Phenotypic occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in camels slaughtered at Kano abattoir, Kano, Nigeria
To assess the occurrence of MRSA among camels in Kano abattoir, a total of 300 nasal swabs were collected from camels at the lairage in Kano abattoir, Kano state, Nigeria to isolate and biochemically characterize Staphylococcus aureus and confirm methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among isolates using oxacillin resistance screening agar basal medium, disc diffusion method, PCR and also through detection of penicillin binding protein 2’. Samples were collected into universal sample bottles containing trypticase soy broth with 6.5% Nacl. amples ere incubated at 37oC for 24 hrs and sub-cultured on Baird Parker agar (Oxoid Ltd, Basingstoke, UK). Suspect Staphylococcus spp isolates were confirmed using coagulase, DNAse, haemolysis and sugar fermentation tests (mannitol, sucrose, lactose, mannose and xylose). Fifteen of the 42 isolated Staphylococcus aureus were confirmed to be MRSA on oxacillin resistance screening agar basal medium of which 12 were also resistant to oxacillin using disc diffusion method. Five (33.3%) of the 15 isolates were confirmed to be MRSA using the PBP2 latex agglutination test kit. The isolates were however negative for mec A by PCR. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA was higher in males than in females, but this difference was found to be statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). Multidrug resistance was displayed by all Staphylococcus aureus isolates with 100% resistance to ampicillin and penicillin, but 97.6% of the isolates were susceptible to amikacin and 90% to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. There was no statistically significant difference in antibiotic resistance between Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, cloxacillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin, tetracycline, sulphamethoxazole, vancomycin ( p-value > 0.0), but there was statistical significance to oxacillin (p = 0.0001; OR = 0.7143). MRSA strains were found in 5% of camels and thus may play a potential role in disseminating the pathogen between animals and humans as well as within the community.
Keywords: Camels, Kano abattoir, Occurrence, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Multidrug resistance