Topological spaces with an emphasis on the sphere and its applications

  • Richmond Kwabena Gyan
  • William Obeng-Denteh
  • Fred Asante-Mensa
Keywords: Continuous functions, Homotopy, Stereographic projection, Topological spaces.


Algebraic topology has grown over the last decades. This paper presents the essentials of topological spaces, continuous functions and homotopy. The human heart is assumed to be topologically equivalent to the one-sphere. When the human heart undergoes a stimulus, the time in the beat cycle is mapped to the time it recovers from the stimulus. This work concluded with the computation of the stereographic projection and its applications.


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1597-6343