A Comparison of xylazine/ketamine, diazepam/ketamine and acepromazine/ketamine anaesthesia in Rabbit
The efficacy and safety of the recommended intramuscular (im) clinical doses of xylazine-ketamine (5mg-35mg/kg), diazepam-ketamine (5mg-60mg/kg) and acepromazine-ketamine (5mg-75mg/kg) post administration were obtained, evaluated and compared using the following parameters in 10 apparently healthy rabbits: vital parameters (means of heart rates, respiratory rates and temperature), onset of loss of righting reflex, onset of analgesia, duration of analgesia, duration at recumbency and attempts to stand. Onset of loss of righting reflex was not significantly different (p>0.05) with xylazine-ketamine, diazepam-ketamine and acepromazine-ketamine at 3.4±0.3, 2.0±0.0 and 2.6±0.3 minutes respectively. Diazepam-ketamine and acepromazine-ketamine showed no analgesia while xylazine-ketamine had onset of analgesia and duration of analgesia of 4.2±0.1 and 57.0±0.7 minutes respectively. Duration of recumbency and first attempt to stand were longest with diazepam-ketamine, intermediate with acepromazine-ketamine and shortest with xylazine-ketamine of 184.4±3.3 and 42.0±1.4; 169.9±3.0 and 26.6±1.7; and 62±1.5 and 11.2±0.9 minutes respectively. Mean heart rate ranged between 173.2±6.6 to 187.2±7.5; 188.6±6.4 to 206.0±3.1 and 190.8±1.3 to 202.8±1.9 beats/minute with xylazine-ketamine, diazepam-ketamine, and acepromazine-ketamine respectively. Mean respiratory rate ranges were 58.4±3.5 to 133.0±11.2; 71.4±6.9 to 121.2±12.6 and 80.8±6.2 to 137.0±4.3 breaths/minute with xylazine-ketamine, diazepam-ketamine and acepromazine-ketamine respectively. Mean temperature ranges were 39.9±0.1 to 40.0±0.1; 39.0±0.3 to 39.9±0.1 and 39.6±0.1 to 40.2±0.0:C with xylazine-ketamine, diazepam-ketamine and acepromazine-ketamine respectively. In conclusion, all the three ketamine drug combinations produced unconsciousness and immobility, but only xylazine-ketamine provided additional analgesia. They were associated with normal heart rate and rectal temperature, as well as polypnoea of some clinical concern. Only xylazine-ketamine is potentially useful for painful procedures. Addition of specific analgesics to diazepam-ketamine and acepromazine-ketamine may make them useful for painful procedures.
Keywords: Acepromazine, Anaesthesia, Diazepam, Ketamine, Rabbit, Xylazine