Foliar epidermal and phytochemical studies of the grasses Cymbopogon citratus (stapf.), Axonopus compressus (P. Beauv.) and Eragrostis tremula (S. W. Beauv) in Ekpoma, Edo state, Nigeria.

  • E.A Ogie-Odia
  • D Eseigbe
  • M.N Ilechie
  • J Erhabor
  • E Ogbebor
Keywords: Foliar, epidermal, phytochemical, genera, biosystematic

Abstract

This study presents investigations into the epidermal and phytochemical features of Eragrostis tremula (S.W.Beauv.), Cymbopogon citratus (Stapf.) and Axonopus compressus (P.Beauv.). Epidermal features of the different species in the three genera showed slight differences for both the adaxial and abaxial parts with respect to prickles, papillae, macro hairs and micro hairs. Long cells, short cells, stomata and silica bodies are almost universally present in all the three species. With respect to their phytochemical characteristic, Cymbopogon citratus tested positive for alkaloid, saponin, inulin, cellulose, tannin and lignin; Eragrostis tremula tested negative for lignin and positive for cellulose, saponin and alkaloids while Axonopus compressus tested negative for lignin, but positive for alkaloid, saponin, inulin, cellulose and tannin respectively. Leaf epidermal studies help to determine patterns of variation in plant species thus helping in our knowledge of such species. It is useful in determining their different morphological, epidermal and phytochemical characteristics thus helping in the assessment of its values in species identification, classification and in establishing a taxonomic relationship between different species being studied. Keywords: Foliar, epidermal, phytochemical, genera, biosystematics.
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