Sophia: An African Journal of Philosophy <p>The journal aims at publishing scholarly articles in any branch of philosophy and related disciplines. It shows a special interest in articles which encourage philosophising within the content of Africa, etc.</p><p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Notice from the journal:</strong></span></p><p>You are cordially invited for the 2016 RESEACHERS INTERNATIONAL NETWORK CONFERENCE. VENUE: UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, NIGERIA. DATE: 13th -15 OCTOBER, 2016. All papers and Abstracts should be submitted on or before 20th September, 2016 to Thanks. For more information contact Dr. Ekanem on +2348037269701, Patrick +2348032182251 or visit <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a>. </p><p> </p> University of Calabar en-US Sophia: An African Journal of Philosophy 1119-443X Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. Heidegger: through Husserl to phenomenological ontology <p>This paper, “Heidegger: Through Husserl to Phenomenological Ontology” is a critical exposition of Martin Heidegger‟s novel and permeating characterization of the relationship between phenomenology and Ontology. The paper‟s aim is to show that the problem of what Heidegger saw as the “Nihilism of Being” (the forgetfulness of Being) was solved when he demonstrated that only the phenomenological method can ensure an unhindered access to Ontology. Employing the historical, expository and critical methods, the paper shows how Heidegger‟s encounter with Brentano‟s 1862 Dissertation on Aristotle‟s manifold meanings of Being as well as Edmund Husserl‟s Ideas, became a watershed in the development of Heidegger‟s thinking. This development not only resulted in the emergence of phenomenological ontology as a tradition-breaking philosophy but equally ensured that Heidegger became the source of many disciplines and attitudes in scholarly research such as Existentialism, Postmodernism, Political Theory, Phenomenology, Hermeneutics, Community Theory, etc. The paper argues that Heidegger‟s refusal to accept the traditional view that ontology is a branch of metaphysics, but actually the main focus of philosophy, helped to restore philosophy to the unique and foundational place it occupied in the pre-Socratic period, during which phenomena were perceived in their phenomenality; that is, in their unmediatedness. The paper concludes by arguing that even when Heidegger dropped the use of the word “Phenomenology” he remained faithful to the presuppositionless attitude it represents.</p> Joseph N. Agbo Copyright (c) 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 18 2 1 16 Fundamental issues in the origin, structure and character of the Nigerian state: towards a framework for national unity <p>Apart from being the most universal and most supreme social institution, the state is also said to be necessary for the realization and fulfillment of the human essence. It follows, therefore, that the state must itself satisfy certain fundamental requirements in line with its ideals, notable among which is to promote the common good of its members. The Nigerian state is characterized by conditions that negate the ideals of a state. This work presents a template of an ideal state. Situating the Nigerian state in its proper historical context and adopting the social contract theory of the state as the dominant theoretical framework, this work examines the origin, nature and character of the Nigerian state. It identifies some fundamental anomalies in the mode of formation, governmental structure and institutional frameworks of the state. It recommends restructuring, social justice and massive democratization of the political space as necessary social conditions for national unity and progress.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Nigerian State, National Unity, Structure, Colonial, Ethnic Politics</p> AlubaBari Desmond Nbete Kialee Nyiayaana Copyright (c) 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 18 2 17 30 The relevance of Aristotle’s theory of friendship <p>The importance of friendship to human life, human development and preservation is indisputable in Aristotle‟s perspective. This lends credence to the preponderant consideration and analysis Aristotle gives in the discussion of the concept. Aristotle provides two major reasons why friendship is necessary for human, namely, the fact that friendship is virtue or implies virtue, and secondly, that friendship brings about happiness. Virtue and happiness are exclusively human phenomena. Happiness as it relates to friendship here is such that is based on the reciprocal feeling between friends who see the other not as a subservient tool of exploitation or as a self-instrument and means of self-aggrandizement, but as an alter ipsa, the other self whose welfare and of course interest is the object of the other friend. In other words, friendship is for its own sake and not as a means or instrument for self-actualization. On the basis of the above, this paper examines Aristotle‟s theory of friendship with a view to highlighting the nature, reason and importance of friendship in our time. The argument is that man has no alternative to being friendly because his very nature without friendship could render human life essentially meaningless and absurd. Friendship, the research argues, is an act of being human, and being human is irrational and hopelessly impossible without friendship. While drawing from Aristotle‟s understanding and analysis, the work opines that besides being natural, friendship is epistemological, anthropological, ethical and social.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Friendship, Human Development, Happiness, Virtue, Other-Self</p> Maraizu Elechi Copyright (c) 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 18 2 31 40 Feminist epistemology and the surge of indigenous knowledge: the case of African philosophy <p>In this paper I argue against the position that real truth or knowledge is the knowledge produced or created by “male folk‟‟ while the knowledge that springs from the feminist perspective is regarded as insignificant. Thus, women are seen as consumers of knowledge not producers or creators of knowledge even when they might have contributed to knowledge. It is also argued that women are not taken into account in the search for knowledge /truth and communicating the same in Africa because of the patriarchal nature of African Society. It is on this position that Feminism is centrally concerned with the question of epistemology since its inception. Feminist advocates and scholars have sought to challenge the basis and characteristics of epistemologies which posit a conception of “truth‟‟, which is essentially „reality‟, interpreted from a male perspective. Thus, the knowledge produced by „female folk‟ is regarded as epistemic closure of knowledge –a knowledge that is within small group (contextual) that cannot be accepted and communicated as universal knowledge. The problem is that the search for knowledge and the ability to communicate it by the feminist is neglected and sometimes knowledge/truth gotten from them is seen as irrational and unacceptable. I attempt to reevaluate this problem and to show how feminist epistemology has contributed to the growth of indigenous knowledge and political communication within African Society and the universe at large by using these models, namely: Epistemic Social Normative (ESN) and Epistemic Ethical Normative (EEN). Within the models there are some principles that display how feminism epistemology has contributed to the growth of indigenous knowledge and communication in African Society. The method here is argumentative and conversational.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Feminist Epistemology; Indigenous Knowledge African Philosophy; Normative Model</p> Chukwueoka S. Uduagwu Copyright (c) 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 18 2 41 48 Relevance of metaphysics in African philosophy <p>One pertinent question in African philosophy borders on what it is. There are scholars who are the view that it is simply love for/of wisdom. There are also those who opine that it is concerned with an inquiring into knowledge. There are still others who aver that it is the study of reality. Hence, African philosophy is seen as metaphysics. Contrary to this position, some see metaphysics as just an aspect of philosophy. This is also extended to the relationship between African metaphysics and African philosophy. But this paper seeks to go beyond this position. It argues that African philosophy is concerned with the study of reality and how they relate with one another. And that with this understanding of African philosophy one can easily equate it to African metaphysics which is simply the science of reality. Thus, the argument of this paper is that African philosophy is nothing but metaphysics and in particular African metaphysics. This paper will be expository in approach.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Metaphysics; African Philosophy; Ontological Psychological. Anthropological, Problem</p> Lawrence Odey Ojong Copyright (c) 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 18 2 49 60 An assessment of internal boundary crises in Nigeria: Cross River-Ebonyi boundary relations in perspective <p>This paper is designed to examine the impact of internal boundary conflicts on Nigerian federation with particular reference to the prevalent conflict between Ndiagu Amagu border community of Ebonyi state and Adadama in Cross River Sate. The sustained conflict is a serious discount on Nigerian federation, a principle adopted on the basis of its capacity to mediate inter-ethnic competitions and rivalries. The objective of the research is not only aimed at highlighting the impact of internal boundary conflicts on the Nigerian federation but to also draw the attention of Nigerian policy makers and researchers to the “neglect” of the boundary issues involving these two farming communities and states. The methodology adopted involved the use of both primary and secondary sources. Archival materials and oral interviews in the study areas make up the primary source. The secondary source had to do with published and unpublished works on the vexed issues of internal boundary conflicts. The research submits that, internal boundary conflicts between the two states have been moderated by incessant conflicts which have in turn led to destruction of properties and loss of lives. The affected areas have been denied development arising from insecurity. It therefore recommends further that, both state governments should adopt an imaginative policy option that would lead to peaceful settlement of the conflicts.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Federalism; Boundary; Conflicts; Cross River Ebonyi; Boundary Relations</p> Ibiang O. Okoi Copyright (c) 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 18 2 61 70 The crisis of meaning in the decidability-procedure of propositional calculus: a philosopher’s contribution to the debate “is logic empirical?” <p>The question: “Is logic Empirical” is an ongoing debate among logicians in recent times. Generally, the debate has taken two dimensions that can be regarded as different schools of thought. Whereas one of the schools responds affirmatively to this question, the other school toes the opposite direction. This paper also responds to this question, but focuses on propositional logic, which forms a basic part of the curriculum of logic as taught in many universities in Nigeria. This paper adopted a Reconstructionist approach that replaced alethic semantics with binary semantics and also assigned different meanings to the logical operators of Propositional Logic other than the ones found in many logic text-books used in Nigerian universities. The result of this bold but radical venture is that decidability in propositional Calculus preserves a mathematical meaning which is somewhat contrary to the empirical meaning preserved by many authors of logic-texts in Nigeria,. On the strength of this discovery, the paper submits that there is indeed a crisis of meaning in propositional calculus as the practice of testing for the validity of syntactic expressions, presumed to be symbolic representations of real arguments, is paradoxical to the principle of consistency.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Decidability, Propositional Calculus, Truth-Table</p> Dominic A. Effiong Copyright (c) 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 18 2 71 79 Religious conflicts and violence in Nigeria: the way out <p>Religious conflicts and violence are common in Nigeria. Conflicts have permeated various aspects of the nation‟s affairs, ranging from the political, economic, social to the cultural and spiritual. The violence that usually results from such conflicts has caused the loss of many lives and properties, heightened insecurity and hindered the progress and development of the country. In view of this, there is need to seek a way out of this quagmire. This paper is an attempt made in that direction. The paper highlights the meaning and causes of religious conflicts and violence; it examines some examples, their effects and then proposes some solutions as a way out.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Religion, Conflict, Violence, Nigeria</p> Offiong Offiong Asuquo Copyright (c) 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 18 2 80 83 The role of the church in conflicts management, peace building and development in Nigeria <p>This research is primarily centered on the Role of the Church in Conflicts Management. It examines the negative impact of conflicts occurrence in Nigeria and the role of the church in either curbing or managing conflicts. The work seeks to draw the attention of religious bodies like CAN and PFN, state policymakers and researchers to the “neglect” of conflicts affecting churches and the Nigerian nation. The historical methodology adopted for this research involved the use of both primary and secondary sources with the model of conflict management. Field survey and personal interviews used for the analysis of the paper constitute the primary sources. The secondary sources include published and unpublished works on the vexed issues of conflicts prevalence in Nigeria though it‟s evident that conflict in all human society is as old as the society itself constituting serious impediments that if not urgently attended to results in destruction of lives and property. The paper submits that, for peace building, the world‟s greatest need to be realized or achieved, there must be first an attitude of love and reconciliation where there is rancor and acrimony. That the church and her leaders in Nigeria have the potential to manage and resolve conflicts through their religious values and principles which involve, love, forgiveness, justice, peace and tolerance. That the only means of achieving this noble task is through dialogue, organizing seminars and workshops. It recommends that, the federal government should as a matter of urgency try as much as possible to resolve the lingering economic, social, political and security challenges in the country as peace and justice are not gained through the barrel of the gun but through dialogues, negotiations and persuasions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Church; Conflict Management; Peace Building; Development; Dialogue, Morality, Love</p> Ekpenyong Obo Ekpenyong Ibiang Obono Okoi Copyright (c) 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 18 2 84 94 Implications of Joseph Fletcher’s situation ethics for euthanasia <p>This work is an evaluation on the phenomenon of euthanasia from the standpoint of Joseph Fletcher‟s Situation Ethics. It primarily deals with the idea of the sacredness and dignity of human life in relation to euthanasia (the medical killing of a terminally ill person on grounds of compassion). The central problem here is whether human life has intrinsic value that should be unconditionally preserved? Arguing from the standpoint of deontological ethics, most opponents of euthanasia contend that human life is a supreme value with an inherent dignity. Human life is therefore perceived as sacred and inviolable. Contrary to this view, proponents of euthanasia approach the phenomenon from a humanistic and liberal perspective. They agree with the opponents of euthanasia that, human life is a supreme value with inherent dignity but go further to argue that, every human being is a mortal being with rationality, emotion and will, and as such, should not be compelled to undergo unnecessary prolonged dehumanizing suffering from terminal illness. This work sees both approaches of the opponents of euthanasia and the proponents as inadequate. In line with the principles of situation ethics, the work argues that, the morality or immorality of euthanasia is relative to certain situations. It also identifies certain situations like liver failure, brain damage, paralysis, comatose, kidney failure, cancer, critical accident, etc. that can justify the act of euthanasia situationally.</p> Lawrence Odey Ojong Copyright (c) 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 18 2 95 103 Christianity and the less privileged: the case of Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria <p>The church missionaries who instituted Christianity and the churches in Africa, Igboland in particular, came with their liberation theology of setting the captives, down trodden and less privileged free from their ordeal. For example, the missionaries that came to Ebonyi built all the famous hospitals except the Teaching Hospital. Any visitor entering Abakaliki for the first time will be shocked to see mad people (adult and teenagers alike) roaming the streets. Similarly, some old men and women, the sick and disabled, also roam hopelessly and dejectedly begging for alms to survive. Some youths and teenagers are out of school hawking anywhere that can offer them opportunity to sell their wares. This set of people is classified in this work as the less privileged. This paper seeks to identify the ordeal of the less privileged in Abakaliki for the purpose of reminding the church that when the strength to work fails, when life aspirations and ambitions are not fulfilled, in time of frustrations and hopelessness, where governments fail in their duties and obligations to the citizens, the Church should add value to life. The method applied in this study is sociological and qualitative, aimed at detecting the problem and proffering solutions. Two research groups (1 and 2) were formed and sent to a random sampling of Schools (Primary and Secondary) to ascertain the cost of school fees in government schools, private Schools and mission schools in Abakaliki as well as the amount paid as salaries to the teachers. The second group was assigned to social homes (motherless, old peoples‟ homes, psychiatrics, hospitals and internally displaced persons camp) to investigate if such homes exist in Abakaliki and if they exist, whether they are functional. Are they owned by private individuals, government or the church? What are the criteria for admitting people into such homes? Government schools are supposed to be free but 9 schools out of 10 charge N2, 500 while one charges N2, 000 as Parents‟ and Teachers‟ Association (PTA) levy per term. It is necessary that the church and CAN build social homes (psychiatrics, old peoples‟ home, motherless babies‟ home, internally displaced peoples‟ home), and so on, to remove the less privileged from the streets of Abakaliki.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Religion, Christianity, Less Privileged, Social Welfare, Education, Character, Moral Values</p> Patricia Ebere Nwazonobi Copyright (c) 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 18 2 104 118 An examination of the Dafur crisis and the role of United Nations and the African Union toward its resolution <p>It has been argued that most violent conflicts in Africa are over material resources, whether these resources are actual or perceived. The objective of this paper is to reexamine the complex social structures in Darfur, the history of the people, their ecology and geographical setting, economy, culture and socio-political affiliations. The objective is also to trace and bring to light the remote and immediate causes of the seemingly endless conflict which has claimed thousands of lives, destroyed property, caused hunger, epidemic and diseases, death and forceful migration of the people as refugees to neighbouring countries; and has been described as “the world‟s worst humanitarian crisis” or “genocide” by the United Nations and the United States. The paper argues that the Darfur crisis is not simply a humanitarian crisis, but an explosion of structural violence rooted in constant struggles for control of natural wealth and power between the Sudan‟s central government in Khartoum and its peripherals. The paper further argues that, not being highly developed and technically industrialized, African States are vulnerable; that the advanced nations of the world should always be quick in helping troubled African States in achieving peace rather than escalating the crisis or delaying the peace process. The methodology adopted is based on primary and secondary sources as well as internet sources, BBC news commentaries, reports from the UN and Security Council, and oral interviews at Sudan embassies in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Dafur Crisis, United Nations, African Union, Conflict Resolution, Sudan</p> Rowland A. Effiom Copyright (c) 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 18 2 119 136 From utopia to dystopia: a critical examination of one world government and its implications for human societies <p>The paper aims at a critical examination of the claims of one world government. We use the philosophical method of hermeneutics and Turabian documentation in the attempt to give a detailed and critical examination of the possibility of one world government. The paper studies the utopic assumptions of one world government, concept of one world government, variants of one world government such as globalization and liberal internationalism while using United Nations and European Union as models or foretaste of one world government. Similarly, the paper studies the challenges to one world government such as the premillennialist Christian claims regarding the end time antichrist, triumph of a particular individual, group or political interest, e.t.c. Our findings make it obvious that though state sovereignty or multilateral governance in the world faces terrible lack of trust, abuses and unmitigated corruption, one world government is not immune from these vices. Also, the proponents of one world government claim that the values of globalization and technological advancement make it convincing that one world government is possible. On this the paper argues that globalization and technological advancement are mere tools to support better life than a system of government. One of the strongest claims of one world government is that it would be a surge of diplomacy and honest broker of peace in a world ruined with chaos, corruption and impunity. The paper response to this is that one world government would be a failure on arrival minding the complexity of the human person and the undeniable regional differences in the world. The implication drawn from the study proves that one world government claim is a deception and denial of stark reality minding regional needs and governance. Hence after careful examination of one world government, the paper dissuades the quest for one world government as a practice of such would amount to total collapse of governance, order, security, active participation and economy.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Utopia, Dystopia, One World Government, Human, Societies</p> J. Chidozie Chukwuokolo Copyright (c) 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 18 2 137 146 Inadequate human/character formation as a bedrock of societal disorder: a critical discourse <p>In this paper, we argue that the concept of the human person can be explained from a descriptive and normative perspective and these conceptions aid the formation of the human person as both meanings help in the quest to achieve adequate and proper grooming of the person requisite for the establishment of a good human community. It further proffers a perspective on how to improve human values for better societies through effective application of those communal values (virtues) in the lives of our young ones by eliminating or transforming the demented acts of corruption from our socio-political and economic lives. This means that we can only achieve corporate personality from our modern individualistic society if we can eschew individualistic orientations and embrace communal lifestyle with its rich communal ethos of interdependence, synergy, cooperation, mutual aids, mutual confidence, belongingness which have implications for an adequate formation of the human being requisite for an orderly society. With this in mind we should help to groom our young ones through communal virtues and the concrete concept of a person inherent in our African thought system as such thoughts are very essential at this moment where the society is experiencing disorderliness in all spheres of the societal life to equip us with the proper norms and values that are to be internalized for the attainment of social order in human community which our communities in the 21<sup>st</sup> century are missing.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Human; Character Formation; Societal; Disorder; Transformation</p> J. Chidozie Chukwuokolo Copyright (c) 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 18 2 147 158 The prospects of philosophy graduates in a competitive global market <p>In an era of competitive global market where the crisis of relevance ranges fiercely, the question that agitates the mind of the beginning student of philosophy, given the very nature of philosophy is, can it be a source of livelihood after graduation? Sure, critics wonder where philosophy fits into the job market. The physician, lawyer, engineer, economist, banker, journalist, agriculturist, pharmacist, musician, artist or actor-each makes a living doing what his or her subject area says? But what about a philosopher? The paper argues that a training in philosophy fulfills the two basic goals of learning, namely, formative goal (self-development) and utilitarian goal (job placement). The paper goes further to identify possible areas through which one that studied philosophy could earn a living.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Philosophy, Graduates, Competitive, Global, Market</p> Andrew F. Uduigwomen Dominic A. Effiong Copyright (c) 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 18 2 159 164 The Idere-Ito agitation over limestone site: a study of resource competition and intra-ethnic relations in cross river state <p>This paper titled “The Idere-Ito Agitation over Limestone Site: A Study of Resource Competition and Intra-Ethnic Relations in Cross River State”, expatiated on the history of the Efik, the reason their Kingdom is grouped into 12 clans and their habitation at different locations within Cross River State. Using Idere and Ito communities of Cross River State as the study area, this research evolved on the premise that overtime, academic researches on ethnic agitations or conflicts were centred more on inter-ethnic. However, it was observed that another type of conflict – intra-ethnic conflict also exists but has received little attention by scholars within this axis. Oral interviews were conducted; where individuals from both communities provided relevant information, Government reports were utilised, books, newspaper publications, journal articles and the internet were also consulted. The paper adopted the Economic Theory of Conflict. The major postulation of the variance of this theory is that, conflicts occur because elites make gains out of conflicts to make profit and that poverty is the cause of conflicts. Findings showed that overtime, Idere and Ito had lived in close proximities, established a cordial relationship, inter-traded, inter-married, and so on, long before 2011. Data suggested that this relationship was, at often times, marred by disagreements and even violence, however, the discovery of commercial quantity of Limestone and the proposed Abia State Cement Company at Idere, brought agitations, resulting in indigene/settler dichotomy and upheavals. This paper concluded by reiterating the inevitability of conflicts and highlighted the lopsided settlement of this crisis as a shift of doom‟s day. It recommended a proper conflict management and peace education approach in resolving intra-ethnic agitations or conflicts in Africa.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Ethnic Agitation, Intra-Ethnic Conflict, Economic Theory of Conflict</p> Godspower Andrew Uduigwomen Copyright (c) 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 18 2 165 176