Clinicopathological features and management of aspergillosis in some poultry farms in Jos metropolis, Nigeria
Aspergillosis is important in poultry production and human health but difficulty in its ante mortem diagnosis in addition to the unsuccessful outcome of most management options has made the disease a lingering nightmare to farmers. This study presents the clinicopathological features and management of aspergillosis in some poultry farms in Jos metropolis, Nigeria. Thirteen cases of aspergillosis from 12 poultry farms were confirmed and managed from April, 2019 to March, 2020 with 7.6% cases in a mixed turkey-broiler farm, 15.4% in broilers and 76.9% in layers. The ages affected ranged from 3 weeks to 21 weeks with 69.2% cases in pullet grower birds of 10 – 21 weeks compared to young chicks, 3 – 9 weeks with 30.8%. The rainy season accounted for 61.8% cases while mortality ranged from 1.0% to 17.4%. The clinical features were consistent and included dyspnoea; inappetence; retarded growth and mortality. While necropsy showed consolidated lungs with caseous nodules; liver with raised grayish or yellowish irregular nodules; peritonitis with the peritoneum and air sacs laced with caseous nodules; diphtheritic membrane and caseous nodules on intestinal mucosa; haemorrhagic bursitis with granulomata; caseous nodules on osseous tissues as well as nodules on the skin and skeletal muscles. Confirmatory diagnoses of aspergillosis were made by culturing nodules on Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar. Antifungal susceptibility testing showed CuSO4 to be more susceptible which was used at the dosage of 3g/10L of drinking water for at least 7 days in all the cases. Concurrent bacterial infections were seen in some of the cases and were treated concurrently with antibiotics based on susceptibility testing while farmers using moldy feeds were asked to withdraw such feeds. Conclusively, aspergillosis is prevalent in Jos metropolis with severe impact on production and may be a silent killer disease in poultry due to constraints in diagnosis and its management.
Keywords: Aspergillosis, clinicopathological features, Jos, management, Nigeria, poultry