Seroprevalence of Brucella infection in small ruminants from two institutional farms and a slaughter slab in Zaria, Nigeria
Brucellosis has continued to become a disease of major economic concern in developing countries. In a study to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in small ruminants in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria, 1036 samples comprising 768 goats from institutional farms (n=384) and a slaughter slab (n=384), and 268 sheep all from institutional farms were used. The sera samples obtained from the animals were subjected to the Modified Rose Bengal Plate Test (m-RBPT) followed by Serum Agglutination Test with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (SAT-EDTA) for Brucella antibodies detection. Milk samples were collected from lactating sheep and goats and subjected to the Milk Ring Test (MRT) for detection of Brucella antibodies. Results of the study revealed an overall seroprevalence rate of 6.37%, 8.90% and 12.96% for m-RBPT, SAT-EDTA and MRT, respectively. The seroprevalence in sheep and goats showed significant species difference (P < 0.05) for m-RBPT (10.05% vs 5.08%), but insignificant (P > 0.05) species difference for SAT-EDTA (9.33% vs 8.72%) and MRT (15.00% vs 11.76%) respectively. The seroprevalence in males and females showed insignificant sex difference (P > 0.05) for m-RBPT (6.59% vs 6.21%) and SAT-EDTA (7.76% vs 9.66%). On the other hand, the seroprevalence was higher in young (< 1 year old) than adult (> 1 year old) animals for SAT-EDTA (15.32% vs 8.11%). The seroprevalence in Red Sokoto, Sahel and West African Dwarf goats showed significant breed difference (P < 0.05) for m-RBPT (4.59% vs 5.55% vs 8.33%) and SAT-EDTA (6.80% vs 16.67% vs 12.50%). It was concluded that the seroprevalence of brucellosis was higher in sheep, Sahel goats and younger animals. To understand the pattern and dynamics of transmission of brucellosis in different groups of animals, there is the need for further studies to identify the Brucella species circulating in small ruminants.
Keywords: Antibodies, Brucellosis, m-RBPT, SAT-EDTA, Small ruminants