In vivo effect of the aqueous extract of Adansonia digitata (Linn) fruit pulp on Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in Wistar rats
This study investigated the effects of aqueous extract of fruit pulp of Adansonia digitata on albino rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Acute toxicity test was conducted on the extract and then analysed for some phytoconstituents. Thirty-five adult rats were divided into seven groups of five rats each. Group A were the non-infected control group while groups B, C, D, E, F and G were inoculated with 1x 106 trypanosomes per 100 g body weight (BW). At day 6 post infection (6 PI), groups C and D were treated with diminazene aceturate and vitamin C at dose rates of 3.5 mg/kg BW intra peritonealy once and 200 mg/kg BW orally for 3 days respectively, while groups E, F, G were orally treated for 3 days with 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg BW of the extract respectively. The rats were monitored for parasitaemia, PCV and body weight. The LD50 of the extract was greater than 9000 mg/kg. The phytochemical analysis revealed 3.51% flavonoid, 0.07% alkaloid, 0.10% saponin and 0.03.0% oxalate in the extract. While there was progressive increase in parasitaemia from day 6 PI in groups E and F throughout the study, parasitaemia decreases and was completely cleared by day 8 and 11 PI in groups C and G respectively. PCV of group A was not significantly different (p>0.05) from that of F and G. There was significant difference (p<0.05) in the PCV of Group A and that of groups B and C and highly significantly different (p<0.01) with that of D and E. Significant (p<0.05) body weight increase of rats in groups D, E, F and G at day 10 PI was observed. Thus, fruit pulp of A. digitata at a dose of 9000 mg/kg was not toxic to rats, and contains active compounds with potential In vivo anti-trypanosoma activity.
Keywords: Adansonia digitata, Albino rats, Animal trypanosomosis, Phytochemicals, Trypanosoma brucei brucei