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Epidemiological features of lumpy skin disease outbreaks amongst herds of cattle in Bokkos, north-central Nigeria

R.B. Atai
O.S. Olaolu
O.S. Olaolu
J.A. Adole
I. Haruna
S.I. Ijoma
N.A. Maurice
D.O. Omoniwa
B.B. Dogonyaro
A.J. Adedeji


Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) is a severe viral transboundary disease of mostly cattle caused by LSD Virus (LSDV). This epidemiological survey of LSD amongst herds of cattle in Bokkos Local Government Area (LGA) of North Central Nigeria was carried out in 2019 as a response to farmers’ reports of repeated outbreaks of LSD in their herds of cattle. A focused group discussion with cattle farmers purposefully selected was used for the disease investigation and data collection. Twelve skin scab samples were collected from suspected cases within the study area. The viral attachment protein gene of the LSDV was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Analysis of the focus group discussion revealed that all farmers interviewed practiced extensive farm management system and claimed that their animals shared same communal water points and grazing area. Furthermore, 47% (7/15) of the farmers have experienced LSD twice in their herds, while 27% (4/15) have had the outbreak thrice on their farms. The morbidity rates of LSD were 3% – 49% and mortality rates were 1% – 6%. Sixty percent of farmers claimed that incidence of LSD is related to season of the year. All farmers sell off their sick animals in the livestock market and confirmed LSD affects market price of their animals. PCR results revealed that in 91.6% (11/12) samples analysed, LSDV was detected. This study confirms LSD outbreaks based on PCR result and clinical signs and symptoms in Butura, Daffo and Kunduk of Bokkos LGA, North Central Nigeria.