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Use of Electrically Heated Metal Catalytic Converter in Cold Starting To Reduce Automotive Emissions

X Charles, SC Parta, KS Nallusamy

Abstract


The environmental degradation all over the world has led the researchers to work towards the development of Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) and Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV). Automobile vehicles emit substantial quantities of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter. These pollutants have significant adverse health effects and deteriorate environmental quality. To address the serious pollution  problems posed by vehicles, growing number of countries worldwide? Catalytic converters have implemented that in motor vehicle pollution control programs aimed substantially reducing harmful emissions from spark ignited vehicles. Catalytic exhaust controls have been developed as a result of these regulations and are generally recognized to be the most cost—effective way to meet stringent emission standards. The catalytic converter does a great job at reducing the pollution, but it can still be improved substantially. One of its biggest shortcomings is that it only works at a fairly high temperature. When car start at cold, the catalytic converter does almost nothing to reduce the pollution from exhaust. Preheating the catalytic converter is a good way to reduce emissions. The easiest way to preheat the converter is to use electric resistance heaters. The electrical systems on most cars provide enough energy or power to heat the catalytic converter fast enough. So, in this research the main converter remains its usual position, whereas the heated catalyst is placed close to the exhaust manifold. The EHMC quickly reaches high temperature levels due to the heat supply from external source, sensible heat of the exhaust and the heat generated by the exothermic oxidation. This in turn helps the faster light off of the main converter.



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