Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal 2018-04-23T11:30:41+00:00 Dr HL Raghavendra Open Journal Systems <p>This Journal publishes original research work&nbsp; (including theoretical/conceptual, empirical and critical studies), review articles, Debates, Teaching Cases, Invited articles, conference reports, short communications, case report, Ethics Forum, Education contribute significantly to further the scientific&nbsp; knowledge related to the field of Science, Technology and Arts.</p> <p><em>STAR Journal</em> hopes that researchers, research&nbsp; scholars, academicians, industrialists publication for the development in the field of Science, Technology and Arts.</p> <p>Other websites related to this journal: <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Effects of Blended Fertilizer Rate and Time of Application on Growth and Yield of Sugarcane Ratoon Crop at Arjo-Sugar Factory, Western Ethiopia 2018-04-23T11:30:17+00:00 Dereje Legesse Hirpa Legesse Negash Geleta Lack of appropriate agronomic practices related to fertilizer management is a major constraint to enhancing sugarcane yield in Ethiopia. The effect of optimum rate and time of blended fertilizer application on yield and quality of ratoon commercial crop is not known at Arjo Didessa Sugar factory. Therefore, the field experiments were conducted with the objectives of assessing the effect of blended fertilizer at different rate and time of application on Ratoon sugarcane growth and yield of cane. The treatments consisted of eight levels of blended fertilizer with N (0, 150, 111N, 200 and 103N, 250 and 94N, 300 and 85N, 350 and 76.4N, 400 and 68N kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and recommended fertilizer rate) and two times of application (one and two month after harvest). The field experiments were laid out as Randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement and replicated three times. A sugarcane cultivar named N-14 was used as a ratoon material. Analysis of variance of the data revealed that the blended fertilizer application rate had significant effect on ratoon weight per stalk, node number, plant height, node length and cane yield sugar yield. Blended fertilizer rate and time of application and their interaction showed only highly significant on stalk girth and stalk population and interaction was significant effect on weight per stalk and node length at the time of harvest. However, application of blended fertilizer at different time and their interaction on plant height, cane yield and node number did not showed significant effect. Blended fertilizer treatment with the rate of 250kg ha<sup>-1</sup> blended fertilizer mixed with 94kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> at one month after harvest resulted in higher ratoon cane weight per stalk, stalk girth, cane yield, sugar yield, node length, stalk population and node number. Therefore, highest cane yield was recorded at late application time of blended fertilizer at lower dose and higher dose of nitrogen. Therefore, treating the ratoon cane by 250kg ha<sup>-1</sup> BLF with 94kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> at one month after harvest had evidently the advantage of improving ratoon cane growth and yield performance 2018-04-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Response of bread wheat (<i>Tritcum aestivum L.</i>) to nitrogen after major leguminous crops rotation in Tigray, northern Ethiopia 2018-04-23T11:30:19+00:00 Bereket Haileselassie Sofonyas Dargie Mehretab Haileselassie Fisseha Hadgu Medhn Berhane Crop rotation is a common practice in the study area, but there is no enough information on the specific rate of nitrogen to be applied after legumes for wheat production. Hence, on farm field experiments were conducted to determine the amount of nitrogen fertilizer rates needed for bread wheat after chick pea, grass pea, fababean and field pea precursor crops. The field experiments were conducted during 2014 main cropping season at Hawzien after chick pea and grass pea and at Emba Alaje after fababean and field pea precursor crops. The experiment consists of six nitrogen rates (0, 11.5, 23, 34.5, 46 and 69 kg Nha<sup>-1</sup>) laid in a RCBD with three replications. Phosphorus, sulfur and potassium fertilizers were also applied as basal for all plots at sowing. Surface soil samples were collected before planting and analyzed for selected soil properties. Soil analysis result of the experimental sites revealed that total nitrogen content (%) of the soil after chickpea-wheat (0.0695), grass pea-wheat (0.067), fababean-wheat (0.074) crop rotation were categorized under low range and after field pea-wheat (0.102) under medium range. Application of nitrogen had significantly increased grain and straw yield at Hawzien district after chick pea and grass pea precursor crops. At Emba-Alaje the highest grain yield was recorded on plots treated with 69 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> (6242 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). Grain and straw yields of wheat increased up to a rate of 46 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> after fababean at Emba-Alaje district. There is no significant difference in grain and straw yields of wheat due to application of nitrogen after field pea crop rotation. In Hawzien the highest agronomic efficiency after chick pea and grass pea was recorded from plots treated with 46 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> and 34.5 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. In Emba Alaje the highest agronomic efficiency after faba bean and field pea was recorded from plots treated with 11.5 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> and 23 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> , respectively. At Hawzien, the partial budget analysis revealed that application of 46 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> for bread wheat after chick pea and grass pea was economical with 1545% and 796 % marginal rate of return, respectively. At Emba Alaje, the partial budget analysis revealed that application of 34.5 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> for bread wheat after fababean was economical with 895% marginal rate of return. It could be concluded that application rate of N for wheat after leguminous crops should consider initial soil N and precursor crop. 2018-04-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Soil quality attributes induced by land use changes in the Fincha’a watershed, Nile Basin of western Ethiopia 2018-04-23T11:30:20+00:00 Getahun Kitila Heluf Gebrekidan Tena Alamrew <p>The success of soil management to maintain soil quality depends on an understanding of how soils respond to land use and practices over time. As a result, the important soil quality indicators were investigated under two land use systems to provide base line data for future research in the Fincha’a Valley Sugar Estate (FVSE), within the Nile basin of Western Ethiopia. The evidences provided by this study indicated that land use changes caused changes on soil bulk density (ρb), soil water content, Particle size distribution (sand, silt and clay), soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soil organic matter (SOM), total N, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N) and available phosphorous (Av. P). The study revealed that soil organic matter (SOM), sand content and total N decreased with increase in soil depth. While bulk density (ρb), EC and clay content increased with soil depth. Particle size distribution (sand, silt, and clay) varied with land use, soil depth and soil type. Particle size distribution was changed from Sandy clay to clay due to land use change. Bulk density (ρb), EC, soil organic matter (SOM) and C:N varied significantly (P&lt;0.01, P&lt;0.05), respectively, with land use and soil depth. Land use changes caused bulk density (ρb) to be increased. The study indicated that soil pH was higher in irrigated land than the un irrigated land. This attributed to the transportation of soluble cations from the upstream to the downstream irrigated land by water soil erosion. The different soil fertility management practices also contributed to the variation. On the other hands, soil organic matter (SOM) and total N were lower in irrigated land. Relatively, the lower soil organic matter (SOM) and total N contents in irrigated land attributed to the optimum soil moisture content throughout the year that created favorable environmental condition for SOM decomposition. The study also revealed that soil management groups and soil water holding capacity at field capacity and permanent wilting point were affected by irrigation (land use).It was identified more than 50% of the soil quality indicators increased with depth. This might be the influence of irrigation water in accelerating leaching process. The main degradation process overcome the study area was waterlogging and soil compaction. The irrigation development in the area requires improved drainage network and proper land management. Therefore, reducing the intensive mechanized tillage practices and use of integrated inorganic and organic fertilizers could replenish the degraded soil quality for sustainable agricultural production in the study area. It is therefore, suggested that appropriate and integrated land management options for different land use systems together with identification of soil management groups and water retention characteristic curves are required to sustain agricultural productivity while protecting the environmental degradation.</p><p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Soil Quality Land Use Soil Type Environment Sugarcane Land Management Fincha’a Valley Western Ethiopia Fertilizers</p> 2018-04-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effects of different proportions of dried cafeteria leftover inclusion in a concentrate mix on performance of growing pigs 2018-04-23T11:30:22+00:00 Tesfaye Amene Mengistu Urge Mitiku Eshetu Diriba Diba <p>An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of dried Cafeteria leftover (DCLO) at various levels in concentrate mix (CM) on feed intake, digestibility, average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass characteristics, and economic benefits of weaned pigs at Haramaya university piggery. Twenty Yorkshire pigs with initial live weight of 19.89±0.297kg (mean±SE) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized block design each with five replicates. The experimental rations were sole CM (mixture of maize grain, wheat short, wheat bran, noug seed cake, soybean mill, vitamin premix and salt), replacement of the concentrate with DCLO at different proportions as (33%CM and 67% DCLO; 67% CM and 33% DCLO) and feeding with only sole DCLO. The mean feed intake ranged 1.6-1.82kg/day and ADG was 0.4-0.64kg/day. The least feed intake was for sole DCLO (P&lt;0.05) and the highest for 67% CM:33%DCLO. The FCR (w/w) was lowest (P&lt;0.05) for pigs fed 33% DCLO diet, and pigs fed 67% DCLO:33%CM achieved highest FCR. Crude protein digestibility did not differ between treatments, but DM, EE and CF digestibility increased with increasing level of DCLO in the diets. The mean carcass weight (43.7kg-57.02kg) was highest in 67% CM but lowest in sole DCLO. Back fat thickness (2.4cm-3.2cm (SEM=±0.03)) was lowest in sole CM but highest in sole DCLO. The highest and lowest (P&lt;0.05) rib eye area (23.9 cm2-31.9cm2 (SEM=±0.81)) were recorded for sole CM and sole DCLO, respectively. Cost of feed per kg weight gain was declined significantly (P&lt;0.01) with increasing level of DCLO. Despite the lower production cost of sole DCLO groups, the pigs showed lower performance and this must have contributed to lowest net return of the groups. Thus, it is concluded that DCLO can replace the conventional concentrate mix up to 67% without adverse effect on pig performance.</p><p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Carcass Digestibility Live Weight Gain Nutritive Value Profitability</p> 2018-04-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effects of Urea-Molasses Multi-nutrient Blocks (UMMB) supplementation on some production parameters of lactating Horro cows at Horro Guduru Animal Production and Research Center, western Ethiopia 2018-04-23T11:30:24+00:00 Dereje Duressa Temesegen Bersissa <p>The effects of dietary supplementation of urea-molasses multi nutrient block of lactating Horro cows fed Rhodes grass (chloris gayana) hay as a basal diet on milk yield, milk composition, feed intake and live weight change was studied on-station (at Horro Guduru Animal Production and Research Center of Wollega University). Sixteen cows in similar parity and lactation were randomly assigned to two groups: group A (control) and group B (UMMB-supplemented). The control group received baled Rhodes grass hay as a basal diet and small amount of concentrate; whereas the supplemented group (B) received UMMB in addition to the normal ration offered to the control group. The experiment was conducted for 60 days during the dry months. Mean daily milk yield and feed intake were higher in the cows supplemented with UMMB (P&lt;0.01) compared to the un-supplemented group. The average milk yield for control and supplemented groups are 1.62 and 2.38 respectively. On the other hands no significant differences were observed among the supplemented and control group for milk composition and body weight gain (P&gt;0.05). However the body weight gain is slightly better for the supplemented group. The increased milk production due to UMMB supplementation in this study could be attributed to the increased intakes of energy and nitrogen that was accessed through block supplementation.</p><p><strong>Keyword</strong>: UMMB Rhodes grass Milk yield Feed intake</p> 2018-04-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Feed intake, milk yield and composition, and profitability of Horro Cows fed Rhodes grass hay supplemented with <i>Ficus sur</i> (Cv. Forssk) fruits 2018-04-23T11:30:25+00:00 Diribe Kumsa Mitiku Eshetu Diriba Diba <p>An experiment was conducted in Horro Guduru Wollega Zone, at Guduru Animal Production and Research Center (GAPRC) of Wollega University to evaluate the effect of <em>Ficus sur</em> (Cv. Forssk) fruits (FSF) supplementation on feed intake, milk yield, composition and profitability of Horro cows. Twelve healthy lactating Horro cows of similar lactation stage, body weight and condition were selected from GAPRC. All of the selected cows were in early (one weak to 10days) lactation stage. The experiment had three treatments with four replications arranged in a randomized complete block design to which 2-5 parities were used as blocking factor, and three cows were used per parity. The treatments were: T1, Rhodes grass hay +1.7kg Oat grain +0.8kg Noug seed cake, T2, Rhodes grass hay +0.56kg Noug seed cake+0.97kg oat grain +0.97kg FSF and T3, Rhodes grass hay +0.8kg Noug seed cake+ 1.7kg FSF. The experiment was conducted for 60 days, including 15 days of adaptation. Except for crude protein intake, there were significant (P&lt;0.05) differences in total dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber intakes among treatment groups. Milk yields were increased with increase in levels of FSF in the diets. Except Lactose content, the compositions of milk were significantly differed (P&lt;0.05) among treatment groups. Milk fat was highest for cows fed T1 diet. Supplementation of FSF was more profitable than those supplemented with oats grain (OG). In conclusion, supplementation of Horro cows with different proportion of FSF and OG maintained on basal diet of Rhodes grass hay has increased feed intake, milk yield and milk composition of dairy products. Due to high cost of agro industrial by products and cereal grains, it is advantageous to use FSF as supplement to improve milk production and composition, and profitability of Horro cows. Since FSF is promising energy supplement, further research is suggested to study the propagation and management of <em>Ficus sur</em> trees and estimation of their fruit yields.</p><p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Feed intake <em>Ficus sur</em> Milk yield Composition Horro cows</p> 2018-04-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Study on gastro intestinal parasite of cattle at Horoguduru Animal Production and Research Center of Wollega University, Oromia, Ethiopia 2018-04-23T11:30:26+00:00 Belay Beyene <p>Cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastro intestinal parasite and protozoan emeria, to determine the common risk factor and to identify the commonly existing parasitic eggs at Horoguduru animal production and research center of Wollega University. To determine the sample size, an expected prevalence of 50% was taken into consideration since there was no research work on gastro intestinal parasitic eggs at the center. 384 animals’ fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of cattle into a universal bottle containing 10% formalin and transported to the laboratory for examination. Carpological examination was done at Wollega University Shambu campus animal science and, food and nutrition department. Coprological examinations were made within 12 hours after sample collection. Eggs of nematode, cestode and trimatodes were identified. In this study egg of <em>paramphistomum, fasciola, haemonchus, strongylus</em> and <em>monezia</em> are the commonly identified eggs by floatation and sedimentation techniques. Sedimentation technique was used to detect the presence of fluke eggs in the fecal samples. The result showed that the overall prevalence of gastro intestinal parasite is 133/384 (34.6%).The result showed that the prevalence were 27.8% in young age group, 40% in adult age group and 35.4% in old age group. The result also reported that the prevalence of the parasite was 48/86(55.81%) in cross breed and 85/298(28.5%) in local breed. The study depicted that the prevalence of the parasitic egg are 88/219(40.18%) in female animals and 45/165 (27.27%) in male animals. In this study from the total of 134 infected animals 85/134(63%) were infected by single infection and49/134 (36.57%) were infected at least with two different genera of gastro intestinal and protozoan parasites. The prevalence of eggs of each single infection were <em>Paramphistomum</em> 27/85(31.76%), <em>Fasciola</em> 17/85(20%), <em>Ascaris</em> 15/85(17.95%), Monezia 9/85(10.59%), <em>Tricuris</em> 7/85(8.24%), Strongyloid types 6/85(7.06%), <em>Haemonchus</em> 2/85(2.53%), and 1/85(1.18%) of <em>Nematodurous</em> and <em>Emeria</em> It also showed that from the total of multiple infections 9/49(18.36%) was infected with three types of parasitic genera and 40/49 (81.63%) were infected with two different genera. In conclusion separate grazing land for young animals (calves), separate Water and feed trough for different age category and risk factors based strategic deworming were recommended.</p><p><strong><br /></strong></p><p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Gastro intestinal parasite Carpological examination Prevalence Protozoan emeria Fecal samples</p> 2018-04-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Developing empirical relationship between interrill erosion, rainfall intensity, slope gradient and soil types in highlands of Salale, Ethiopia 2018-04-23T11:30:28+00:00 Habtamu Adenew Weletu <p>In order to develop an empirical relationship for interrill erosion based on rainfall intensity, slope steepness and soil types, an interrill erosion experiment was conducted using laboratory rainfall simulator on three soil types (Vertisols, Cambisols and Leptosols) for the highlands of North Shewa Zone of Oromia Region. From simulation work done using 450 x 320 x 100 mm erosion test pan; splashed soils, runoff and washed soils were collected at 5 minute interval for each 15 minutes simulation run at various combinations of design rainfall intensities of 25.67, 52.14, 73.50, and 99.20 mmhr-1, slope steepness of 5, 20, 35, and 50% and the three soil types. Runoff rate, splash and wash loss were measured to obtain a total soil loss from the test pan. Different models relating interrill erosion with rainfall intensity and runoff rate were considered and their coefficients and parameters were estimated. From the models, those with highest prediction potential (R2) were selected to be incorporated into models consisting soil properties and used to form six basic models of which three of them had shown average R2 values of more than 0.95. Accordingly, five slope factor equations were combined with the three selected models and thus 15 models were formed. Out of these models, three of them had shown R2 &gt; 0.90 and were further compared with each other using the graph plotted for observed versus predicted interrill erosion. This showed that model incorporating rainfall intensity, runoff rate, median soil particle diameter, % clay and quadratic form of slope factor carried higher prediction potential than the other two models and selected as the final model for predicting interrill erosion. As this model incorporates more factors than those previously developed models, it ensures more accurate estimation of interrill erosion.</p><p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Interrill erosion Empirical equations Erosion models</p> 2018-04-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Quality analysis of breads produced from blends of wheat (<i>Triticum aestivum L</i>) and Anchote (<i>Coccinia abyssinica L.</i>) 2018-04-23T11:30:29+00:00 Demelash Hailu Mitiku <p>Bread making is currently limited to wheat and a few other commonly used cereal seeds in many countries. The study was conducted with the general objective of quality evaluation of breads produced from blends of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) and Anchote (Coccinia Abyssinica L). The result of proximate composition of composite breads of wheat and Anchote ranged from 4.00 to 5.89% for moisture, 1.00 to 2.03% for Ash, 4.25 to 5.35% for protein, 1.54 to 2.14% for fat, 0.43 to 0.93% for fiber, 90.37 to 91.25% for carbohydrate and 404.96 kcal/100g for energy. The iron and zinc content increased as the supplementation of Anchote flours increased from 5 to 15% and the calcium content was decreased. The Antinutritional contents of the result showed that as the supplementation level of Anchote flour increased, the phytate, oxalate, tannin and cyanide content were increased. Generally, the study revealed the effect of replacement of wheat flour with Anchote flour (5 to 15%). As the addition of Anchote flour increased from 5 to 15%, the overall acceptability decreased even though the produced breads were accepted. Anchote flour can be used for different food product development as it enhances the mineral and also fibers which is good for the health of human being.</p><p><em>Keywords</em>: Anchote Bread Proximate composition Minerals Antinutritional factors</p> 2018-04-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Levels of inpatient satisfaction with health service provision among patients admitted to Nekemte Referral Hospital, Nekemte, Ethiopia 2018-04-23T11:30:30+00:00 Tahir Hasen <p>In health care services, satisfaction is a positive feeling of patients towards the health care provided to them. It is one of the methods of measuring quality of health care. Even if satisfaction is a subjective concept, it is one of the most important factors to improve health care services. The health care systems in most developing countries suffer from serious deficiencies in financing, efficiency, equity and quality and are poorly prepared to meet these challenges. The objectives of the study was to assess the level of inpatient satisfaction with health care provision among patients admitted to Nekemte Referral Hospital. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted on inpatient satisfaction with health care provision among patients admitted to Nekemte referral Hospital from 27/10/2014 to 24/12/2014. Valid and reliable questionnaires and in-depth interviews were administered to patients admitted to the hospital during the study period. A total of 422 respondents were participated in the study with 38.6 mean ages and standard deviation of 14.7. The age ranges were 15-90 years. Protestant 229(54.3%) was the leading religion followed by Orthodox 121(28.7%). Oromo 362(86%) was the major ethnic group. The overall satisfaction of inpatients with health care provision was 148(35.1%). Patient satisfaction with the attractiveness of the physical structure of the hospital were 242(57.3%), 224(53.1%) replied the hospital blocks were not sufficient, and 344(81.5%) replied the hospital compound was not neat, clear and planted with sufficient grasses and flowers, 283(67.1%) respondents answered the hospital lacks sufficient waiting rooms at each clinic. Most patients 387(91.7%) were interested to be visited by their relatives; therefore, adequate time has to be allocated for visitors.</p><p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Inpatient Waiting room Levels of satisfaction Western Ethiopia Nekemte Referral Hospital</p><p> </p> 2018-04-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Primary School Teacher’s knowledge towards Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its associated factors in Nekemte town, Oromiya Region, Western Ethiopia 2018-04-23T11:30:31+00:00 P. Thanasekaran Shivaleela P. Upashe Dereje Chala <p>The work of the teacher becomes much more demanding when some learners have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), as their problems with attention span, impulse control and activity level frequently interfere with activities in the classroom and socially. This study revealed the teachers good knowledge about ADHD but about 43.7% of primary school teachers had poor knowledge. The objective of the study was to assess the primary school teacher’s knowledge and misconceptions of ADHD and associated factors in Nekemte Town, Oromiya region Western Ethiopia. This study was conducted in Nekemte full Cycle Primary Schools. Nekemte Town, the capital city of East Wollega zone is found 331 km from the capital Addis Ababa to the West. There are 10 government and 20 private full cycle primary schools in the town. Institution based descriptive cross-sectional study were applied. All primary teachers in the selected schools and fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in this study. Non probability convenience sampling technique was utilized to recruit study participants. The period of the study is from December 2015 to January 2016. The collected data were entered into computer using Epi data version 3.5 and analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 21.0. The Binary logistic regression was fitted to assess possible association and the strength of association was measured using odds ratio with 95% CI. The P&lt;0.05 were considered as statistically significant. The results of the study showed that among 206 primary school teachers majority were in the age group of &lt;=40years of age (62.6%) were 50.5 % are female. Most of the participants are teaching general education (96.6%) and 3.4% were teaching special education. For the 41 items knowledge score was computed and the mean value of 15.4 and standard deviation of 6.9 was calculated. Accordingly 15 score was used to categorize the knowledge level of the study participants. Based on the mean value 56.4 % of study participants have good knowledge and the rest participants have poor or inadequate knowledge. Binary logistic analysis showed no association between knowledge and socio-demographic variables. Lack of reading any books [AOR=1.96; CI 0.60-6.44; p-value=0.26], lack of reading any articles [AOR=1.24, 95% CI= 0.31-4.95; p-value= 0.76], lack of reading any pamphlet [AOR=1.99; 95% CI= 0.52-7.57; p-value=0.31], lack of television watching [AOR=0.73; 95% CI= 0.35-1.54; p-value=0.42],lack of internet browsing [AOR=0.21; 95% CI= 0.04-1.04; p-value=0.05]. were the most important predictors found associated with primary school teacher’s knowledge and misconceptions in this study about ADHD.</p><p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Knowledge primary school teacher Western Ethiopia Nekemte</p> 2018-04-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Antifungal activity of <i>Parmotrema tinctorum</i> (Delise ex Nyl.) hale and <i>Parmotrema cristiferum</i> (Taylor) hale against seed mycoflora - A comparative study 2018-04-23T11:30:33+00:00 T.R Prashith Kekuda K.S. Vinayaka Lichens are composite organisms comprising of a photobiont and a mycobiont. Studies have shown that extracts and secondary metabolites from lichens exhibit various bioactivities. The present study evaluates antifungal potential of crude methanolic extract of two corticolous Parmotrema species viz. Parmotrema tinctorum (Delise ex Nyl.) Hale and Parmotrema cristiferum (Taylor) Hale against a panel of fungi isolated from seeds of maize and groundnut. Extraction of powdered lichens was carried out by maceration process using methanol. Antifungal activity was evaluated by poisoned food technique. Both extracts were effective in causing dose dependent inhibition of radial growth of test fungi in poisoned plates. Among lichens, marked inhibitory activity was shown by P. cristiferum. At 1mg/ml concentration, P. cristiferum displayed an inhibition of &gt;50% of all test fungi. The antifungal activity of two Parmotrema species against seed mycoflora could be ascribed to the presence of secondary metabolites in extracts. 2018-04-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Application of different lime rates and phosphorus on soil physico-chemical properties of acid soils in western Ethiopia 2018-04-23T11:30:34+00:00 Bodena Guddisa Tamado Tana Hirpa Legesse Soil acidity and phosphorus deficiency are the major yield limiting factors to crop production in Haro Sabu area, western Ethiopia. Thus, a field experiment was carried out in 2014 main cropping season from the end of June to the end of November at Haro Sabu to assess the effect of lime and phosphorus rates on soil physico-chemical properties of the experimental soil . The treatments were factorial combination of five rates of phosphorus (0, 11.5, 23, 46, 57.5 kg P2O5) and four rates of lime (CaCO<sub>3</sub>) (0, 2.25, 3 and 3.75 tons ha-1) in randomized complete block design and replicated three times. The pre soil analysis indicated that the soil of experimental area was acidic (pH = 5.31) and low in available P (2.34 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>). The soil textural class was sandy clay loam with constituents of sand (53%), clay (19%) and silt (28%). Application of both lime and phosphorus to the experimental plot increased exchangeable Ca, available phosphorus and total nitrogen while decreased exchangeable aluminum. Therefore, application of lime and phosphorous on acid soil improves the pH of the soil, there by the availability of phosphorous and cations. 2018-04-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Design and manufacturing of mechanical steering system for parallel parking, zero turning radius, minimum turning radius with traditional turning 2018-04-23T11:30:34+00:00 Yonas Mitiku Defaru Thomas Fasica Mersha Firew Hailu Elias Semeredin <p>Many existing cities in the world were not built according to population of cars. Therefore drivers find it difficult to park their car on crowded streets and to turn in small spaces. However it is possible to design cars to suit traffic conditions of the cities. Two wheel steering system has a drawback of demanding wide area because of comparatively larger turning radius. Currently most cars are using traditional steering system, but this system is difficult comparing to parallel parking method. Zero turning radius helps the vehicle rotating about an axis passing through the centre of gravity of vehicle rather than describing a circular path as in conventional turning. The aim of this research is to develop a combined mechanism of parallel parking, zero turn radius, minimum turning and traditional turning for automobiles. All the parts of the steering system are designed so as to meet all the configuration of steering system and to be well-matched to the power train, suspension system and body of the car. The steering system is designed for the car which is designed and manufactured at Bahir Dar Institute of Technology, Bahir Dar University which has the overall dimension of 1200 X 1450mm. After manufacturing of the parts, it had been assembled and ready for testing. The testing results showed that zero turning radius will reduce the turning radius up to 70% and parallel parking also make our life easy and reduce time consumption during parking and to pullout car from traffic jam. Minimum radius turn configuration will reduce the turning radius of vehicle about 36% compare to traditional steering mechanism.</p><p><strong><br /></strong></p><p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Steering System Traditional Turning Minimum Turning Radius Zero Turning Radius Parallel Parking</p> 2018-04-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Evaluation of physicochemical properties and sensory attributes of leavened bread produced from composite flours of wheat (<i>Triticum aestivum L.</i>) and sweet potato (<i>Ipomoea batatas L.</i>) 2018-04-23T11:30:35+00:00 Demelash Hailu Mitiku Solomon Abera Negussie Bussa <p>This study was initiated with the objective of investigating the use of improved sweet potato variety namely, Adu for bread production by combining with wheat flour. The experiment was carried out in a completely Randomized Design with three replications. The sweet potato variety was evaluated in five blending ratios of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The breads of the composite flours of wheat and sweet potato resulted in significant reduction in crude protein, crude fat and energy contents whereas the ash, crude fiber, and carbohydrate contents were increased significantly. High vitamin A contents was found in breads with 25% sweet potato flours. Sensory acceptability evaluation based on color, appearance, flavor, texture, and taste showed no significant (P˃0.05) difference between breads having 0 and 5% sweet potato. The sensory acceptability scores of breads remained within the liking range, i.e 6 and above in scale of 9 for sweet potato variety. Adu sweet potato flour therefore could be added to wheat flour up to 25% to produce breads of acceptable sensory quality and enhanced nutrition.</p><p> </p><p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Sweet potato Bread Sensory attributes Composite flours</p> 2018-04-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Teachers’ knowledge, attitude and practices of inclusive education in Nekemte town and its surrounding government primary schools 2018-04-23T11:30:36+00:00 Dessalegn Terfassa Moti Adugna Bersissa Merdassa Kasech Tadesse Dessalegn <p>This study was conducted to investigate teachers’ knowledge, attitude, and practices of inclusive education in Nekemte town and its surrounding government primary schools; and how their knowledge and attitude towards inclusion affect the practice of inclusive education. The participants of the study were primary school teachers and principals. Equal numbers of teachers were included into the study both from Nekemte town (62 teachers) and its surrounding government primary schools (62 teachers). One principal from each school, totally six principals were participated. Data was collected using a Likert type scale questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, hierarchical multiple regression, and series of one way MANOVA were used in the analysis. The result indicated that Primary school teachers had slightly moderate knowledge about inclusive education and predominantly neutral attitude towards inclusive education. The result also indicated that primary school teachers in the study area rarely practice inclusive education. Knowledge of the teachers significantly contributed to the practice of inclusive education, while attitude of teachers did not. No statistically significant differences were found between teachers due to their sex, training, teaching experience in their knowledge, attitude, and practices of inclusive education, while statistically significant difference was observed between urban and rural primary school teachers in their practices of inclusive education. Raising awareness of teachers about inclusive education, the need to equip teachers with theoretical knowledge and practical skill of inclusive education, and making school environment accessible are some of the recommendations suggested.</p><p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Inclusive education Teachers’ attitude Primary Schools Knowledge Practice</p> 2018-04-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Influence of career self-efficacy beliefs on career exploration behaviours among TVET college students in Wollega zones town 2018-04-23T11:30:38+00:00 Getu Tadele Enkosa Terefe <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which influence of career self-efficacy beliefs on career exploration behaviour of TVET college students. A total 238 TVET college students from the three Wollega Zone were selected using multistage sampling methods. The instrument of data collection was self- report questionnaire were career self-efficacy adapted (Nasta, 2007), and Career Exploration behaviour (Stumpf et al., 1983). Data was analyzed using Pearson correlation for career self-efficacy beliefs and career exploration behaviour, and regression analysis used to predicate influence of career self-efficacy on career exploration behaviour. Result of research indicated that career self-efficacy sources were positive influenced and statistical significantly correlated with career exploration behaviour(r= .408, P&lt;.01). The career self-efficacy has positive and strong statistically significant association with past performances accomplishment of the students (r= .752, P&lt; .01). However, it was statistically significant and has weak relationship with career exploration behaviour (r= .214, P&lt;.05).Verbal persuasion is more significant association (r = .555, P&lt;.01) to career exploration behaviours than other sources. Multiple liner Regressions analysis shows that, approximately 17% of variance in the career exploration behaviour was significant prediction by career self-efficacy beliefs. In conclusion, career self-efficacy a belief is positively influenced career exploration behaviour among TVET college students</p><p><strong>Keywords</strong>: TVET college Behaviour Western Ethiopia Career Exploration</p> 2018-04-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Treatment of students’ English oral errors at Shambu preparatory school: Grade 11 in focus 2018-04-23T11:30:39+00:00 Leta Regasa Tamiru Olana <p>The study was conducted in an attempt to investigate teachers’ treatment of students’ oral errors in EFL classes at Shambu Preparatory School. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate the major identified students’ oral errors, to find out the types of oral error treatments EFL teachers provide and to investigate the techniques they use to treat students’ oral errors. Interview and observation were used as instruments of data collection. The participants of the study were two English language teachers of grade 11 who were comprehensively selected to participate in interview and get their classes observed as well. The results indicated that there were 66 oral errors made by students which were categorized into 10 as pronunciation, tense, verb group, agreement, noun group, preposition, word order, article, wrong numbers and adjectives. The findings also showed 13 types of oral error treatments were made by the targeted teachers as provide, transfer, praise, explanation, question, interruption, acceptance, repetition, use of blackboard, ignore, negation and clues, prompt and criticism. Furthermore, it revealed that teachers used three techniques of oral error treatments as Teacher correction, Self correction and peer correction giving more room to teacher correction which is not pedagogically sound. Therefore, to alleviate the students’ linguistic problems, the targeted teachers are required to give appropriate oral error treatments. Besides, it would be better if the teachers give students the chance of self correction instead of playing the lion’s role by themselves</p><p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Oral Error Mistake Utterance Shambu EFL teachers</p><p> </p> 2018-04-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Oromo Oral Pun (Miliqqee): Confusion with Oromo Idiom (Jechama) focusing on Yadate's Miliqqee part of 'Qorii Qorsaa', western Oromia, Ethiopia 2018-04-23T11:30:40+00:00 Teshome Guteta Kitessa <p>Puns are language arts that globally got broad attention, but in Oromo language, the researcher has found some mere collections of puns in confusion with idiom. The purpose of this study was to identify the general problems, confusion between Oromo pun and Oromo idiom, and to investigate factors for Yadate's confusion based on miliqqee part of Yadate's "Qorii Qorsaa". The nature of the study was of a qualitative and quantitative type and the data were analysed by describing the existing qualities of the puns on theoretical basis. The tools used were content analysis, questionnaire and interview. The result shows that idiomatic meanings have been used as puns, was confusion of puns with idioms. As to the analysis, the confusion occurred mainly due to lack of awareness on the nature of puns and idiom and to some extent by fixedness and using concept from cross-cultural communication. Some of the recommendations for solution are: encouraging researches and availing publications on miliqqee, and including them in Oromo language curricula beginning from lower grades.</p><p> </p><p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Confusion Concealing Items Oromo Oral Pun Literal Meaning Idiomatic Meaning</p> 2018-04-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)