Use of chloroquine in uncomplicated falciparum malaria chemotherapy: The past, the present and the future
AbstractChloroquine is a 4-aminoquinoline discovered over five decades ago for treatment of uncomplicated malaria. It was widely used as first line treatment and prophylaxis for individuals going into malaria endemic
regions. It was initially highly effective against the four Plasmodium species (P. falciparum, P. malaria, P. ovale and P. vivax) infecting human. It is also effective against gametocytes except those of P. falciparum.
Resistance of P. falciparum to chloroquine is widespread and led to discontinuation of chloroquine in malaria treatment by most countries. In recent times, evidences are emerging for chloroquine to probably
secure its original place in treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria. This would be a welcome idea since chloroquine is readily available, relatively safer and cheaper than most currently use antimalarial
drugs. Thus, researchers should intensify efforts on periodic in vitro monitoring of chloroquine efficacy; clinicians should further discourage use of chloroquine until efficacy is remarkably restored and pharmaceutical industries should look into potential chloroquine and chloroquine-resistance reversal fixed and non-fixed doses combinations.