Science World Journal 2024-05-02T13:26:51+00:00 Dr Sadiq G. Abdu Open Journal Systems <!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning ></w:PunctuationKerning> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas ></w:ValidateAgainstSchemas> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables ></w:BreakWrappedTables> <w:SnapToGridInCell ></w:SnapToGridInCell> <w:WrapTextWithPunct ></w:WrapTextWithPunct> <w:UseAsianBreakRules ></w:UseAsianBreakRules> <w:DontGrowAutofit ></w:DontGrowAutofit> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:"Arial Narrow"; panose-1:2 11 5 6 2 2 2 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:swiss; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:647 2048 0 0 159 0;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;} a:link, span.MsoHyperlink {color:blue; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed {color:purple; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --><!-- [if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]--> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 3pt 0pt;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt;">The SWJ is a peer review on-line international journal of broad appeal, aimed at fast publication of cutting edge research across the sciences. The Journal publishes multidisciplinary articles reporting on original research in the natural and physical sciences and their applications. The journal also promotes the application of computers in modeling and Bioinformatics. Other websites related to this journal: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></span></p> Assessing instructional strategies in agricultural science to enhance senior secondary school students’ interest in agriculture in Zaria Educational Zone 2024-04-25T08:17:08+00:00 Joshua Fachano Yusuf A.O.E. Egunsola <p>The study assessed instructional strategies in agricultural science to enhanced senior secondary school’s students interest in agriculture, within Zaria educational zone. Four specific objectives, four research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. Descriptive survey research design was adopted. Structure questionnaire design on 4-point rating scale with 154 teachers and 200 students as sampled respondents was used. The data was analysed using mean, standard deviation and t – test at 5% level of significance. The result revealed that most of the teachers were male (72.08%), with age ranged from 35 – 39 years (35.07%), married (64.29%) and were qualified to teach agricultural science at senior secondary school level (76.63%) with more than five years working experience (81.85%). Use of successful agropreneurs as resource person, use of motivation and less punishment, giving award/rewards to students, taking students for field trips, relating teaching with real life situation outside classroom, exposing students’ on careers opportunities in agriculture, organizing agricultural shows and exhibition among others were acceptable instructional based strategies that could enhance students’ interest in agriculture. However, there was significant difference on the mean responses of teachers and students on the instructional-based strategies that could enhanced students interest in agriculture. Recommendations were made based on the findings of the study.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Assessment of nutrient flows in maize-based farming system by smallholder farmers for sustainable production in Ikara, Kaduna State 2024-04-25T08:19:23+00:00 N.A. Hiikyaa <p>Nutrient depletion is one of the major causes of decreased crop yield, and a threat to food security and sustainable crop production. NutMon- toolbox was used to determine nutrient flows and partial nutrient balances of maize-based smallholders’ farming system. Data was collected using structured questionnaire from 15 randomly selected farmers, with five farmers each in three villages. Composite soil samples were also taken from each of the three plots. At crop maturity, samples of crop products and residues were randomly taken from the selected fields. Nitrogen, P and K contents in soil and crop material was used to calculate nutrient flows and partial balances. Results obtained revealed that mineral fertilizer flow, averaged 349.20kg N yr<sup>-1</sup> and 81.45kg K yr<sup>-1</sup> and were lower than 376.65kg N yr<sup>-1</sup> and 431.44kg K yr<sup>-1</sup> organic input. However, phosphorus in mineral fertilizer (55.78kg P yr<sup>-1</sup>) was higher compared to phosphorus (51.06 kg P ha<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup>) in organic input. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium for maize seeds and crop residue were all negative. The partial nutrient balances were positive 53.45kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup> and 79.40kg K ha<sup>-1</sup> but negative 1.10kg P ha<sup>-1</sup> yr<sup>-1</sup>. Harvesting of crops for food, without incorporation of crop residue into the soil, were the most important sources of nutrient mining in smallholder production system. Integrated soil fertility management practices that favour the buildup of soil organic matter and use of animal manure should be encouraged through effective extension services at Ikara, Kaduna State, Nigeria.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The determination of heterogeneous catalytic performance of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) in the production of biodiesel via transesterification of Jatropha oil 2024-04-25T08:23:45+00:00 A.R. Uba H.U. Jamo U.I. Ismail F.U. Musa S.H. Gwadabe <p>The high energy demand with the negative environmental impacts of using fossil fuel for energy generations raised question on over dependability on it for sustainable economic growth. Biodiesel tend to be one of the renewable alternative solutions towards the above problems. Biodiesel can be produced through various methods such as transesterification, micro emulsion and pyrolysis The heterogeneous catalytic performance of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) in the production of biodiesel via transesterification of jatropha oil was investigated. The morphological and chemical properties of POFA were studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Fluoroscopy (XRF) respectively. The crude Jatropha oil was transesterified and 0.1 wt%, 0.2 wt%, 0.3wt%, 0.4wt% and 0.5wt% of POFA were used as heterogeneous catalyst. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) has been used to determine the functional group of the samples. SEM indicates the presence porous structure, texture and irregular shape on POFA while XRF shows that it comprises mainly of SiO2 (79.45 %). The maximum percentage of biodiesel yield was 92.30% at the application of 0.2wt% POFA. This shows that POFA can be used as a heterogeneous catalyst in the production of biodiesel.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Linkages between economic growth, health expenditures, education, and environment: dynamic analysis of Nigeria 2024-04-25T08:30:24+00:00 M.R.O. Onwunali C.I. Chima B.G. Ochigbo <p>The study comprehensively analyzed the nexus between economic growth, health expenditures, education, and the environment in Nigeria, using data obtained from Central bank of Nigeria and World Bank. By utilizing a robust dataset spanning from 1981 to 2021, the study employed autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to uncover intricate relationships. Results, both short-run and long-run analyses, reveal that health and education spending, and gross fixed capital formation positively correlated with economic growth. Conversely, the findings demonstrated that population growth and carbon dioxide emissions (CO<sub>2</sub>) exerted detrimental effects on economic growth due to the negative impact on the health of the working population. Additionally, the inverted U-shaped relationship between the macroeconomic footprint and income confirms the validity of Nigeria's Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) phenomenon. Lastly, the findings of this study hold important policy implications, emphasizing the need for technological advancements and innovative solutions to address the challenges associated with economic growth, health expenditures, education, and the environment in Nigeria. Policy measures promoting birth control through contraception and family planning should be embraced to effectively manage the country's rapidly growing population.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Insights into folic acid mixtures compounded with commercially available vitamin syrups 2024-04-25T08:34:48+00:00 F. Anslem R.B. Oloyede A.A. Kassim A. Bashir Z.S. Yahaya <p>Stability assessments are crucial in determining the shelf-life and quality of compounded pharmaceutical products. Folic acid, an essential B-vitamin, is widely used to prevent and treat folate deficiency-related conditions. However, because of patient-specific demands or customised dose requirements, compounded folic acid syrups are frequently used in pediatric patients. This study aims to examine the stability of compounded folic acid mixtures prepared with some commercially available vitamin syrups. Three commercially available vitamin syrups were utilized as compounding vehicles for folic acid tablets, ensuring a representative sample of products commonly used in compounding practices in hospitals when conventional compounding vehicles are not available. The compounded folic acid mixtures were stored under ambient (21- 25 ºC) and refrigerated conditions (2-8 ºC), to simulate real-life scenarios, and tested using parameters such as, organoleptic characteristics, sedimentation rate, pH, microbial growth and drug content determination at day 7, 14 and 30. The extemporaneous preparations of the compounded folic acid in vitamin syrups generally maintained their physical characteristics over the 30-day study period. However, there was either decrease in folic acid concentration or microbial contamination of the preparations at day 7. Therefore, folic acid compounded in vitamin syrups are generally stable for less than seven days. The data obtained will aid healthcare professionals and compounding pharmacies in decision making concerning the choice of vehicle, compounding practices and strategies to ensure the preparation of wholesome extemporaneous products.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Analysis of mathematical model for asthma caused by the effects of environmental pollution 2024-04-25T08:40:18+00:00 Olukayode Adeyemo Sunday O. Adewale Abiodun T. Oladipo Musibau A. Omoloye <p>Asthma is a condition in which your airways narrow and swell and may produce extra mucus. In this study, an improved mathematical model of asthma which includes infected class not detected, infected detected class and recovered (relieved) class was formulated. The model exhibits two equilibrium, namely disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium. The analysis of positivity and boundedness of solutions showed that the model is epidemiologically well pose d. Simulation results showed that when pollutants are discharged into the environment at a constant rate, the asthma disease cases also increase in the population due to the fact that the interaction rate of both susceptible and infected undetected with pollutants in creases.Finally, asthma can be control by restricting the smokers from the population and the rate of release of pollutants into the environment.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Analysis of neonates gender and mode of delivery using Pearson’s correlation 2024-04-25T09:07:05+00:00 Friday Zinzendoff Okwonu Nor Aishah Ahad Joshua Sarduana Apanapudor <p>This paper investigates whether neonate gender determines the mode of maternal delivery. The Pearson correlation technique and the <em>t</em> -statistic were applied to ascertain whether neonate gender is a determinant of the mode of maternal delivery. The neonate rate of delivery based on gender and mode of delivery was also investigated. The study relied on secondary data from a general hospital in Nigeria. The study consists of 6,491 live births from 2010 to 2017. The analysis showed that 74.9% accounted for normal births while 25.1% for surgical births. The gender analysis showed that 47.5% of males and 52.5% of females were normal births while 47.8% of males and 52.2% of females were delivered via surgical mode. The study showed that 47.6% of males and 52.4% of females were delivered for the period under review. The correlation value <em>r</em>=0.5 suggests that neonates irrespective of gender can be delivered via a normal or surgical procedure. The analysis based on the <em>t</em>-statistic failed to reject the null hypothesis implying that neonate gender does not determine the mode of maternal delivery but maternal lifestyle during pregnancy.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Exploring vertical gradients of radio refractivity and their significance for radio wave propagation in Abuja, Jos and Makurdi of North-Central Nigeria 2024-04-25T09:11:31+00:00 S.L. Usman F.N. Ikechiamaka A. Akinbolati J.A. Owolabi C.O. Akusu <p>Vertical radio refractivity gradients are essential for monitoring propagation conditions when designing and planning terrestrial radio links for communications in the lower atmosphere. Average data gathered from meteorological factors such as temperature, pressure, and relative humidity was used from 1980 to 2020 n this study. This study focuses on the vertical gradient of radio refractivity within the lower atmospheric layer, investigating its influence on factors like signal propagation, route clearance, and line-of-sight communication. The analysis encompasses three cities - Abuja, Makurdi, and Jos. In Figure 2 monthly average changes in the refractivity gradient are presented for Abuja. In addition, the seasonal radio refractivity gradient shows mean values of -110.000N/km for Abuja which shows that the refractivity condition is Super-Refraction, -77.553N/km for Jos which shows that the refractivity condition is Normal-Refraction and -97.209N/km for Makurdi which shows that the refractivity condition is Normal-Refraction respectively. Higher gradient values, G1, G2, and G3 were observed during the dry season (December-February) which could be attributed to dry air and steeper refractivity gradients. In contrast, lower gradient values were observed during the wet season (June-October) due to increased atmospheric moisture. Similarly, measured vertical radio refractivity gradient data, G1 N/km, G2 N/km, and G3 N/km for Jos displayed consistent fluctuations throughout the year. Similarly, measured vertical radio refractivity gradient data, G1 N/km, G2 N/km, and G3 N/km for Jos displayed consistent fluctuations throughout the year. Notably, wetter months exhibit higher refractivity gradient values, while drier months show lower values. G2 consistently records the highest gradient values, and despite varying magnitudes, the trends remain consistent. Finally, measured vertical radio refractivity gradient data, G1 N/km, G2 N/km, and G3 N/km for Makurdi indicate distinct fluctuations with the most negative values observed in November and December. The Dry Season witnesses relatively lower gradient values, while the Transition and Wet Seasons experience rising values, influenced by atmospheric shifts. The Higher negative values during the wet season suggest pronounced variations in the refractive index, affecting radio wave propagation. These findings emphasize the significance of refractivity gradient variations and their implications for radio wave behaviour particularly during different seasons.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Possible influence of shipping operations on trace metals gradients along the Commodore Channel, Lagos State, Nigeria 2024-04-25T09:29:50+00:00 Ayoola Olubunmi Nubi Olu Timilehin Ayelagbe Olaiwola Falilu Adekunbi Samuel Olatunde Popoola Otolorin Opeyemi Oyatola <p>The impact of shipping operations on the level of trace metals along the Commodore Channel of the Lagos lagoon is a topic that requires careful consideration. Shipping activities can have a significant impact on the water quality of the lagoon, which in turn can affect the health of the flora and fauna that depend on it. This study attempts to assess the impact of shipping operations on the level of trace metals along the Commodore Channel of the Lagos lagoon. Concentrations of trace metals in the Lagos Lagoon specifically the Commodore channel were determined in March 2016, and the downstream variation was compared. Trace metals (Pb, Cd, Fe, Zn and Co) were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The concentration of trace metals were found to be beyond the permissible limits stipulated by World Health Organization (WHO) and European Union (EU). There exists an exception in the mean level of Zn (0.23±0.1107mg/L) in the harbor water which was lower than the WHO standard of 5mg/L as at the time of this study. The trace metals showed the decreasing order of Pb &gt; Fe &gt; Zn &gt; Co &gt; Cd with concentration of 1.0±0.6mg/L, 0.62±0.2mg/L. 0.23±0.1107, 0.14±0.12mg/L and 0.05±0.02mg/L respectively. The result of contamination factor showed the harbor water had very high degree of Pb and Cd contamination. This high CF can be caused by the shipping and vessel transportation route and gateway of the harbor into the country. Continuous monitoring is required to assess environmental quality and adopt suitable management techniques in order to prevent the negative impacts of shipping operations on trace metal occurrence in harbors.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Exploring the structural mechanics of titanium nickel solid alloy using COMSOL Multiphysics: A Poisson equation and continuity equation perspective 2024-04-30T06:35:54+00:00 P.J. Manga Mohammed Maina H. Samaila E.W. Likta R.O. Amusat S. Daniel <p>This study investigates the structural mechanics of titanium-nickel (Ti-Ni) alloy thin film using computational modelling through COMSOL Multiphysics based on Poisson’s equation and continuity equation for stress check by considering its linear elastic, conservation of charge and providing insight into nanomaterial deformation. In the COMSOL environment the parameters for titanium nickel (Ti-Ni) are embedded in the COMSOL Simulink interface. The Thin film layer was designed by defining the layer geometry of the size and shape of the layer with a width of 500 μm, depth of 200 μm and height of 3 μm subjected to boundary conditions such as von – mises stress, surface temperature, iso-surface temperature, multi-slice electric potential, displacement component, surface elastic strain energy density and total enthalpy. The results displayed a trend that is, as the surface temperature increases there will be an increase in the current densities associated with high electrical conduction. On the same note, the designed thin film layer will pass the percolation threshold. The results of surface elastic strain energy density and total enthalpy imply that the designed thin film layer is effective and efficient as a structural pseudopotential device (photodiode).</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The dynamics of some climate variables on solid waste in Nigeria using Vector Error Correction Model 2024-04-30T06:39:49+00:00 A. Shehu M.O. Adenomon M.A. Abubakar <p>This study investigated the long- run and short-run relationships between solid waste generation in Nigeria and two key climate variables: rainfall and temperature. Employing a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) analysis on data from 1982 to 2022, then revealed counterintuitive findings. In the long run, lagged rainfall exhibits a negative association with solid waste (p &lt; 0.05), potentially explained by increased waste decomposition in wetter conditions. Conversely, lagged temperature showed a positive association (p &lt; 0.05), aligning with theories of increased consumption and economic activity in warmer periods. The short-run analysis unveils a self-correcting mechanism in solid waste generation and a statistically significant negative impact of lagged temperature (p &lt; 0.05), requiring further investigation. Based on these findings, the study proposed policy implications for waste management strategies and data collection, emphasizing the need for sustainable solutions in the context of climate change.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Estimation and comparison of Weibull-Normal distribution with some other probability models using Bayesian method of estimation 2024-04-30T06:41:35+00:00 Suleiman Aliyu Muhammad Ardo Bamanga <p>In statistical applications the Normal distribution is adjudged to be the best. Recent studies Terna (2017) using classical method indicated that Weibull-Normal distribution outperformed the Normal distribution. In this study we used the non-classical Bayesian method of estimation to estimate and compare the Weibull-Normal distribution with some other distributions including Normal and Gamma-Normal distributions. This study derived explicit expressions for basic statistical properties such as moments, moment generating function, the characteristic function, reliability analysis and the distribution of order statistics. It looks at estimation of confidence intervals for the parameters of the Weibull-Normal distribution and estimated the parameters of the new distribution using a non-classical approach for the purpose of theoretical comparisons. The two other distributions whose parameters were also estimated by using Bayesian estimation are the normal distribution and gamma distribution as well as the combination Gamma-Normal distribution. Based on the analyses and interpretations of the results obtained it was found that the parameters and other general properties of Normal distribution gives a better fit than other distributions. R-software was used; the models were written as an R code in R program using the rjags library, the distribution parameters were obtained from a Gibbs sampling of a Bayesian Fit for data set I and data set II. The criteria used in R for comparisons were the negative log-likelihood, AIC (Akaike information criterion), CAIC (Consistent Akaike Information Criterion) and BIC (Bayesian information Criterion).</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Twitter sentiment analysis for Hausa abbreviations and acronyms 2024-04-30T06:51:10+00:00 Habeeba Ibraheem Abdullahi Muhammad Aminu Ahmad Khalid Haruna <p>The use of natural language processing, to identify, extract and organize sentiment from user generated texts in social networks, blogs or product review of text is known as sentiment analysis or opinion mining. Hausa language belongs to one of the major well-spoken languages in Africa and one of the three major Nigerian languages. Now investigating into such a language will have significant influence on social, economic business political and even educational services and settings. Some of these Hausa texts are abbreviated and some in acronym format which is a challenge to researchers as such comments are in an unstructured format and needs normalization to get further understanding of that text and also there is scarcity of sentiment analysis on Hausa abbreviation and acronym. Abbreviation is a shorten form of a word while acronym is an abbreviation formed from the initial letters of other words and pronounced as a word. This research aims to develop an improved Hausa Sentiment Dataset for the enhancement of sentiment analysis with abbreviation and acronyms. This is achieved by adapting to the approach for Hausa Sentiment Analysis based on Multinomial Naïve Bayes (MNB) and Logistic Regression algorithms using the count vectorizer, along with python libraries for NLP. This research affirmed that the improved dataset with abbreviation and acronym outperforms the plain Hausa dataset by 4% in accuracy using Multinomial Naïve Bayes. The result shows that in addition to normal preprocessing techniques of the social media stream, understanding, interpreting and resolving ambiguity in the usage of abbreviations and acronyms lead to improved accuracy of algorithms with evidence in the experimental result.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Biosurfactant production potentials of microorganisms isolated from atmosphere of five petroleum stations at Tanke, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria 2024-04-30T06:58:07+00:00 D.O. Adetitun P.K. Oni R.B. Tomilayo <p>Biosurfactants aid in bioremediation by improving the bioavailability of hydrocarbon contaminants. The objective of this work was to isolate, enumerate and identify bacteria and fungi for their biosurfactant production potential in the atmosphere of five petroleum stations at Tanke, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria using appropriate, standard microbiological methods (haemolysis test, emulsification index test, drop collapse test and oil displacement test). Fourteen bacteria and ten fungi were isolated in this study. The bacterial isolates belong to the genus <em>Bacillus</em>, <em>Corynebacterium</em>, <em>Micrococcus</em>, <em>Staphylococcus</em>, <em>Listeria, Clostridium</em>. The fungal isolates are of the genus <em>Neurospora</em>, <em>Curvularia</em>, <em>Aspergillus</em>, <em>Fusarium</em>, <em>Rhizopus</em>, <em>Cladosporium</em>, <em>Colletotrichum</em>, <em>Sclerotinia</em>. The mean number of bacteria counted during the sampling ranged from 3.48±1.15*10<sup>2</sup> CFU to 4.82 ±1.69*10<sup>2</sup> CFU, with petrol station 4 having the highest bacteria count (2.41*10<sup>2</sup> CFU) and petrol station 3 having the lowest bacteria count (1.74*10<sup>2</sup> CFU). The mean fungal count ranged from 7±3.7 CFU to 8.6±4.7 *10<sup>2</sup> CFU, with petrol station 4 having the highest fungal count (4.3 *10 CFU) and petrol station 3 having the lowest fungal count (3.4*10 CFU). <em>Bacillus </em>species showed promise of biosurfactant production after screening. <em>Aspergillus fumigatus </em>was the most prevalent fungus isolated (24%) while <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis </em>was the most prevalent bacterium isolated (11%). Some of these organisms are known opportunistic pathogens therefore, improved ventilation and sanitation of the petrol stations should be carried out to reduce the microbial load in the air. Also, bacteria that produce biosurfactant can be isolated from air of gas stations.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Assessment of radionuclides content of dumpsites within Kaduna Metropolis 2024-04-30T07:00:32+00:00 T. Sombo B. Shehu A.A. Tyovenda B. Gabi <p>This study assessed the concentration of radionuclides (Ra-266, Th-232, U-238, and K-40) in selected dumpsites within some Local Government Areas of Kaduna State. Radiological analysis was carried out using a gamma spectrometer (HPGE) located at the Energy Research Center, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The results of the concentration of Ra-266, Th-232, U-238 and K-40 in the study area were as follows: 196.12 – 239.14 Bq/kg, 126.79 – 171.32 Bq/kg, 84.96 – 115.96 Bq/kg, and 317.11 – 521.77 Bq/kg respectively for Chikun LGA; 213.84 – 268.98 Bq/kg, 102.17 – 122.90 Bq/kg, 110.89 – 137.80 Bq/kg, 407.64 – 486.38 Bq/kg respectively for Igabi LGA; 187.15 – 364.50 Bq/kg, 166.04 – 387.00 Bq/kg, 97.35 – 180.57 Bq/kg, and 541.72 – 801.08 Bq/kg respectively for Kaduna North LGA; and 128.98 – 293.45 Bq/kg, 139.43 – 182.96 Bq/kg, 70.57 – 132.02 Bq/kg and 526.19 – 707.42 Bq/kg respectively for dumpsites in Kaduna South. The results revealed that K-40 had the highest concentration in all the study areas and was found to be above the UNSCEAR (2000) recommended limit of 300 bq/kg. Ra-266, Th-232, and U-238 were found to be 37, 31, and 51 Bq/kg above the UNSCEAR (2000) recommended limits of 35, 30, and 50 Bq/kg, respectively. The annual effective dose was in the range of 1.23–2.30 mSvy^(-1) above the UNSCEAR (2000) recommended safety limit. The radioactivity level in the study areas was high; therefore, continuous exposure to these radionuclides and their progenies may pose a severe risk to public health. All the sampled radionuclides were found to be within the recommended standard of ≤1.0 WHO reference values.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Effect of <i>Vernonia amygdalina</i> and fish oil-supplemented biscuits on lipid profile parameters and blood glucose concentration of diabetic rats 2024-04-30T07:03:05+00:00 O. Soji-Omoniwa B.T. Adekeye U.O. Abdulazeez J.O. Olayinka C.O. Oloba A.F. Ajediti S.O. Kolawole H.T. Yusuf <p>Biscuit, a popular snack, serve as an ideal vehicle for incorporating therapeutic agents for disease management. This study aimed to assess the effect of <em>Vernonia amygdalina </em>(VO) and fish oil (FO)-supplemented biscuits (VFSB) on the total lipid profile and blood glucose concentration of diabetic rats. Forty-nine Wistar rats were allocated into seven groups (A to G). Upon induction and confirmation of diabetes in experimental rats, fasting blood glucose (FBG) level were monitored weekly using glucometer. Twenty-four hours after the last day of treatment, rats were sacrificed and serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations were assayed using assay kits. Results showed a significant (p &lt; 0.05) reduction in FBG, TC, LDL-c, and TG concentrations in biscuit fed groups D, E, and F compared to group B fed VFSB. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels significantly increased (p &lt; 0.05) in groups D, E, and F compared to Group B. In conclusion, <em>Vernonia amygdalina </em>and fish oil-supplemented biscuits exhibited a glucose-lowering effect and mitigated dyslipidemia associated with diabetes mellitus.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Assessment of participants’ perception on the use of mass drug administration in communities endemic to <i>Wuchereria bancrofti</i> Cobbold, 1877 in Northern Nigeria 2024-04-30T07:05:43+00:00 B. Kamba I.S. Ndams E. Kogi M. Aliyu <p>Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the neglected tropical diseases that cause permanent long term disability inform of hydrocoele, lymphoedema and elephantiasis that develop as a result of inflammation of the lymphatic system. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis and perception of participants towards Mass Drug Administration (MDA) programme. The study was a community-based cross-sectional study for screening microfilariae of <em>Wuchereria bancrofti </em>in consenting participants. A total of 1010 participants’ from selected communities on the MDA programme in 5 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Bauchi, Plateau and Kaduna states were enlisted into to the study. The communities were chosen based on the presence of the people living with LF according to the signs and symptoms. A well-structured adapted questionnaire was administered to collect participants’ information and their perception of the MDA programme. Microflaria of <em>Wuchereria bancrofti </em>were identified based on the sheathed nuclear, caudal nuclei and bent tail in Parasitology and Entomology Research Laboratory, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics, chi-squared and odds ratio. Participants with knowledge (294/1010; 29.11%) of the MDA programme were less than those without knowledge (716/1010; 70.89%) of the MDA. Similar, the prevalence of LF was higher in participants with knowledge (26.87%) of the MDA than in those without knowledge (25.14%). The status of participation showed that, those that participated (380/1010; 37.62%) in the MDA were lower than those did not participants (630/1010; 62.38%); the infection in participants that did not partook in the MDA programme had higher prevalence (29.68%) of LF than those that participated. Participants gave various reasons for not being part of the MDA programme ranging from absent (177/1010; 17.53%) at the time of the campaign to side effect (2/1010; 0.20%) of the drugs after taking it. However, those that gave reasons for not participating because Community Drug Distributors (CDD) did not come, had highest prevalence (40.74%) of LF compared to those that gave reasons as side effect (0.00%) for not taking the drugs. Overall LF prevalence of 25.64% was found in this study. There is poor knowledge of MDA programme among the participants in the communities examined. Similarly, microfilaria was present in some participants despite the MDA campaign in the selected states. Intensive awareness campaign and drug distribution need to be carried out in most of the remote communities in the affected states. Furthermore, members of the communities must be part of the CDDs for acceptability and effectiveness of the campaign.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ecological observations of freshwater snails in the vicinity of an artificial lake 2024-04-30T07:21:10+00:00 Sani Alhaji Tukur Timothy Auta Tolulope Ebenezer Atalabi <p>This investigation delves into the ecological dimensions of freshwater snails in the vicinity of an artificially created lake. The aim of this research was to comprehend the distribution, prevalence, and variety of freshwater snail species within the ecosystem surrounding the manmade lake. The study spanned from August to November 2023, conducted at three distinct sample stations (I, II, and III), with bi-weekly sample collections. Standard keys were employed for the identification of snails, and the Shanon-Weiner and Simpson's similarity indices were used to explore the diversity of snail species. Throughout the study, a total of 311 individuals representing three distinct species encountered in this study were documented. <em>Acathina fulica </em>exhibited the highest abundance (129 individuals), while <em>Pomacea bridgesii </em>displayed the lowest abundance (66 individuals). The month of August registered the highest population (122 individuals), contrasting with the lowest count in November (37 individuals). Abundance varied across stations, with Station II recording the lowest (77 individuals) and Station III the highest (116 individuals). Regarding diversity, <em>Pomacea bridgesii </em>emerged as the most diverse species (0.3670 &amp; 0.3662), while <em>Littorina littorea </em>exhibited the least diversity (0.0000) across the stations. This investigation contributes valuable insights into the dynamics of freshwater snail populations in the periphery of artificial lakes, shedding light on their distribution patterns and ecological interactions.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Plant use knowledge and quantitative analysis of some medicinal plants from Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria 2024-04-30T07:23:52+00:00 A.E. Adegbite D.O. Aworinde S. Fakoya S.M. Erinoso O.T. Aturu S.O. Ojo <p>This study was conducted to investigate the plants used medicinally in rural and semi-urban areas of Ondo State, Nigeria with a view to generating a comprehensive list of therapeutic plants and evaluating their importance quantitatively. Surveys were conducted in some communities in Ondo State between November 2021 and November 2022 with focus on different uses of plants. Structured questionnaires were administered to plant collectors and users. Data were analyzed based on some ethnobotanical indices. In total, 179 medicinal plants belonging to 66 plant families were recorded. The family Fabaceae had the highest (16.20%) representative species while shrubs formed the most used plant form (32%). The highest Frequency of Citation (FC, 49) was obtained for <em>Azadirachta indica</em>. The most valuable plant was <em>A. indica </em>(0.17) based on the Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) and highest (1.67) Use Value (UV). The Consensus Index and Fidelity Level (FL) were also found to be highest with <em>A. indica </em>(50% and 83.33% respectively) while Fabaceae had the highest Family Importance Value (FIV, 10.98%). The ethnomedicinal use of <em>A. indica, V. amygdalina </em>etc. in the treatment of malaria/fever has been further confirmed in this study. The family Fabaceae has been shown to contain plant species that are important to the informants. The use of quantitative techniques in ethnomedicinal studies allows the identification of commonly used plants and their recommendation for pharmacological research to confirm traditional claims. There is need to properly educate plant users in the communities on the sustainable use of plant resources.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Determination of prevalence, risk factors and symptoms of urinary schistosomiasis among school children in Kaduna South Local Government Area, Kaduna State 2024-04-30T07:26:57+00:00 Henry Gabriel Bishop Eliabeth Opawoye Blessing Ndjideka Ezea Christiana Ozeiza Apata Samuel Jacob <p>Schistosomiasis negatively impacts children’s health. Children expose themselves daily to schistosome infections due to lack of awareness and knowledge about the disease or the danger of infested water bodies. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors and symptoms of urinary schistosomiasis among school children in Kaduna South Local Government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Four hundred (400) consented school children submitted 10mL urine each and responded to structured questionnaires. Sediment of each urine sample was examined by light microscopy, after centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 5 min. Overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis was 4.5%. Both male and female children were equally infected (4.5% each). Older children between 13-17 years old were more infected (5.0%) and more at risk (OR = 2.982) than younger children (8-12 years old) who had 1.7% of the infection. No infection was recorded among children who had awareness about the disease. Water-based activities that served as significant risk factors for the infection included swimming in river (8.7%, P=0.016, OR= 3.064), fishing (12.2%, P=0.005, OR=3.942) and washing of clothes in river (17.4%, P=0.002, OR=5.459). Significant symptoms of urinary schistosomiasis identified were frequent urination (12.5%, P=0.023, OR=3.612), abdominal pain (10.0%, P=0.045, OR=2.880), and terminal haematuria (13.6%, P=0.002, OR=4.526). Infected individuals were more at risk of experiencing pains during urination (7.4%, OR=2.047). Unawareness promotes the spread of schistosomiasis among Nigerian children; their continuous exposure to infested water poses a greater risk. Creation of awareness amongst children will help to control their play habits in unsafe water bodies.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Uropathogens and their antibiograms in asymptomatic bacteriuria among university students in Zaria, Nigeria 2024-04-30T07:30:04+00:00 Elizabeth Opawoye Victor Markus Henry Gabriel Bishop <p>Invasion of urinary tract by pathogens can lead to urinary tract infections (UTIs). Asymptomatic UTI is characterized by bacteriuria that is not accompanied by typical urinary tract symptoms, which often goes unnoticed until it has become serious. Early detection, accurate diagnosis and appropriate selection of antibiotics can improve prognosis, prevent chonic progression of renal disease and increase treatment success. Students in tertiary institutions may become at risk of UTIs due to overcrowding, poor hygiene practices and sexual activities. This study was focused on assessing the prevalence and antibiograms of uropathogens causing asymptomatic bacteriuria among university students. Mid-stream urine samples of early morning were obtained from 201 students of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were administered to the students to collect their socio-demographic information and exposure to certain risk factors. The samples were inoculated onto sterile Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate agar and Centrimide agar plates, incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The pure isolates were identified by cultural morphology, Gram staining and biochemical characterization, and were further challenged with selected antibiotics. Bacterial uropathogens identified were <em>Citrobacter </em>spp and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>with prevalence of 10(5.0%) and 5(2.5%) respectively. The females were more infected than the males. The oldest students of 25-27 years and 28-30 years old had the highest occurrences of <em>Citrobacter </em>spp <em>and Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>respectively<em>. </em>All the cases of <em>Citrobacter </em>spp were found among single students, but higher occurrence of <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>was found among the married subjects. Students who have spent the longest time (i.e. in their 6<sup>th</sup> year) in school had the highest infection with the uropathogens. Students that stayed off-campus, share public latrines, drink sachet water and claimed to have one sex partner each were found with higher occurrences of asymptomatic infections. The antibiotic susceptibility test showed that all the isolates were most susceptible to Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin, and Pefloxacin, and resistant to Septrin. However, isolates of <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>were resistant to Streptomycin. Students should be well-informed about the risks associated with poor hygiene, over-crowding and unhealthy sexual habits. Routine checkups will help to prevent asymptomatic UTIs from developing into severe infections or complications.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Enhancing impact of <i>Prosopis africana</i> fraction on biochemical indices and oxidative balance in <i>Plasmodium berghei</i>-infected mice 2024-04-30T07:36:21+00:00 F.A. Abubakar H.O.B. Oloyede <p>This study addresses the ongoing global health challenge of malaria by exploring the therapeutic potential of the <em>Prosopis africana </em>fraction in mice infected with <em>Plasmodium berghei</em>. Using 42 male mice divided into six groups, including a control group, infected groups without treatment, infected treated with 20 mg/kg bw chloroquine, and infected groups treated with different doses of <em>Prosopis africana </em>fraction at 6.25 mg/kg,12.5mg/kg and 25 mg/kg bw respectively. The mice were induced by NK-65 chloroquine sensitive <em>Plasmodium berghei </em>and administered oral treatment for four days. After the treatment period, biochemical analysis of blood samples and tissues was conducted, focusing on liver and kidney function markers, as well as oxidative stress indicators. Mice infected with <em>Plasmodium berghei </em>exhibited significant alterations in biochemical indices and oxidative balance compared to the control group. However, treatment with <em>Prosopis africana </em>fraction mitigated these changes, restoring biochemical parameters and reestablishing oxidative balance. Notably, the dose at 12.5 mg/kg bw of <em>Prosopis africana </em>fraction demonstrated superior efficacy in reversing the alterations induced by malaria infection. These findings suggest that <em>Prosopis africana </em>fraction holds therapeutic potential in mitigating the biochemical disruptions and oxidative stress associated with malaria infection.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Prevalence and antimicrobial resistant <i>Escherichia coli</i> and <i>Klebsiella</i> sp among individuals with urinary tract infection from hospital and community settings in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria 2024-04-30T07:38:08+00:00 A.O. Ajayi C.O. Anidiobu M.A. Fowora <p>The antibiotic resistance of urinary pathogens has been varying over the period of years, in community and healthcare-associated infections. The study provided the current prevalence and antimicrobial-resistant <em>Escherichia coli </em>and <em>Klebsiella </em>sp among individuals with urinary tract infections from hospital and community settings in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Midstream urine samples were collected and studied using standard microbiological techniques. Information for the factors associated with UTIs was obtained using questionnaires. An agar disc diffusion technique was used to test for antibiotic susceptibility. The chi-square test and Poisson regression was used to express associations among descriptive variables of UTI. The study revealed females are more susceptible to UTIs than males. Bacterial isolates showed a low prevalence of UTI with 122(8.5%). The age-wise distribution shows that the Incidence is more common in age bracket 51-60 and 21to 30 years. Gender and risk factors among the individuals had a significant relationship with UTIs. Overall, the bacterial strains showed the highest resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate 43(91.5%) and most susceptible to imipenem 40(85.1%). The bacteria isolates also showed high multiple resistance with 0.6 MAR index. Appropriate diagnosis and management of UTI are aimed at treating the acute occurrence as well as preventing recurrences of this infection.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Biodegradation of bonny light crude oil by plasmid and non-plasmid borne soil bacterial strains using biostimulation and bioaugmentation techniques 2024-04-30T07:44:31+00:00 Marcel Chikelue Ifediegwu Bright Obidinma Uba Victoria Ginika Awari Dozie John Okongwu <p>A laboratory scale study was designed and conducted to assess the biodegradation of Bonny light crude oil by plasmid and non-plasmid borne soil bacterial strains using biostimulation and bioaugmentation techniques. The enrichment technique, turbidometric test, plasmid curing test, molecular identification method, biostimulation test, bioaugmentation test and gas chromatographic technique were carried out using standard analytical techniques. The physicochemical analysis result showed that the pH was slightly neutral, the organic carbon content was higher (2.32 to 4.34%), the conductivity was higher (0.41 to 0.44 μS/cm), and the water holding capacity was lower (0.27 percent and 10.11 kg, respectively). Based on their capacity to use crude oil, the results showed that 22 of the 60 isolated bacterial strains had higher pollutant degrading potentials (A<sub>600nm</sub> &gt; 0.3).The identified potent hydrocarbon degraders includes: <em>Bacillus </em>spp., <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>KAVK01 and <em>Ochrobacterium </em>E85b strains. The highest degradation efficiency of 91% was found in soil that had been contaminated with 3 % (v/w) crude oil, amended with inorganic salts, and inoculated with plasmid-borne mixed cultures. The result further indicated that the consortium of plasmid borne isolates enhanced the reduction of the crude oil from the initial concentration of 10,318 ppm to 501 ppm (95 %) whereas 64 % decontamination was facilitated by the consortium of plasmid cured isolates. The information gathered from this investigation may be useful in choosing bacterial species, particularly plasmid-borne ones that can be employed to biodegrade soil contaminated by crude oil in Nigeria's Niger Delta region as well as the sample collection locations.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Cellulolytic potentials of aspergillus oryzae and streptomyces griseus isolated from waste dump soil in Nile University Of Nigeria, Abuja 2024-04-30T07:50:24+00:00 G.G. Ezeagu M. Fadayomi U.S. Rikiji <p>The potential of using microorganisms as biological sources of industrially economic enzymes has stimulated interest in the exploitation of extracellular enzymatic activity in several microorganisms. The aim of this research is to assess the cellulose degrading potentials of two microorganisms, <em>Aspergillus oryzae </em>and <em>Streptomyces griseus </em>using cellulose Congo red agar media. Soil sample collected from waste dump was serially diluted and inoculated in starch casein agar and SDA to isolate <em>S. griseus </em>and <em>A. oryzae </em>respectively. To assess their potentials to utilize cellulose, each of the two microorganisms was inoculated on cellulose Congo-red media and incubated at 30 ºC for 7days. A zone of clearing around the colonies after incubation confirms the secretion of extracellular cellulase, and was used as an indication for cellulose utilization. The zone of clearing was measured with a meter rule. In the results obtained, both microorganisms demonstrated cellulose utilization ability with <em>Aspergillus oryzae </em>showing a zone of clearing of 30.50 ± 0.50 mm while <em>Streptomyces griseus </em>showed a wider zone of clearing of 60.00 ± 1.00 mm. The results indicate that both microorganisms can be potent producers of the enzyme cellulase, with <em>Streptomyces griseus </em>having a higher cellulase-producing ability.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Facile synthesis and optimization of graphene oxide reduction by annealing in hydrazine vapour in ambient air for potential application in perovskite solar cells 2024-04-30T07:53:14+00:00 Stephen Shaibu Ochigbo Alfred Obukohwo Obar M.A.T. Suleiman A.S. Kovo <p>Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized from graphite via a modified Hummer's method, followed by thermal and chemical reductions to produce reduced graphene oxide (RGO) samples at various temperatures. A suite of characterization techniques including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), UV-Visible Spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Hall effect measurements were employed to assess the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical properties of the samples. FTIR analysis confirmed the successful functionalization of graphite to GO and subsequent reduction to reduced graphene oxide, with peak intensities decreasing as the reduction temperature increased. UV-visible spectroscopy of GO showed a maximum absorption at 235 nm which confirmed the synthesis of GO while the reduction revealed a notable red shift in absorption peaks with increasing annealing temperature, and that signified a reduction in bandgap. XRD analyses demonstrated the removal of oxygen functional groups. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of GO showed diffraction at 2θ = 10.74° which revealed a fully oxidized graphene oxide with oxygen-containing functional groups, and hence an increase in interlayer spacing (d<sub>002</sub>) from 3.341 Å (graphite) to 8.228 Å (GO). Upon reduction, there is a gradual decrease in d<sub>002</sub> from 8.228 Å (GO) to 3.387 Å (HRGO300), suggesting the gradual removal of intercalated oxygen molecules, and hence the gradual restoration of sp<sup>2</sup> hybridisation in graphene. The EDS analysis revealed an increase in the carbon-to-oxygen (C/O) ratio from 1.78 in GO to 2.75 in HRGO300 as the annealing temperature for the reduction process increased which further confirmed the removal of oxygen functional groups. The Hall effect data showed hole mobility of 4.634 x10<sup>1</sup> (GO), 4.831 x10<sup>1</sup> (HRGO200), and 5.462 x10<sup>0</sup> (HRGO300) with conductivities of 8.985 x10<sup>-5</sup> (GO), 1.087 x10<sup>0</sup> (HRGO200) and 1.791 x10<sup>1</sup> 1/Ω cm, suggesting an increase in conductivity as the annealing temperature increased as revealed in the EDS. Out of the three samples identified as hole transport materials, the sample HRGO300 with the highest C/O ratio of 2.75 has the highest conductivity, and hence most suitable for application as hole transport material in perovskite solar cell.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Estimation of redox-sensitive metals in Lafarge cement company’s area in Akamkpa Nigeria: Assessment of ecological health risk 2024-04-30T08:02:27+00:00 Victor Eshu Okpashi <p>Toxic compounds such as redox-sensitive metals usually contaminate the soil. They are implicated in the causation of oxidative stress, a precursor of human diseases and ecological extinction. Having uncontaminated soil serves as the link between plant and animal health quality, and a sustainable ecosystem. Geological accumulation and spatial distribution of redox-sensitive metals in agricultural land can significantly hinder soil fertility, ecological health, food safety, and food security. This study used the soil samples from farmlands near the Lafarge industrial area at Mfamosing, Akamkpa local government area of Cross River State, Nigeria, to assess eight redox-sensitive metals (Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Nickel, Lead, Arsenic, Cobalt, and Zinc), their spatial distribution, and geo-accumulation. The redox-sensitive metals were screened with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer connected with mass spectroscopy. A geographic information system (GIS) and ArcMap version 10:8:2 was used to infer the risk of the industrial area regarding geo-accumulation, and spatial distribution of redox-sensitive metals in the farmlands. The result shows Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, As, Co and Zn have different concentrations among the samples. Three samples - MS2, MS3, and MS8, had the highest arsenic concentration, while samples Ms1, Ms2, Ms5, and Ms8, had the second-highest concentrations of Cadmium, Lead, and Chromium, respectively. The polluted area was moderately contaminated and distributed with other metals - Cu, Ni, and Co, respectively. Comparing these results with those of non-industrial areas, one can infer that the Lafarge industrial area is more contaminated with redox-sensitive metal. To advance this investigation, some microorganisms within the area can be used to verify a metal-hazard impact on the ecosystem and monitor the rise in redox-sensitive metals to predict the risk.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Characterization and improvement of the leavening capacity of <i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</i> isolated from Nigerian indigenous alcoholic beverages using a chemical mutagen 2024-04-30T08:43:54+00:00 Aladeloye Kayode Adedayo Isaac Ayanniran Adesokan <p>Yeasts are widely distributed in nature and can be isolated from nutrient rich substrates such as fruit and vegetable, fermented foods and beverages. Yeasts have been employed for millions of years in biotechnological applications in the production of bread, beer and wine. <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae </em>is most important species when it comes to practical application in industries. Many developing countries including Nigeria spent billions of dollars annually on importation of active dry yeasts used in their baking and brewery industries. In order to reverse this trend, an attempt was made at improving the leavening capacity of <em>S. cerevisiae </em>isolated from locally made traditional alcoholic beverages by mutation induced by N-methyl-N-Nitro-N-Nitrosoguanidine (NTG). The yeast isolates were identified by their morphological properties and biochemical tests using standard methods. The viable counts of yeast isolated from the five alcoholic beverages employed in this study ranged between 1.4x10<sup>7</sup> and 2.4x10<sup>8</sup> CFU/mL. The yeast with the lowest percentage of occurrence (1.67%) are <em>Geotricum candidum</em>, <em>Schizosaccharomyces japanicus</em>, <em>Sch. pombe</em>, <em>Candida intermedia </em>etc. while <em>S. cerevisiae </em>had highest percentage of occurrence of 26.67%. <em>S. cerevisiae </em>PWII exhibited the highest dough rising ability among the parent strains, but <em>S. cerevisiae </em>M3 had the best dough rising power among the mutants. Physical examinations of the baked revealed that the bread samples produced with mutant strains compared favorably well with ones produced with commercial yeasts in terms of height, weight and volume. On the other hand bread samples produced using parent strains (PT 14 and PWII) had longer shelf life than bread from mutant and commercial strains. Sensory evaluation by taste panelists showed that the ranges of scores obtained are appearance (5.6-7.9), texture (6.3-8.1), taste (5.5-7.0), crumb (6.0-7.1) and overall acceptability (6.2-7.2). It could be concluded from this study that the leavening ability of <em>S. cerevisiae </em>could be enhanced by chemical mutagens and therefore could by employed in bread baking.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among school children in Giwa and Markafi Local Government Areas, Kaduna State, Nigeria 2024-05-02T12:16:37+00:00 Danaladi Austine Markus Henry Gabriel Bishop <p>Urinary schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that is affecting the health of many children, especially in Nigeria. Awareness about schistosomiasis in some communities is low; hence more children undertake activities in unsafe bodies of water. This study determined the prevalence, socio-demography, risk factors and symptoms of urinary schistosomiasis among school children in Giwa and Makarfi LGAs. A total of 200 school children were enrolled in this study and each of them submitted 10 mL urine sample. Each urine sample was concentrated by centrifugation and the sediment was examined using a light compound microscope. Data collected were analyzed using IBM SPSS Version 23 at 95% confidence interval. Overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in this study was 19(9.5%). Spatial prevalence was 10.0% and 9.0% in Giwa and Makarfi LGAs respectively. There was no infection among the females (0.0%), but 13.5% of infection occurred among the males (P=0.003, OR =1.156). School children within the age-group of 18–19 years old had highest infection of 20.0%, followed by 12.1% and 5.6% among those within age-groups of 14-15 and 12-13 years old respectively. The infection was more occurring among children in junior secondary school (10.4%) than among those in senior secondary school (7.7%). Significant risk factors were irrigation farming, swimming, fishing and washing of clothes in rivers (P&lt;0.05, OR &gt;1). Significant symptoms of the disease among them included painful urination and terminal haematuria (P&lt;0.05, OR &gt;1). However, infected individuals mostly encountered frequent urination and abdominal pains (OR&gt;1). Urinary schistosomiasis prevails in the study area. It is important to create widespread awareness and treatment intervention.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Evaluation of phytochemical, in vitro antibacterial and rate of kill assay of <i>Terminalia avicennioides</i> leaf against some bacteria associated with diarrhoea 2024-05-02T12:20:46+00:00 F.M. Musa Z.K. Muhammad-Idris J.R. Wartu <p>The study was aimed to evaluate the phytochemical constituents, <em>in vitro </em>antibacterial and rate of kill assay of <em>Terminalia avicennioides </em>leaf extract against some bacteria associated with diarrhoea. The phytochemical constituents of the ethanol of <em>Terminalia avicennioides </em>leaf, aqueous, n- butanol, and ethyl acetate fractions of the leaf extract were determined using standard analytical methods. The antibacterial activities of the leaf extract and extract fractions against clinical isolates of <em>Salmonella </em>Typhimurium <em>a</em>nd <em>Escherichia coli </em>isolated from diarrhoeaic patients were determined <em>in vitro </em>by agar diffusion, dilution and time - kill methods. The result of phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, saponins, flavonoides, tannins, alkaloids, phenols and triterpenes. The crude extract and extract fractions of <em>T. avicennioides </em>leaf were effective against the test bacterial isolates at varied concentration of extracts but the n-butanol fraction was more effective with Minimum inhibitory and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration of 6.25 and 12.5mg/ml. The clinical isolates of <em>E. coli </em>and <em>S</em>. Typhimurium were completely killed within 180 minutes of exposure to ethanol leaf extract and extract fractions at varied MBCs of 12.5 mg/ml and 25.0 mg/ml. The clinical isolates of <em>E. coli </em>and <em>S</em>. Typhimurium were more susceptible to n-butanol fraction within 120 minutes of exposure to the extract fraction.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Assessing the effects and impacts of the CdSTe interlayer in the performance of the CdTe-CdS thin film solar cells through simulations 2024-05-02T12:27:59+00:00 Mohammed Mannir Aliyu <p>CdTe based solar cells have proved to be the most successful thin film PV solar cells with their full industrial production. However, the needed improvement in output efficiency of these cells is constrained by major issues such the poor understanding of the ternary CdS<sub>x</sub>Te<sub>1-x</sub> interlayer, formed at the CdS-CdTe interface. While it is believed to have both beneficial and negative effects on the cell performance, its exact mechanism and extent are not fully explored. In this work, the AMPS-1D software was used to model this interlayer, using several of its variables such as thickness, bandgap as well as the thickness of the bounding CdS layer. Results show that the interlayer thickness reduces cell performance, through Jsc, Voc, FF and J-V curves, with best efficiencies of 17.892% (Jsc=27.043mA/cm<sup>3</sup>, Voc=0.871V, FF=0.8) obtained at zero thickness, falling down by nearly 20% at CdS<sub>x</sub>T<sub>1-x</sub> thickness of 100nm. As the bandgap is varied, maximum cell performance of 17.85% (Jsc=27.76, Voc=0.91V and FF=0.81) was found at 1.7eV. Similarly, increasing CdS thickness also reduced cell performance, by reducing the quantum efficiency. The results indicate that if the CdSxTe<sub>1</sub>-x layer has a thickness of up to 100nm, and a bandgap of around 1.7eV, then cell efficiencies of around 18% were feasible even for ultra-thin CdTe layers of 1μm.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Towards the fabrication of flexible thin film CdTe solar cells: The significance of substrate surfaces 2024-05-02T12:32:01+00:00 Mohammed Mannir Aliyu <p>Thin film CdTe solar cells have been recognized as reliable alternative for the manufacture of cheap photovoltaic solar cells of the future, due to its excellent absorber characteristics and simple, low-cost manufacturability. However, for the attainment of higher cell performances, additional studies are needed to increase cell efficiency through further development of better quality films and new fabrication processes. In the <em>substrate-structured </em>CdTe thin film solar cells, the CdTe absorber layer is deposited directly onto the substrate or through a back contact layer. But the quality of deposited film is believed to depend on the type and smoothness of the substrate. In this work CdTe was deposited on different substrates by RF sputtering and the effects on the deposited films were studied in terms of their structural and morphological forms. The substrates used were: pure molybdenum sheets (Mo), molybdenum-sputtered on molybdenum (Mo/Mo), molybdenum-sputtered polyimide (PI/Mo) and molybdenum-sputtered glass (glass/Mo). The characterization tools used included XRD, SEM and AFM. The results showed that all surfaces produced uniform, compact and pinhole-free films; however, those on smoother surfaces produced larger as-deposited grain sizes of up to1.7μm as against 1.3 for rougher surfaces. Non-uniformities such as overgrowth and voids were observed, but only films on PI showed evidence of cracking and peel-offs.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Influence of fly ash as additive on the viscosity of transesterified neem oil 2024-05-02T12:34:05+00:00 Mubarak Musa Zakari Auwalu Musa Usman Idris Ismail <p>Biodiesel as the renewable source of energy has become one of the alternative solutions towards the problems associated with the use of fossil fuels in energy generation. Most of the biodiesel produced via tansesterification process are associated with viscosity that is above diesel limit. This problem can be mitigated through the use of solid materials as additive. This paper investigates the influence of fly ash as additive on the viscosity of transesterified neem oil. The morphology and chemical constituent of fly ash were studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Xray Fluoroscopy (XRF). The crude neem oil was purified; transesterified and 0.1 wt%, 0.2 wt%, 0.3wt%, 0.4wt% and 0.5wt% of fly ash were used as additive. The viscosity of crude, purified, transesterified and transesterified with 0.1 wt%, 0.2 wt%, 0.3wt%, 0.5wt% and 0.5wt% of fly ash as additive were measured using brookfield digital viscometer. SEM shows that the mophorlogy of fly ash was dispersed particle with cloudy structure while XRF shows that the major compound presence on fly ash was silicon oxide. The viscosity of the samples decreases as the temperature increases and with the addition of fly ash. But on the addition of 0.3wt% it shows significant variation at equal range of temperature. This indicated that the fly ash can be used as biodiesel additive on neem oil as it decreases the level of viscosity presence on the oil.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Production of cellulase enzymes by <i>Bacillus</i> sp and <i>Pseudomonas</i> sp isolated from anthill soil 2024-05-02T12:37:01+00:00 R.S. Ibrahim J. Maiangwa S. Idris J. Musa <p>Cellulase turns the most widespread biopolymer and biologically sustainable resource, 'cellulose,' into reducing sugar. The study aimed at producing cellulase enzymes by bacteria isolated from anthill soil. Cellulase-producing bacteria were isolated from anthill soil using Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) medium. The isolates were screened for cellulase production by cultural, morphological, biochemical and sugar fermentation tests. Optimization of the fermentation medium for maximum cellulase production was carried out by one factor at a time (OFAT). Data obtained were analysed with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS 2007, version 16.0. The identified <em>Pseudomonas </em>sp, <em>Staphylococcus </em>sp, <em>E. coli </em>and <em>Bacillus </em>sp were isolated with highest potential of cellulase production. The culture conditions like pH, temperature, carbon sources and nitrogen sources were optimized. The optimum conditions found for cellulase production were 40<sup>o</sup>C at pH 8.5 with maltose as carbon source and yeast extract as nitrogen source. The highest activity and stability of cellulase enzymes between neutral to alkaline pH and high temperature.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Human papillomavirus 16 specific immunoglobulin g antibodies and its correlates among women attendees of selected hospitals in Southern Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria 2024-05-02T12:39:41+00:00 J.M. Banda L.O. Adama I.A. Joshua S.F. Banda O.J. Okojokwu G.C. Onyemelukwe <p>Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) is one of the high-risk viruses that cause cervical cancers. Persistent infection with the virus leads to development of precancerous lesions of the cervix in infected women, which without medical intervention can progress to invasive cervical cancer. This study assessed HPV16-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in the serum of women attendees of General Outpatient Department (GOPD) at General Hospital Kafanchan and Kagarko in Kaduna State. This was a cross-sectional study. Structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information and blood samples were also collected for testing. This was in addition to information collected from the laboratory analyzed. Five milliliters (5mls) of blood were aseptically collected from each of the 200 women, who had no history of HPV vaccination at the time of the study for the determination of HPV16-specific IgG antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The sero-positivity for HPV 16-specific IgG antibodies among the women was 24.5%. The sero-positivity among women who had their first sexual intercourse at age 13-19 years was 37.6%, and it was significantly different from those who had their sexual debut at ≥20 years (14.8 %) (p=0.001). Sero-positivity also increased from 9.2 % in women with one lifetime sexual partner to 60.0% in those with multiple sexual partners(p=0.001). The finding showed that the women in this study have been exposed to the HPV-16 virus. Further study with a larger population of women in this locality to determine the level of susceptibility or immunity to HPV-16 is strongly advocated, among others.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Potential of yeast (<i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</i>) as feed stabilizer and growth promoter on <i>Clarias gariepinus</i> (Burchell, 1822) fingerlings 2024-05-02T12:45:24+00:00 M.A. Dakare I.K. Auta P. Fache J.A. Auta <p>This research was carried out to examine the potential of yeast as a fish feed stabilizer and growth promoter on <em>Clarias gariepienus </em>with varying levels of baker’s yeast (<em>Saccharomyces cerevisae</em>). <em>Clarias gariepinus </em>fingerlings with mean weight of 2.40 grams fingerlings were obtained from Aliu Farms, Kaduna and transported to the Fishery unit located in the Zoological Garden of the school, Kaduna State University, Kaduna State Nigeria. The fish were acclimatized for two weeks in 60 Liters’ plastic tanks. Fish were stocked at 10 fingerlings per tank containing de-chlorinated tap water in triplicate. Four experimental diets with different inclusion levels of <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae </em>as follows; Diet I (5%), Diet II (7.5%) Diet III (10%) and Diet IV (12.5%) and the control diet without <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae </em>were formulated at 40% crude protein. Feed subjected to stability test clearly showed that stability increases with increased level of yeast with Diet IV (12.5%) having the highest at 30 minutes (76%) and 60 minutes (68%). The pelleted feeds were fed to fish at the rate of 5% of the fish biomass throughout the experimental period. The growth response was assessed in terms of daily weight gain, relative weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio. The results showed that diet III (10%) gave the best growth performance with an average weight gain of 2.7 followed by diet IV (12.5%) of average weight gain of 2.39 g when compared to the control diet. Similarly, diet III (10%) recorded the highest survival rate of 80%. Thus, adding baker’s yeast cells into commercial fish feed at 10% improved growth and survival of Clarias <em>gariepinus</em>.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Evaluation of <i>in vitro</i> anti-trypanosomal activities of leaves, stem bark and root bark extracts of <i>Acacia nilotica</i> (L) Willd ex Del., <i>Guiera senegalensis</i> j. F. Gmel and <i>Ziziphus abyssinica</i> Hochst ex A. rich 2024-05-02T13:22:07+00:00 U.O. Adamu A. Mann J.O. Tijani Y.A. Kabir <p>Currently, the control and treatment of African trypanosomiasis are limited by the number of chemotherapeutic drugs with associated side effects. Consequently, there is an urgent need for a non-toxic herbal treatment for African trypanosomiasis. Leaf, stem, and root bark extracts of <em>Acacia nilotica </em>L. and <em>Guiera senegalensis </em>J. F. Gmel and <em>Ziziphus abyssinica </em>Hochst ex A. Rich were sequentially extracted using hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water as solvents and evaluated for <em>in vitro </em>anti-trypanosomal activities against <em>Trypanosoma brucei</em>, and phytochemical contents. Results revealed that out of the 36 extracts, Methanol leaf extracts of <em>G. senegalensis, </em>aqueous leaf extract of <em>G. senegalensis, </em>methanol leaf extract of <em>A. nilotica </em>and methanol leaf extract of <em>Z. abyssinica </em>leaf extract (MIC 3.93±2.88, 10.98±3.21, 16.91±3.21 and 18.88±3.44 μg/ml respectively), gave the best <em>in vitro </em>anti-trypanosomal activity against <em>T. b. brucei </em>compare to the control. The quantitative phytochemical analysis of the 4 most trypanocidal plant extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpene, quinines, saponins and tannins, with alkaloids and flavonoids having the highest concentrations (4.3.13±0.05 mg/100 g and 4.5±0.02 mg/100 g respectively) in the methanol leaf extract of <em>G. senegalensis </em>and quinone with the lowest concentration (0.1±0.07 mg/100 g).The methanol leaf extracts of <em>G. senegalensis </em>were found to have the most <em>in vitro </em>anti-trypanosomal activities (MIC of 3.93±2.88 ug/ml), possibly due to the high content of alkaloids and flavonoids. The results of this study revealed the potential of <em>G. senegalensis </em>for the treatment of African trypanosomiasis. Consequently, further studies are needed with this plant to evaluate its <em>in vivo </em>anti-trypanosomal potential, the structures of the bioactive compounds responsible for its activity, and its other medicinal properties.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Phyto-parasitic nematodes of bell pepper plant and farm soil in Abua, Rivers State, Nigeria 2024-05-02T12:59:17+00:00 Emmanuel Green Ekine Chinonye Oluchi Ezenwaka <p>Bell pepper farming significantly contributes to economic development in Abua. However, phyto-parasitic nematodes are endemic in the area and affect quality of crop yield. Hence, this study was undertaken to investigate the dynamics of occurrence of nematodes in bell pepper roots and soil samples of the farms in Abua. Roots and soil from the root rhizosphere were simultaneously collected at 0-20 cm depth using an improvised soil auger and knife. Modified sieve plate technique was employed for nematode detection and a pictorial key was used for nematode identification at the genera level. An overall nematode abundance of 746 nematodes in the soil around the root region and 216 nematodes in the root tissues of the bell peppers were recorded. <em>Gracilachus </em>species (10.6 %) was more prevalent in the soil, and <em>Meloidogyne </em>species (35.2 %) exhibited the highest population in roots. The study found that Abua's cultivated soil is susceptible to nematode infestation, limiting crop performance. The nematodes showcased root burrowing which is an inherent pattern for survival. The result on root nematodes across the five bell farms surveyed was not significant (p &gt; 0.05). The result opined that farmers in Abua, Rivers State, should understand the role of the soil nematodes and implement soil improvement strategies for improved crop performance and rural economic development.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Green synthesis of copper and iron nanoparticles from extracts of eucalyptus with their antimicrobial activities 2024-05-02T13:03:03+00:00 Shehu Adamu Nasiru Yahaya Pindiga Awwal Hussain Nuhu Ali Ibrahim Muhammad Shirama Yakubu <p>Eco-friendly iron and copper nanoparticles were synthesized using masquerade and eucalyptus leaves extract as a reducing and stabilizing agents. Iron chloride heptahydrate (FeCl<sub>2</sub>.7H<sub>2</sub>O) and Copper sulphatepenta hydrate (CuSO<sub>4</sub>.5H<sub>2</sub>O) as metal precursors. It was characterized using UV visible, FTIR, XRD and SEM analysis. The UV result shows the highest peaks at 500 and 600 nm for iron and copper respectively. This is due to the surface plasma vibration of the phytochemical constituents present in the extract. FTIR shows presence of alkanoids and triterpenes, SEM shows the spherical granular with no well-defined morphology and mono dispersed structures for iron and copper nanoparticles respectively. It shows good antibacterial activity when tested against <em>Escherichia-coli </em>and <em>Pseudomonas auredinosa </em>(gram- negative), <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>and <em>Klebsella pneumonia </em>(gram-positive).</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Effects of ethanolic extract of <i>Aristolochia repens</i> on biochemical and histological changes in high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced rats 2024-05-02T13:14:10+00:00 S.A. Omar F.A. Abubakar K.R. Onemola <p>The study evaluated the lipid profile, electrolytes and histological changes in diabetic Wistar rats treated with stem bark extract of <em>Aristolochia repens</em>. Type 2 diabetes was induced in rats with high-fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg body weight). A total of thirty-five Wistar rats were fed with high-fat diet for eight (8) weeks, while five (5) Wistar rats (Sham control) were fed with low-fat diet. Non-induced male Wistar rats were treated with distilled water (Sham control); while the induced male Wistar rats were treated with distilled water, metformin (100 mg/kg), 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg ethanolic extract of <em>Aristolonchia repens </em>stem bark for 28 days. The rats were sacrificed; liver, kidney and serum were collected and analyzed for serum glucose, lipid profile, electrolytes and histological changes. Treatment with ethanolic extract of <em>Aristolonchia </em>repens stem bark significantly reduced the body weight, glucose level, total cholesterol concentration, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein concentration and atherogenic indices. Mild pathological alterations were observed in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats at dosage above 50 mg/kg. However, the extract reduced the blood glucose, lipids and improve the selected electrolyte balance. This study suggests that ethanolic extract of stem bark of <em>A. repens </em>possesses antihyperglycaemia and antilipidaemic potential and might not be safe at dosage above 50 mg/kg.</p> 2024-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024