Sophia: An African Journal of Philosophy 2021-08-30T13:47:13+00:00 Dr. Andrew F. Uduigwomen Open Journal Systems <p>The journal aims at publishing scholarly articles in any branch of philosophy and related disciplines. It shows a special interest in articles which encourage philosophising within the content of Africa, etc.</p><p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Notice from the journal:</strong></span></p><p>You are cordially invited for the 2016 RESEACHERS INTERNATIONAL NETWORK CONFERENCE. VENUE: UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, NIGERIA. DATE: 13th -15 OCTOBER, 2016. All papers and Abstracts should be submitted on or before 20th September, 2016 to Thanks. For more information contact Dr. Ekanem on +2348037269701, Patrick +2348032182251 or visit <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a>. </p><p> </p> Africa’s identity crisis: Religion as prime culprit 2021-08-30T11:49:43+00:00 Bruno Yammeluan Ikuli Bruno Yammeluan Ikuli <p>Is religion the ultimate, proper, sustainable or veritable solution to Africa‟s identity crisis? Can religion be the rightful tool for re-uniting Africans to their original selves? No. African traditional religions (ATRs), Islam and Christianity – Africa‟s three foremost religions – are each deeply responsible for Africa‟s identity crisis. Rather than religion, a culture of free philosophical inquiry, scientific and technological enterprise (despite their shortcomings) is key to retrieving Africa‟s identity. This culture exalts the liberalist and individualist model of identity and promotes the ideals of Nietzsche‟s „master morality.‟ Its anti-Christian moral stance, notwithstanding, this paper encourages Africa to pursue and embrace Nietzsche‟s „master morality.‟ To this end, Africa, the paper holds, needs purge herself of her communitarian identity together with its corresponding „slave morality.‟ Adopting the critical analytic methodology of philosophical studies, this paper critiques Africa‟s three major religions by pointing out ways they give root to Africa‟s identity crisis. The paper sub-divides into four sections: Section I, which comes after an introduction, explores the concept and problems of identity. Section II examines religion and its correlations with identity. In Section III, effort is made to analytically and critically demonstrate the culprit-ness of Africa‟s three major religions as ultimate causes of the continent‟s identity crisis. Section IV seeks the way forward from this crisis, after which conclusion is reached.</p> 2021-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Differing criteria of evidence 2021-08-30T12:07:52+00:00 Cyril Asuquo Etim <p>This study is an enquiry into the nature of evidence in different disciplines of our academic curricula. It explores the principles and methodological criteria for sound decision making in those fields of study as they affect human affairs. Different theories about the nature of evidence emerge from different emphases regarding the competing demands that have been placed on the concept. It is observed that people fail to take acceptable decisions due to deficiency in knowledge of evidence where expertise is needed, the problem resting on the possibility of finding truth or justifications of evidence in those fields as they relate to human affairs. Findings show that evidence is a methodological concern; evidence may be rational, empirical, intuitive, revealed or authoritative depending on the sphere of life touched; it‟s methods and principles are deduction, induction and analogy; they are verifiable, confirmable, justifiable and provable. Importantly, evidence both complements and is logically prior to decision making in all forms of argumentation. The study uses analytical and critical methods of enquiry.</p> 2021-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Banking regulation in Nigeria: Some historical evidence 2021-08-30T12:23:15+00:00 Fidelis Anake Atseye Maxwell Bojor Eba <p>The paper provides historical evidence of banking regulation in Nigeria spanning the pre and post structural adjustment era. Regulation has a connotation of control and intervention in a market-driven, yet imperfect economy with the objective of facilitating the attainment of government‟s macroeconomic objectives. The relevant theories have been x-rayed in the paper to provide insight to the discourse. The paper argued that the banking industry is of crucial importance for economic growth and development, and therefore requires stringent regulations by the monetary authorities.</p> 2021-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Christian Muslim conflict in Nigeria: An appraisal 2021-08-30T12:30:15+00:00 Kenneth Sunday Kwanchi Iliya Enock Joseph Umar Bibinu <p>Nigeria as a whole is bedeviled with a lot of social vices and different kind of atrocities such as killings of fellow humans, bribery and corruption, drug abuse and addiction, stealing and robbery, human trafficking and a host of others. All have bedeviled our dear nation and the world at large. The hearts are not pure as such there is a frequency of Religious conflicts which have claimed the lives of innocent citizens and properties worth millions of naira. It is unfortunate that despite all the efforts by Religious and individual organizations in Nigeria through religious dialogue, peace has remained a mirage. On a good day religion that is supposed to be an arena of peaceful relations unfortunately turns out to be the platform many often use to mastermind evil. In Nigeria the adherents of Christianity and Islam with the various sects within them have clashed over situational supremacy and power tussle. This paper aims at examining conflicts among the Christians and Muslims which is a challenge to the Nigerian society, unemployment, poverty, commercialization of the conflicts are the root courses of the interfaith conflicts among the Abrahamic faith and that have led to the destruction of lives and properties. The paper shall employ descriptive methods in carrying out the research. We must transcend religious difference and relate harmoniously with each other as fellow humans beings, as the situation has not reached the hopeless and fatal stage. For if we are looking forward to building a great nation that will impact the world, then we must live in a nation that is devoid of any form of ethno-religious conflict and if that is achieved there will be no loss of lives and property, and our political arena will also be devoid of politics of religion, elections will only be based on capability.</p> 2021-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Three models of contemporary African philosophy: Logical criticisms and recommendations 2021-08-30T12:34:18+00:00 Darty Emmanuel Darty Uwemedimo Isaac Akpan-Umoh <p>Many systems of thought have been constructed in the contemporary period of African philosophy. We considered three of such systems, namely: Innocent Asouzu‟s Complementary reflection, Ada Agada‟s Consolationism and Jonathan Chimakonam‟s Conversationalism. The problem that this work observed in Asouzu‟s idea is located in his principle of integration which states that anything that exists (being) serves a missing link of reality. This notion of being was shown in this work to be problematic for the African conception of God as an absolute being. If God is absolute as widely held in many African cultures, then there exists a being that is not a „missing link‟ since it is self-sufficient and complete. With this, Asouzu‟s principle of integration needs to be revised from a universally quantified to an existentially quantified assertion in order to overcome the explicit contradiction posed by the conception of God as an absolute being to the principle of integration. Agada‟s Consolationism as well has a similar problem. It holds two contradicting conceptions of the God being as one that is both within and above the reach of the „tragedy of existence‟. Chimakonam‟s Conversationalism unlike the two previous systems which have clearly metaphysical and existential leanings, lacks clear statements on the nature of reality, knowledge and values as they present themselves to the Conversationalist. This makes Chimakonam‟s attempt at giving extensionally defining examples of conversationalist metaphysics, for instance, to be logically flawed, thereby underscoring the need for precise definitions. This work recommended that there is need to make explicit, the metaphysical, epistemological and axiological perspectives of Conversationalism.</p> 2021-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Deciphering the intention of parliament in statutes: The jurisprudence of judicial interpretation 2021-08-30T12:37:06+00:00 John Edor Edor Augustine Ekpo <p>The sacerdotal task of interpretation of statutes and laws is bequeathed to the judicial arm of government in every civil society. The exercise of interpretation is a very tedious one, as it involves, not merely the translation of words and language of another person or group of persons, but the act/art of attempting to decipher the intended message to be conveyed by that other person/group. The problems associated with hermeneutics are usually brought to fore in the exercise of judicial interpretation. Since the political society has so delineated functions leaving the function of interpretation of statutes and laws within the purview of the judicial arm of government, the courts are, therefore, saddled with the responsibility of putting into effect the, otherwise, dry bones of statutory provisions. In the case of statutory interpretation, this task of judicial interpretation implies deciphering the intention of parliamentfrom the statute books. As a matter of fact, deciphering one‟s own intentionin previously spoken or written words may prove difficult, how much more ascertaining the intention of parliament that is a completely different group of persons, with most/all members of the said parliament death. Because of the difficulties associated with deciphering the intention of parliament in statutory provisions, courts have fashioned out rules/principles of interpretation. Nonetheless, it is identified that extraneous considerations/factors such as public policy, economic realities, sociological considerations, educational background, etc. all play significant roles in ascertaining the so-called intention of parliament from statutory provisions. This being the case, what comes out as the intention of parliament through judicial interpretation of statutory provisions may, after all, be the intention of the judge, not of parliament.</p> 2021-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Religious colonisation of Nigeria and its economic risks: A philosophical- analytical consideration 2021-08-30T12:47:23+00:00 Patricia EbereNwazonobi Victor Ogbozor Nwobi Kelechi Azi Samuel Amos- risachi Ota <p>Religion as a socio-spiritual phenomenon remains an embodiment of the contents of the aspirations of the people. As a social force, it binds people together. Religion is inseparable from society hence its position in the society remains inevitable. Religion could be positively used f or as well negatively channeled against development of the society. In Nigeria the role of religion has been seen from both sides especially when the fact of Nigeria being religiously colonised is considered. The Christian and Islamic religions brought to Africa are a diluted Christian message mixed with political and economic interests of the colonial masters. Notably, such that both Religion and colonialism are often closely associated because the two religions were exported to Africa through the instrumentality of the European colonial powers and missionaries acted in many ways as the "religious arm" of the colonial powers. The message inculcated into the Psychic of Nigerians was the type that was meant for them to live life of the “other –world”. The new religious movements in Nigeria today do not help the matter as well with the Gospel of prosperity; Nigerians have developed “waiting for the manna and miracle” attitude. And as it is obvious, there is a great bond between religious worldview of a people and other social institutions in the society like politics and economy. The nature of people‟s spiritual disposition determines their attitude towards the material world, hence the implications of this religious colonisation are enormous economically, socially, spiritually and politically. With philosophical-analytical approach this paper sets out to extract and discuss those economic risks of religious colonization in Nigeria‟s society. The findings showed that it has brought about laziness, over-dependence on miracles and wonders as well as a wishful hope of better tomorrow without a supporting action and these factors are enemies of economic growth of any nation.</p> 2021-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 The impact of psycho- cultural effects on spousal abuse: Biblical antidote to the aftermath 2021-08-30T12:54:34+00:00 Steve Orseer Akullah Alo Franklin Chibuzor <p>Current statistical projections in Nigeria on population stands at 206,206,771(NPC 2020). Of these, females constitute 49.4% or 101,866,144, while males constitute 50.6% or 104.340,626. In Nigeria more than 90% of marriages are not registered. Few are however registered. In a few of such instances, the statistical figures of such registered marriages in the years spanning 2014-2016, in the Nigeria stood at 67,445, 64,453, and 59,504 respectively. One debilitating problem in Africa and indeed Nigeria in particular, is the nagging issue of social injustices and discrimination against married women which sometimes lead to divorce. Of the gamut of social injustices meted out to women, domestic violence stands out conspicuously. Social injustice manifests itself in many forms, such as sexual harassment, rape, sexual assault, and even murder. These problems have not been addressed frontally by the state in trying to mitigate them. In this paper, a general review of the present state of spousal abuse in an African sub-culture society like Nigeria is displayed. The work explores the negative effect of psychoanalytic theory on gender roles unduly imposed on women by African culture. Finally, it provides biblical antidote as a futuristic guide to stem the scourge of violence against women in Nigeria.</p> 2021-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 Strategic approaches to audience and audience research in managing Nigerian electronic media enclave 2021-08-30T13:33:49+00:00 Columba A. Apeh <p>The thrust of this research paper is to discover strategic approaches to audiences and audience research in managing Nigerian electronic media milieu. The communicative values and impact of research in the electronic media industries in Nigeria environment, the sources and types of audience research data utilized by global electronic media managers as compared to Europe and America as an example to emulate and main technology required in analyzing audience data. All establishments in the electronic media globally are involved in generation and maintainance of audiences. Radio, television, cables, satellite, telcos, and internet-based firms attract audience through different types of content. Advertisers gain access to this audience through the purchase of time and space.</p> 2021-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 The logic of language and the counterintutivenessof the logical tool of material implication 2021-08-30T13:40:40+00:00 S.A. Laleye <p>The article re-examines the age-long disparity between logic and ordinary everyday language and the possible relation between them. This is done against the backdrop of the modern advancement in logical principles particularly, the introduction of logical constants, the use of which results in paradoxes when juxtaposed with ordinary language in the description of some particular state of affairs, or real life situation. Specifically, the paper assesses one of the logical constants known as material implication, with the single intention of finding out its implication upon interpretation to ordinary language usage. In an attempt to reconcile the two languages, the paper indicates that logic and ordinary language exist in two different worlds, and hence, the former cannot be applied in the latter without passing certain difficulties to our common intuition. In doing this, the paper adopts a systematic theoretical discourse methodology that is reflective and analytic.</p> 2021-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0 The poverty of the forces of statism and democratism in addressing the Niger-Delta question in Nigeria 2021-08-30T13:44:56+00:00 Joseph N. Agbo <p>Many scholars have argued that one out of every six black humans (not just Africans) is a Nigerian. And there is a sense in which whatever happens in Nigeria reverberates across the world. This paper emerges against the backdrop of an uneasy feeling that if the country called “Nigeria” would survive, then the “Nigerian Question” can neither be fully understood nor genuinely addressed without a sincere and objective perception of developments in the oil- rich Niger Delta region. The paper argues that the violence in the Niger Delta has continued because of the fumbling attempt to solve it using the ever-coercive power of the state (statism). It further argues that democracy within the Nigerian state would only be meaningful (and useful in addressing the Niger Delta question) if it can downplay it‟s or stir individualist variant. Consequently, the ever brandished and colossal state power, has made democracy in Nigeria become Democratism-wherein democracy becomes an ideology, which treats historically derived and engage allegiances as anachronisms and, therefore as obstacles to the freedom of people in modern nation-state. Employing the historical, expository and analytic methods, the paper carries out an analysis of these two forces and posit that it is the major reason why the crises in Nigeria‟s Niger-Delta would continue to rage.</p> 2021-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 0