Sophia: An African Journal of Philosophy <p>The journal aims at publishing scholarly articles in any branch of philosophy and related disciplines. It shows a special interest in articles which encourage philosophising within the content of Africa, etc.</p><p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Notice from the journal:</strong></span></p><p>You are cordially invited for the 2016 RESEACHERS INTERNATIONAL NETWORK CONFERENCE. VENUE: UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, NIGERIA. DATE: 13th -15 OCTOBER, 2016. All papers and Abstracts should be submitted on or before 20th September, 2016 to Thanks. For more information contact Dr. Ekanem on +2348037269701, Patrick +2348032182251 or visit <a title="" href="" target="_blank"></a>. </p><p> </p> en-US Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. (Dr. Andrew F. Uduigwomen) (Dr. G. O. Ozumba) Thu, 14 Mar 2024 09:32:51 +0000 OJS 60 The African Refugee Crisis: The Need for Preventive Diplomacy <p>The rapid and sustained increase in the refugees, numerical strength vis a vis the mandate of the United Nations High Commission for Refugee (UNHCR), has continued to steer the imagination of scholars and observers. The liberal theoretical approach has been adopted&nbsp; because of its humanistic bent to examine the refugee crisis in Africa. It also employed the inter-disciplinary methods with data from&nbsp; secondary sources. It was found that dealing with the root causes of the refugee problem was not the mandate of the UNHCR, rather, the&nbsp; commission’s mandate was to cater for their welfare. Secondly, the UN refugee regime was not to seek a durable solution to the&nbsp; refugee crisis in Africa. The proliferation of conflicts on the continent resulting from state failure is a major source of the refugee problem. The paper recommended dealing with state failure through preventive diplomacy, as the panacea to the refugee problem.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Frank N. Enor, Boypa O. Egbe , Jude O. Ngaji Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 14 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Communal Clashes as A Bane of Nation Building in Nigeria - A Study of Cross River State, 1987 - 2019 <p>Communal clashes have been recurrent and devastating within and between states in Nigeria since amalgamation. These hostilities&nbsp; resulting in open clashes have been caused by several issues among which are the struggle for land and natural resources. The clashes&nbsp; have inadvertently and greatly slowed down the process of nation building in Nigeria. This is because various communities striving to&nbsp; protect their economic, social and ethnic interest constantly fight with themselves within the state and with their neighbours in other&nbsp; states as the clashes occurred. Using Cross River State as the focus, this paper seeks to highlight the clashes caused by the struggle for&nbsp; land and other scares natural resources and examine the consequences of these clashes onnation building in Nigeria. The research methodology adopted for this discuss is the historical analytical method of qualitative research, while the grass root theory of conflict&nbsp; was used in the analysis of the events. The study therefore concludes that, these clashes over the years have served to polarize the&nbsp; communities rather than integrate them for the purpose of nation building in Nigeria.</p> Ekwutosi E. Offiong, Inyang E. Bassey, Eyo I. Eyo Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 14 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Historicising Superimposed (Artificial) Boundaries and National Security: Focus On Nigeria’s Eastern Borderlands <p>This paper examines the dynamism of artificial boundaries as creations of physical spaces by the 1884/1885 Berlin West African&nbsp; Conference which has given rise to an atmosphere of insecurities, threats and instability of Nigeria’s eastern international boundary,&nbsp; thereby making that region a harbinger of conflict and threats to peace and national security. It argues the complexity of colonial&nbsp; demarcation (physical and ideological) of the boundaries and the seemingly intransigent immigration controls, which physically prevents&nbsp; the inhabitants who were hitherto a united people from crossing the boundaries. The scenario bears its origin from the colonial era and&nbsp; slots into the post-colonial independence nation-building which has become a vortex of insecurity. Although boundary-related conflicts&nbsp; have been driven by inter-state contests, the poorly demarcated international boundary still serve as a sanctuary for criminals and terrorists as well as conduits through which cross border crimes spill across the border region. The paper concludes that proper&nbsp; management policies and control of the boundaries are not only a prerequisite for achieving peace and security on the borderlands. This&nbsp; could be achieved through implementing strategies, legal frameworks with links to regional and multilateral security architecture as a&nbsp; catalyst for socio-economic development of the border region.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Osmond Agbor Otora, Udida Albert Undiyuandeye Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 14 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Agony of Nigeria’s Children: The Bane of Nigeria’s Development <p>No religion thrives without the family and the continuity of a family depends on the children. Religious training and recreational activities&nbsp; are available outside the home, although both still have a place in family life. So, human development is an essential key to national&nbsp; development. Also, bane refers to something that causes ruin and misery in an individual's or society's life. Africa is suffering today&nbsp; because they have not developed their human resources to make use of nature-given gifts to better the lives of Africans. They are&nbsp; malnourished and sexually abused, subjected to physical torture, mindless aggression and battery emotional abuse, subjugation and&nbsp; suppression. Nigeria’s leadership at all levels has not realized the effect of early childhood development is the most important of all&nbsp; stages of life to save Nigerian children from several agonies. They also experience harmful cultural practices and obnoxious religious&nbsp; rituals. This paper adopts qualitative and sociological analysis to assess the impacts of these agonies on Nigerian children's national&nbsp; development. Findings show that many of Nigeria’s children are not developing properly and unless they are taken seriously, Nigeria's&nbsp; development will continue to be a mirage. It further suggests sound human development policies and their serious implementations as a&nbsp; way toward meaningful development in Nigeria. Natural and human resources are two basic factors and tools for the development of&nbsp; any nation. Taking it that natural resources are natural gifts, it is either a people have them or they do not have them; but human resources though a gift from God, yet man is a procreator. The only function of the family that continues to survive all changes is the&nbsp; provision of affection and emotional support by and to all its members, particularly infants and young children.&nbsp;</p> Ebere Nwazonobi, Victor Chinedu Ogbozor Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 14 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Inter-Cultural Philosophy as A Panacea to Africa’s Development Predicament: A Critical Exposition <p>Africa’s development crisis has become critically worrisome to academic pundits. Among the regions of the world, Africa appears to be at&nbsp; the tail of development trends. Even regions hitherto classified with Africa as the third world have left Africa to bear the toga alone. Just&nbsp; as opinions differ as to the root cause of the anomaly, so do they vary with regard to the way out. While many point accusing finger at&nbsp; westernization and its concomitant imperialism and urge Africa to look inwards for the panacea to her development predicament, others&nbsp; insist that Africa must follow the course of West to modernize and develop. After a critical expository analysis of the situation, this write&nbsp; up favours a third course which entails rejection of both total westernization (not modernization) in order to develop and the idea that&nbsp; African worldview alone can lead her out of the wilderness of underdevelopment. This third course holds that only intercourse of&nbsp; ideologies across cultures (Western culture not excluded) that can save the situation. This is where inter-cultural philosophy comes in.&nbsp; Therefore, the solution to the problem of development in Africa can only be solved by deliberately planned and executed intercourse of&nbsp; intercultural ideologies that will serve to overhaul African world-view and reposition it for 21st century world.&nbsp;</p> Stephen Chijioke Nwinya Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 14 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Revisiting the Role of Women in the Church as the Extended Family of God <p>The Catholic Church is the only Church that has no woman in the hierarchy. The Church maintains the culture-based position that Christ&nbsp; did not ordained women priests. They ignore the fact that Christ had women apostles like Mary Magdalene whom the Church calls&nbsp; “apostola apostolorum” (an apostle sent to the apostles.) The work wonders why is this seeming contradictory position upheld by the&nbsp; Church? Why does the Church appear to be ignorant of the immeasurable contributions and roles of women in other churches and in the&nbsp; modern society? This work seeks to highlight the need for the ordination of women into the catholic hierarchy, which is based on the&nbsp; Imago Dei, the Image of God in women (Gen 1:26-27), and “oneness of all in Christ” (Gal 3:28). It uses qualitative research method that is&nbsp; based on non-numerical data analyses, which allows us the use of Internet facilities, Library, and opinions and feelings of theologians. It&nbsp; found out that the exclusion of women in the Church hierarchy is sexism. It rejects chauvinism; but recommends the ordination of&nbsp; women based on numerous roles and contributions women make in the Church and the society.</p> Donatus Oluwa Chukwu, Joseph Monday Orji , Stephen Chijioke Nwinya Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 14 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Aristotle’s Moral Philosophy and the Quest for Moral Renaissance in Nigeria’s Education System <p>One major essence of education as the acquisition and utilization of knowledge is the impartation of moral values. The school system&nbsp; should be a formidable ground for the sowing, breeding and germination of virtues in the students through the teachings and examples&nbsp; shown by the teachers and others who are involved in teaching and learning. To this extent, the public should have high hopes in the&nbsp; education system, where parents and guardians will have the confidence to send their wards for proper teaching and learning. Aristotle&nbsp; noted that moral virtues should be the main focus of education, whereby people are taught the best ways to exercise moral excellence&nbsp; and excellence requires the personal virtues of honesty, truthfulness, courage, temperance, generosity, and highmindedness. Education&nbsp; as an activity, according to Aristotle, is aimed at acquiring moral virtues. However, the Nigerian education system has been challenged by&nbsp; lack of moral virtue which has necessitated a trust deficit in the system. Since it is important that actions are taken to address this moral&nbsp; challenge, this work is aimed at moral renaissance, using Aristotle’s moral philosophy as an intellectual foundation. In order to achieve&nbsp; this aim, this work employs the method of critical interrogation and evaluation of Aristotle’s moral education, putting Nigerian education system in focus. In the final analysis, this study recommends that Nigeria’s education system is in need of a moral renaissance which&nbsp; could be founded on Aristotle’s middle line moral philosophy and the Nigerian indigenous, not exogenous territorial waters.&nbsp;</p> Benson Peter Irabor, Godwin Azenabor Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 14 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Mythological Foundations of Philosophy: A Critical Response <p>This critical response to the mythological foundations of philosophy focuses on the relationship between mythology and philosophy with particular reference to Africa and the West. Some Western scholars like Martins holds that mythology domiciles in the West; and if at all&nbsp; Africa has philosophy, it did not arise from any mythological foundation. This study will prove such a position unfounded; because long&nbsp; before African philosophy began, Africans have had their mythology attributing almost everything about them to the gods, who were&nbsp; according to them, influential in human affairs right from creation. Similarly, philosophy is not an exclusive inheritance of the Western&nbsp; world, as Jones argues, but a patrimony of the entire humanity. And so, I strongly argue that mythology is the basic foundation upon&nbsp; which philosophy develops not only in the West, but also in Africa. Though the concern of this research is neither to give an exhaustive&nbsp; analysis of mythological foundations of philosophy in Africa nor in the Western, it attempts to showing the inevitability of mythology in&nbsp; philosophical discourse across diverse ages and cultures. It is the contention of this work that every people and culture have their own mythology upon which their world view is critiqued, enlightened, made critical, and developed into philosophy. Mythology serves as a&nbsp; launch pad or instrumentum laboris philosophicum, and any attempt to deliberately deny any culture of mythology and philosophy is&nbsp; considered in this research as epistemic injustice. Analytic, conceptual, contextual, historical, and textual methods of inquiry were&nbsp; adopted in this discourse.&nbsp;</p> Elias Ifeanyi E. Uzoigwe Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 14 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A Critical Exposition of the Politics of Merit and Representativeness in United States of America and Nigeria <p>The phenomena of merit system and representativeness are taken to be the basic features of developed United States of America and&nbsp; developing state of Nigeria. As such countries claim to be federal and democratic in operation, they as well claim to be more efficient and&nbsp; effective in administrative system that is characterized by the principles and or instruments of merit system and representativeness&nbsp; among others. A critical portrayal has shown that there is politics on the merit system and representativeness in respect of public&nbsp; personnel administrations in United States of America (USA) and in Nigeria. Though most Americans claim that their public service is&nbsp; highly democratic and therefore representative. This, Nigerians tend to be imitating. It is the critical position of this writing that despite&nbsp; their claims, there are elements of discrimination with regards to sex, race and educational backgrounds. Taking all in all there is politics&nbsp; of merit and representativeness in USA and Nigeria. There are the elements of partisanship and patronage in the degree of merit of&nbsp; recruitment of public bureaucrats and also in the degree of representation of the various sects and strata of the society that determine&nbsp; the extent to which the society is developed periodically and democratically. Though, it is more pronounced in the Nigerian system.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Macaulay A. Kanu Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 14 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A Philosophical Analysis of Socratic Dictum “Man Know Thyself” And It’s Impact on Man and the Society <p>This paper seeks to underscore the fact that Socratic call for self-knowledge and awareness is replete in his dictum of "man know&nbsp; thyself". As exemplified by Socrates the issue of self-knowledge is crucial to whatever proceeds out of man. It is imperative to understand&nbsp; that Socrates considers himself a midwife who is involved in the birth of ideas. In his theory of knowledge, Socrates taught&nbsp; that he does not have answers to give but only helps others to discover knowledge from within themselves. This analogy that is used by&nbsp; Socrates implies that knowledge resides in an individual which also corresponds with the theory of innatism as propounded by the rationalists. This “knowing of self” is a life examination.. The paper revolves around the following questions, what is the extent of&nbsp; selfknowledge? Is this Socrates. assertion "Man know thyself" all about a person? Is this knowledge of the self wholly physical or&nbsp; metaphysical or is it a combination of both the physical, epistemological, metaphysical, ethical and social? What actually is the benefit of&nbsp; this self-knowledge? This work contends that, self-knowledge is the foundation to individual and societal growth. Self-knowledge creates&nbsp; a platform where people will without hesitation or resistance of any kind be completely aware of their personality to enhance moral and&nbsp; mutual co-existence. Using the method of critical analysis, this paper concludes that self-examination which leads to self-discovery is&nbsp; imperative in liberating an individual and the society from epistemic ignorance or naivety.&nbsp;</p> Gabriel Akwaji Agabi, Ogar Anthony Ogar, Onah Elias Ekwok Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 14 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Epistemological Reflections on the Existential and Ontological Implications of Governance and Conflicts in Nigeria <p>It is cognitive that armed conflicts and all the politically motivated forms of violence arising from ethnic-serving economic, political and&nbsp; religious positions, interests and ideologies constitute security threats to democratic governance in Nigeria. What are the motives, nature&nbsp; and cost of political actions and the interests to grabbing political power? Governance that is constitutionally driven. These are&nbsp; basic and existentially constitutive of the essence of the human person. The constitution imposes certain obligations on the State towards&nbsp; the citizens. This include protection of lives and property, by equitable distribution of State resources, administration of justice&nbsp; and equity. To the extent that a government discharges these reflects its quality of governance. If man is social by nature, and in&nbsp; observance of the law of the land relinquished rights to self-protection of lives and property and a government is place, how then do we&nbsp; understand and account for conflicts among citizens of a polarized political society? Using a quasi hermeneutic and expository methods&nbsp; the paper brings reflective insights to bear upon the ugly association of governance in conflicts in Nigeria. It reveals an aporia, an&nbsp; epistemological illusion of consciousness of our historical experiences. It posits that the hitherto persistent state of insecurity in Nigeria is&nbsp; a direct indictment on most successive governments who were concerned with panel beaten interpretation of the constitution for&nbsp; sectional interests and self-aggrandizement. However, it is believed that present constitutional provisions no matter how „bad. it is can&nbsp; drive for good governance if only there is the good will to do so.&nbsp;</p> Albert O. M. Ogoko Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 14 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000