Observations on some renal function indices in dogs under ketamine-xylazine anaesthesia
This study was done to evaluate the effect of an increased dose of ketamine on some renal function indices of Ketamine−Xylazine anaesthetised dogs. Five adult female mongrel dogs assigned to two different treatment groups in a randomized cross over design were used for this study. Each of the dogs received either 10mg/kg or 20mg/kg ketamine at a week interval. The mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of creatinine, absolute and fractional excretion of sodium (UNaV, FENa), urine flow rate (UFR), and plasma sodium clearance were all found to be insignificantly increased in dogs that received the higher dose regime of ketamine. All the dogs in the two treatment groups exhibited levels of glycosuria and hyposthenuria. When plasma sodium concentration of dogs treated with 10mg/kg was correlated with UNaV it was found to be significant and strong (P < 0.05; r =0.86). It was however strong but insignificant with sodium clearance (P>0.05; r = 0.82) and creatinine clearance (P> 0.05; r = 0.39). At 20mg/kg, the UNaV, sodium clearance and glomerular filtration rate all correlated weakly and insignificantly with plasma sodium concentration. The enhanced diuresis and natriuresis observed in the two treatment groups could be attributed to the effect of xylazine on either the alpha-2 adrenoceptor of the brain or those on the tubules of the kidney. These effects of xylazine could not be reversed by attempting to competitively antagonize it with a 100% increase in ketamine dose.
Keywords: Diuresis, GFR fractional excretion, Ketamine, Natriuresis, xylazine