Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium bovis in cattle and wildlife in Yankari game reserve, Bauchi State, Nigeria
This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) in wildlife in Yankari Game Reserve (YGR) and cattle living in settlements surrounding the Game Reserve in Bauchi State, Nigeria. Seven hundred and fifty cattle from 21 herds surrounding the game reserve were conveniently selected and blood samples collected from the animals that were above six months of age in the selected herds. Blood samples were also collected from 250 darted wildlife species during routine examinations and from wild animals captured by hunters with the species, sexes and estimated ages determined at capture. Serum sample was obtained by allowing the blood to coagulate to produce sera. The serum was analyzed using Rapid bovine tuberculosis (TB) antibodies test kits which is specific for M. bovis. While 88 (11.7%) of the 750 cattle sera tested were positive for M. bovis antibodies, 30 (12.0%) of the 250 wildlife sera were positive for M. bovis antibodies. Among the cattle that tested positive to M. bovis antibodies, 19 (11.5%) were males, while 69 (11.8%) were females. Of the 250 wildlife species tested 6 (19.35%) zebras, 2 (10.0%) elands, 3 (7.6%), antelopes, 4 (10.0%), baboons, 6 (15.0%), African giant rats, 3 (12.0%) hares, and 6 (30.0%) grass cutters were positive for M. bovis antibodies. There was no significant difference (p < 0.05) in sero-prevalence of M. bovis between cattle living around YGR and the wildlife. The prevalence of M. bovis in cattle and wildlife is of public health significance to humans in close proximity to the game reserve and tourists due to the possibility of its transmission to humans. Further studies on the isolation and characterization of M. bovis in cattle and wildlife in YGR are recommended.
Keywords: Antibodies, Cattle, M. bovis, Wildlife, Yankari Game Reserve