Prevalence of parasites of wildlife in Yankari game reserve and Sumu wildlife park in Bauchi State, Nigeria

  • YJ Atuman
  • C.A. Kudi
  • P. Abdu
  • A. Abubakar
Keywords: Gastrointestinal parasites, Haemoparasites, Prevalence, Ticks, Wildlife

Abstract

The role of wildlife in the epidemiology of parasites in Yankari Game Reserve and Sumu Wildlife Park in Bauchi State, Nigeria was investigated by analysis of blood, faeces and ticks collected from 106 wildlife including 4 elephants (Loxodonta africana), 11 waterbucks (Kobus ellipsiprymus), 1 hartbeest (Alcelaphus baselaphus caama), 24 elands (Taurotragus oryx), 53 zebras (Equus quagga crawshayi), 1 kudu (Tragelaphus streptsiceros) and 12 wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus). Blood samples were examined for haemoparasites by classical parasitological techniques i.e Geimsa's stained thin, thick and buffy coat blood smear. Whereas faecal samples were examined for gastrointestinal tract (GIT) parasites using floatation and sedimentation techniques while ticks were identified morphologically. Overall prevalence of haemoparasites was fifty six percent (56%). The identified haemoparasites were Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis, Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Trypanosoma spp and Ehrlichia ruminantium. Haemoparasites identified alone or in combination with others had a significant (P <0.05) effect on mean PCV of infected animals. Sixty percent (60%) of the wildlife species were infected with GIT parasites. Types of GIT parasites identified were two protozoans (Balantidium coli and Eimeria spp) and helminths from eighteen genera including ten nematodes (Strongyle type-egg, Dictyocaulus, Cooperia, Strongyloides, Haemonchus, Trichuris, Trichonema, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum, and Ancylostoma), four Trematodes (Fasciola, Schistosoma, Paramphistomum and Gastrodiscus) and three Cestodes (Anoplocephala, Taenia and Moniezia. Four genera of ticks, Amblyomma, Boophilus, Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus were identified on the wildlife species. Our findings indicated the presence of infective parasites in wildlife and potential risks of transmitting these parasites to in contact domestic animals and humans in the study area. Control measures should be focused on reducing parasitic infections by proper management of wildlife in the Game Reserves in Bauchi State, Nigeria.

Keywords: Gastrointestinal parasites, Haemoparasites, Prevalence, Ticks, Wildlife

Published
2020-04-07
Section
Articles

Journal Identifiers


eISSN: 1595-093X
print ISSN: 1595-093X