Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies of Methanol stem bark extract of Cadaba farinosa (Forssk) in wistar rats.

  • M.L. Umaru
  • G.N. Uyaiabasi
Keywords: Acute and sub-acute toxicity, Cadaba farinose, medicinal plant, diabetes, haematological parameters, aspartate transaminase.

Abstract

The study focused on evaluating the toxicity profile of the methanol stem bark extract of Cadaba farinose (Forssk), considering possibilities of adverse effects arising from continual use of herbal plants especially in the management of long-term conditions. Cadaba farinosa is a slender shrub plant widely used traditionally in the treatment of various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, inflammations, rheumatic pains and various infections including skin and intestine both in Africa and India. The acute toxicity study and sub-acute toxicity studies were carried out in Wistar rats using Lorkes Method (1983) and the OECD Guidelines 425. For the sub-acute toxicity studies, twenty rats weighing between 120 and 170g were randomly grouped into 4 groups of 5 rats each. Group 1 (control) received 10ml/kg of distilled water and the others received doses of 40, 200 and 1000mg/kg p.o of extract for 28 days. The acute toxicity revealed no mortality or behavioural signs of toxicity in both phases up to 5000mg/kg. The haematological indices revealed a significant (p<0.05) increase in the WBC count, MCV and PLT of the groups that received 1000mg/kg of the extract after treatment for 28 days. The liver function test showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in AST and ALT. Renal indices showed a significant decrease in creatinine and a significant increase (p<0.05) in plasma Na+, K+ and Cl- ion concentration across the groups. Histopathological section of the spleen revealed follicular hyperplasia. The results suggest that the plant could be slightly toxic to the liver and the spleen on long-term use.

Published
2021-11-10
Section
Articles

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print ISSN: 2536-7153