care to rural areas. Chiyembekezo Kachimanga Paul H. Park Marta Lado Copyright (c) 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 10 2 48 51 10.4314/sljbr.v10i2.