Science World Journal <!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning ></w:PunctuationKerning> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas ></w:ValidateAgainstSchemas> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables ></w:BreakWrappedTables> <w:SnapToGridInCell ></w:SnapToGridInCell> <w:WrapTextWithPunct ></w:WrapTextWithPunct> <w:UseAsianBreakRules ></w:UseAsianBreakRules> <w:DontGrowAutofit ></w:DontGrowAutofit> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:"Arial Narrow"; panose-1:2 11 5 6 2 2 2 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:swiss; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:647 2048 0 0 159 0;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;} a:link, span.MsoHyperlink {color:blue; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed {color:purple; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --><!-- [if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]--> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 3pt 0pt;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt;">The SWJ is a peer review on-line international journal of broad appeal, aimed at fast publication of cutting edge research across the sciences. The Journal publishes multidisciplinary articles reporting on original research in the natural and physical sciences and their applications. The journal also promotes the application of computers in modeling and Bioinformatics. Other websites related to this journal: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></span></p> Kaduna State University, Faculty of Science en-US Science World Journal 1597-6343 Copyright belongs to the journal. Journal is Open Access Optimization of some selected process factors in wheat production: A response surface approach <p>This study applied the approach of Response Surface Methodology to optimize some selected process factors in wheat production in order to minimize the amount of wheat harvest loss using combine harvester. The factors considered were Grain Moisture Content (GMC), Rotor Speed (RS) and Ground Speed (GS) of the combine harvester. The amount of wheat loss was evaluated in different levels of GMC (10, 15 and 20 %), RS (450, 550 and 650 rpm) and GS (3.5, 4.5 and 5.5 km/h) and the relationship between the specified factors and the amount of wheat harvest loss was established. The study revealed that the 2-factor interaction model with coefficient of multiple determination (R^2) and adjusted coefficient of multiple determination (R ̅^2) of 79.5% and 76.88% respectively and an insignificant lack of fit (p value of 0.289) best predicts the wheat harvest loss using combine harvester. In the canonical analysis, the Eigenvalues were 10.83, 4.46 and 1.21 which shows that the points 15% for grain moisture content, 650 rpm for rotor speed and 3.5km/h for machine ground speed are points of minimization which give the least wheat harvest loss. The 3-D surface plot for the wheat harvest loss gave a concave up image justifying the points of minimization obtained. The farmer will recover at least 66kg of wheat per hectare if the recommended factor combination is applied.</p> Akanihu Chizoba Nwadinobi Oyedeji I. Osowole Ali Hillary Copyright (c) 2021-08-11 2021-08-11 16 2 65 72 Mathematical modeling and analysis of pneumonia infection dynamics <p>Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, especially among children below 5 years, the elderly above 65 years and people with weaker immune system. It is usually referred to as the “captain of the men of death" because of the great toll it exacted on humanity. In this work, we examined the dynamics of the pneumonia disease from a mathematical perspective via a deterministic SEIR model. This consists of investigating the equilibrium, basic reproduction number, stability analysis, and bifurcation analysis. It is observed that the pneumonia free equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable if the basic reproduction number is less than one, and the pneumonia endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable in the invariant region if the basic reproduction number is greater than one. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the rate of transmission and the rate at which exposed individuals become infectious are the most sensitive parameters, and the bifurcation analysis via the centre manifold theory revealed the presence of forward bifurcation.</p> Marcus Ifeanyi Ossaiugbo Newton I. Okposo Copyright (c) 2021-08-11 2021-08-11 16 2 73 80 Effect of location and time of introducing cowpea on growth parameters of cowpea in a maize/cowpea intercrop in southern Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria <p>Field experiments were conducted during the 2019 rainy season at the Kaduna State University Teaching and Research Farm, Kafanchan (latitude 9.58330 N and longitude 8.28690 E) located in Jema’a Local Government area and Madakiya, (latitude 9.68990 N and longitude 8.28690 E) located in Zango Kataf Local Government area, all in Southern Kaduna, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The objective was to investigate the growth parameters of cowpea as influenced by time of cowpea introduction to maize/ cowpea intercrop at two locations in Southern Kaduna. The treatments consisted of four times of introducing cowpea at 8,9,10 and 11 weeks after sowing maize (WASM) and two locations (Kafanchan and Madakiya), laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications, Results revealed that among the parameters measured, location significantly influenced number of pods/plant of cowpea only. However, location and the interaction between time of cowpea introduction and location did significantly affect the growth parameters of cowpea, however, time of cowpea introduction in maize had significant effects on growth parameters of cowpea. It is therefore recommended that Cowpea should be introduced in maize/cowpea intercrop on the 8th and 9TH WASM in Madakiya and 10th and 11th WASM in Kafanchan as these locations and timings gave significantly better growth than others.</p> Joseph Dauda Bayei Ayuba Laah Banta Copyright (c) 2021-08-11 2021-08-11 16 2 81 84 Analysis of magnetohydrodynamics effects on convective flow of dusty viscous fluid <p>This paper presents a finite difference analysis of Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) effects on convective flow of dusty viscous fluid&nbsp; incorporating viscous dissipation with respect to fluid and dusty particle. The criterion for the existence and unique solution is established&nbsp; and the properties of solution are examined. The dimensionless governing coupled non-linear partial differential equations governing the phenomenon were solved numerically using finite difference scheme. The effects of various parameters on the velocities are shown graphically and discussed. It is observed that both the velocity of the fluid φ and dust particles χ increases with an increase in Grashof number. Velocity of the fluid decreases with an increase in Magnetic parameter. Increase in Porosity parameter has little effects on the velocity of the fluid and that of the particle. Slight increase in volume faction of dust particles increases the velocity of the particles rapidly and increases moderately the velocity of the fluid. Increase in Mass concentration of dust particles decreases the velocity of both the fluid and particles. Also, considerable effect was noticed on the temperature ϑ by increasing the Eckert number, temperature also increased. Increase in the Prandtl number decreases the temperature of the fluid.</p> U.C. Ugwu A.T. Cole R.O. Olayiwola Copyright (c) 2021-08-11 2021-08-11 16 2 85 89 Evaluation of capsaicin content in parts of some peppers grown in Nigeria <p>The capsaicin content in parts (placenta, seeds and periderm) of some peppers grown in some parts of Nigeria was evaluated. Capsaicin was extracted from the pepper parts was carried-out via the solvent extraction technique using methanol. A Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer, (GCMS QP-2010, Shimadzu Analytical Instruments) was used for determination of capsaicin content. Capsaicin content was highest in the placenta, followed by the seeds for all the pepper samples utilized in the study. The outer flesh (periderm) had the lowest content of capsaicin. The capsaicin content of the placenta ranged from 1.1652±0.0002 in the Yellow pepper from Nsukka (<em>Capsicum chinense</em>) to 0.3226±0.0002mg/g in the “Atarugu” pepper (<em>Capsicum annuum va</em>r) obtained from Zaria. The capsaicin content of the outer flesh ranged from 0.4619±0.0050 in the Yellow pepper from Nsukka (<em>Capsicum chinense</em>) to 0.0070±0.0002mg/g in the “Atarugu” pepper (<em>Capsicum annuum var</em>) obtained from Zaria. The parts of the yellow pepper (<em>Capsicum chinense</em>) had higher capsaicin content than the respective parts of the remaining peppers analyzed in the study. Also, the pepper parts of <em>Capsicum</em> chinense variety had higher capsaicin contents than those of <em>Capsicum annuum</em>, with parts of the large-fruited <em>Capsicum annuum</em> var having the least capsaicin content.</p> C.O. Nwokem Copyright (c) 2021-08-11 2021-08-11 16 2 90 93 Preliminary cytotoxicity studies on some Nigerian medicinal plants used as traditional anticancer remedies <p><em>Crinum jagus, Icacina trichantha</em> and<em> Solanum erianthum</em> are used in ethno-medicine for the treatment of cancer. This study screened different parts of these plants (leaves and bulb of <em>C. jagus</em>; leaves and tuber of<em> I. trichantha</em>; and leaves and stem of <em>S. erianthum</em>) for cytotoxicity. Dried samples of these plant parts were extracted&nbsp; successively with hexane, ethylacetate and methanol using the maceration method and concentrated to dryness using a rotary evaporator. Cytotoxicity studies on the extracts were carried out using the brine shrimp assay at concentrations of 10 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL and 1000 μg/mL (in triplicates). The response of the nauplii to different concentrations of the extracts was observed after 24 h. The LC<sub>50</sub> value was used as a measure of the toxicity of the extracts. The LCc<sub>50</sub> values for the different extracts of the leaves and bulb of <em>Crinum jagus</em> ranged between 0.251 μg/ml and 10.280 μg/ml. Values ranging between 9.992 μg/mL and 192.602 μg/mL were obtained for the leaves and tuber of <em>Icacina trichantha</em>. The leaves and stem of<em> Solanum erianthum</em> gave LC<sub>50</sub> values between 2.395 μg/mL and 84.924 μg/mL. The plant parts under study had very low LC<sub>50</sub> values and therefore show promise as potential sources of novel anticancer agents.</p> T.T. Alawode L. Lajide M.T. Olaleye B.J. Owolabi Copyright (c) 2021-08-11 2021-08-11 16 2 94 97 Deep and probabilistic learning under uncertainties cum non-spherical disturbances <p>The study investigates the performances of deep and probabilistic models under uncertainties with non-spherical disturbances inherent in the data. We deemed aleatoric and epistemic uncertainties, the former inherent in the data while the later inherent in the model in&nbsp; probabilistic approach. Loss, mean square error (MSE), mean absolute error (MAE) were adopted to evaluate the performance of the&nbsp; models for training, testing and validating sets. Both multicollinearity and autocorrected error were inherent in the data, there exist&nbsp; negative autocorrected error of magnitude 1.46 and the multicollinearity with magnitude of “inf” that implies imperfect multicollinearity were inherent in the data. Keras Dense layer and Tensor flow probability (tfp) Dense variational layer were adopted. The underlying model were constructed probabilistically to capture aleatoric, epistemic and both. The study observed that the “no uncertainty, classical and aleatoric models behaved well when data were standardised, the magnitude of loss, MAE and MSE reduced by almost 98%, this implies that the accuracy of the parameter were improved, though epistemic and both aleatoric and epistemic uncertainties models depicted poor performances of the model despite their probabilistic nature, this may be due to combination of uncertainty with non-spherical disturbances. The unstandardised data exhibited poor performances in all the models. The study therefore recommended that data should be standardised prior estimation.</p> I. Oloyede Copyright (c) 2021-08-11 2021-08-11 16 2 98 102 Comparison of estimators efficiency for linear regressions with joint presence of autocorrelation and multicollinearity <p>This paper proposes a new estimator called Two stage K-L estimator by combining these two estimators previously proposed by Prais Winsten (1958) and Kibra with Lukman (2020) for autocorrelation and multicollinearity respectively and to derived the necessary and sufficient condition for its superiority over other competing estimators. Simulation study was used to ascertain the dominance of this new estimator using the finite sample properties of estimators in terms of the estimated mean squared error. The study findings shows that under severe autocorrelation and collinearity condition, the proposed Two stage K-L estimator appears to be having a similar performance with RMLE and MLE. Also, under severe autocorrelation and moderate collinearity condition, regardless of the sample size, the proposed Two stage K-L estimator is seen to outperform all other estimators and lastly, the Two stage K-L estimator appears to have an improved performance as the large sample sizes. The study recommends that when autocorrelation and multicollinearity level is at moderate to severe, the proposed Two stage K-L estimator will perform better regardless of the size of the data, and the degree of autocorrelation and multicollinearity should be considered while estimating parameters and thus applying an efficient estimator to avoid erroneous inferences.</p> Mohammed Anono Zubair Monday Osagie Adenomon Copyright (c) 2021-08-11 2021-08-11 16 2 103 109 Improving shelf life and quality of Daddawa made by fermentation of soya beans and sorrel seeds from Maiduguri, north-east Nigeria <p>Daddawa is a Hausa name for a fermented product made from seeds of plants such as soya bean, locust bean, baobab and castor seeds. This product serves as flavour enhancers in soups in many homes in Nigeria. Sorrel seeds are less competitive sources of amino acids and proteins that is cultivated all year round in many parts of northern Nigeria. This study evaluated the biochemical properties of a fermented daddawa made from combination of soybeans (Glycine max) and sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds (3:1 and 1:3 ratios). Both combinations resulted in daddawa product with significantly higher (p&lt; 0.05) soluble proteins, amino acids and titrable acidity relative to the unfermented sample. The product made from the 3:1 soybeans and sorrel seed combination ratio had the highest concentration of amino acid (29.0 ± 1.0 mg/g sample) at 60 h of fermentation while those made from the 1:3 ratio had the highest amino acid concentration (32.0 ± 1.0 mg/g sample) at 36 h. Reducing sugar concentrations were significantly lower (p &lt; 0.001) in the fermented daddawa product compared to the unfermented sample for both combinations. Storage with vitamins C and E significantly decreased (p &lt; 0.001) the levels of soluble proteins and amino acids in the product made from the 3:1 soybeans and sorrel seed combination. The vitamin containing stored&nbsp; daddawa product had significantly higher (p &lt; 0.05) titrable acidity concentration. This study has shown the addition of vitamin C and E on daddawa made from a combination of soya bean and sorrel seeds to be inadequate in preserving nutrients during storage.</p> Z.K. Mohammed Copyright (c) 2021-08-11 2021-08-11 16 2 110 116 Modelling fire spread reaction rate in atmospheric-weather condition <p>Fire spread in any fire environment is a thing of great concern as wind is arguably the most important weather factor that influences the spread of fire. In this paper, we present equations governing the phenomenon and assume the fire depends on the space variable x . Analytical solution is obtained via perturbation method, direct integration and eigenfunction expansion technique, which depicts the influence of parameters involved in the system. The effect of change in parameters such as Peclet mass number and Equilibrium wind velocity are presented graphically and discussed. The results obtained revealed that both Peclet mass number and Equilibrium wind velocity enhanced oxygen concentration during fire spread.</p> A.B. Zhiri R.O. Olayiwola S.A. Somma F.A. Oguntolu Copyright (c) 2021-08-11 2021-08-11 16 2 117 122 Fitting Plackett-Burman design on child disease experiment <p>A child health experiment was designed to achieve the maximum positive variables through the screening of different disease variables, using the Plackett-Burman design. Eleven variables of the children disease were identified: Acute Bronchial Meningitis, Respiratory tract infection, chronic liver disease, Congestive cardiac failure, upper respiratory tract infection, Urinary tract infection, Ante-partum Haemorrhage, Post-partum Haemorrhage, Sickle cell disease, Neonatal Jandice, and Benigu prostal hyperplasia. The selected variables were evaluated through statistical analysis, based on their significance, coefficient value and standard effect plot. The results suggested that three variables, namely, upper respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, Ante-Partum Haemorrhage and the combination of urinary tract infection/Ante-Partum Haemorrhage had influence with high confidence levels, while the remaining eight variables did not show significant effect on the children age. The coefficient of determination value R2 (63.42%) also showed the model used for prediction to be significant (p less than 0.05). The plot for the standard effect for each component and its traits provided accurate data by which to select well-suited variables and further statistical optimization of medium and process parameters was explored using stepwise regression methodology.</p> Hillary Ali Chizoba Nwadinobi Akanihu H.E. Nahum Akila Bulus Makut Copyright (c) 2021-08-11 2021-08-11 16 2 123 128 Mathematical modeling and simulation of closing function of water hammer system during gas production <p>Mathematical modelling and simulation of closing function of water hammer system during gas production described the speed variation of gas as valves close automatically. The fluctuation of speed witnessed was as a result of automatic valve closing and always give back pressure and the shape of the pressure curve where a wide variety of closing modes exists, depending on the valve type and their operation is mathematically represented by a function. The pressure wave obtained in this work can be significantly important to those in gas producing industries. It is in this regard that the author aim is to reduce the problem encountered in gas producing industries by developing a one-dimensional system of governing equations. The equation was simplified to generic function which was formulated to accommodate a suitable closing laws by means of a polygonal segmented structure and solve by Laplace Transformation. The boundary conditions used in this work is generated from a special algothrim that described the transitory. It is observed that back pressure wave shape and amplitude depend on the closing function of valves and in unique relationship. The results can prevent premature closure of gas in gas producing industries. This work has presented an information about the over-pressure peak, shape and phase of the pressure wave during the gas production. It has an advantage of helping gas production industries in choosing the best type of closing laws and help in arresting the over increase in pressure which may cause rupture to a pipe or cause damage to equipment.</p> Jibrin Helma Mbaya Copyright (c) 2021-08-11 2021-08-11 16 2 129 132 Mathematical modeling of fluid flow and total heat transfer process in wellbore <p>Mathematical modelling of fluid flow and total heat transfer process in the wellbore is very important for predicting the actual situation in the realm. The wellbore consists of cement, tubing, casing, and for the total heat transfer, the effect of their respective temperatures on the flowing fluid and the surrounding earth must be investigated. The hot fluid from the reservoir moving up the wellbore had to pass through the tubing which is surrounded by casing and the cement and the surrounding earth formation and subsequently causes loss to the fluid temperature. Many studies about the wellbore consider that fluid temperature from bottom to top of the wellbore remain constant during the process and that heat transfer between the fluid and the surrounding earth temperature does not change resulting to inadequate optimization of wellbore function. This scenario if not properly studied will lead to inefficiency of optimising the wellbore or even premature closure of the wellbore. In this paper, a one-dimensional transient compressible model in the radial direction comprising the conservation of mass and momentum has been presented to investigate the behavior of the heat exchange between fluid temperature and the surrounding earth. Heat transfer equation was also developed to account for radii of tubing, casing and cement. The model was solved by flux vector splitting method of Steger Warming. The method allows the application of gas state equation which is best used in fluid temperature calculation and also account for heat exchange between fluid temperature and surrounding earth. It also allows investigation of the effect of wellbore temperature which is surrounded by casing and cement on the fluid temperature and can be extended to oil reservoir modelling especially in permafrost regions where geothermal gradient is significant. The result obtained shows that flowing fluid temperature drop toward the wellhead due to earth temperature effect on the flowing fluid. It can help gas production engineers in selecting types of pipes, casing and cement used in the wellbore construction.</p> Jibrin Helma Mbaya Jannaidu Hannafi Copyright (c) 2021-08-11 2021-08-11 16 2 133 137 Heat and mass transfer of MHD for an unsteady viscous oscillatory flow <p>Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) studies on chemical reaction concepts, with heat and mass transfer, were presented. Unsteady viscous at the two-dimensional motion of oscillatory flow is considered. Transverse magnetic on a field known to have an influence on pressure gradient at non-dimensional parameters were closely studied and a technique point was carried out. Hartmann number, Grashof, Prandtl, Schmidt numbers and diffusivity ratio effect on the velocity profile and temperature profile overheat and mass transfer of MHD flow. Graphically presentation shows velocity gradient change in the Hartmann number, suction/injection, Grashof, and Prandtl. For Schmidt numbers velocity profile increase on heat and mass transfer. Diffusivity ratio also leads to change velocity and temperature profile.</p> Baba Galadima Agaie Sani Isa Ali Shu’aibu Mai’anguwa Abubakar Saddiq Magaji Copyright (c) 2021-08-11 2021-08-11 16 2 138 144 Petrological and structural evolution of basement rocks around Guga, Katsina State, northwestern Nigeria <p>Lithological characterization and structural assessments of basement rocks around Guga, Katsina State was carried out to understand their geologic evolution and deformational history better. Field and petrographic studies were utilized in characterizing macrostructural, textural, and mineralogical components. Migmatite, banded and augen gneisses, schist, quartzite, and granite constitute the major lithologic units in the study area. Migmatite and the closely related banded gneiss are recognized as igneous-derived metamorphic rocks of Eburnean to early Pan African. In contrast, the augen gneisses are metamorphosed analogues of earlier banded gneiss that were intensely deformed within a ductile shear zone during the middle stages of the Pan African. Similarly, the schist and interbedded quartzite were emplaced during this period, subsequently forming part of the Malumfashi supracrustal cover, related to simple ensialic graben-like structural development. The granitic intrusions represent the youngest rock units in the mapped area, resulting from the magmatic activity of the Pan-African orogeny. Structural analysis suggests the mapped area was affected by two-phase deformation events (D1 and D2). The D1 deformation represents a regional, fabric-forming compressional event, while D2 is a localized deformational event associated with the development of a local shear zone linked to the Kalangai fault system (KFS).</p> M. Abdulkarim H.A. Ibrahim H.M. Grema A. Yunusa Copyright (c) 2021-08-11 2021-08-11 16 2 145 151 Relationship between seasonal weather variation and students’ academic performance in Kaduna State University, Nigeria <p>The study assessed the relationship between seasonal weather variation and students’ academic performance in Kaduna State University (KASU), Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study involved the two campuses of KASU in Kaduna and Kafanchan. Academic Performance data was obtained from the academic office, meteorological data was obtained from NiMET while survey data was obtained using a structured questionnaire administered to 309 randomly selected student’. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the Z – test Statistic. The study found out that seasonal weather variations occur in an academic session as revealed by NiMET data (2008 - 2018) and affected the academic performance of majority of the students (180) 58.3% negatively while (129)41.7% were not affected. The study recommended that mitigation and coping measures should be instituted during the second semester which coincides with peak rainfall to reduce its negative effect on students’ academic performance and a new calendar which avoids the peak weather periods in August, January and April should be designed and utilized as soon as possible to improve students’ academic performance in KASU.</p> H.K. Dariya A.F. Abdussalam Y. Saleh Copyright (c) 2021-08-11 2021-08-11 16 2 152 156 Evaluation of potentially toxic metals (PTMs) accumulation and translocation by <I>Albizia lebbeck</I> from industrial soil <p>Field samples of <em>Albizia lebbeck</em>, deciduous tree with drought tolerant properties, growing on industrial soil (Challawa Industrial Estate) were collected and separated into leaves, stems, roots and associated ground soil to assess the accumulation and translocation of Six Potentially Toxic Metals (PTMs) (Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni ) from the soil. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) was used to assess their levels. The bioaccumulation/ transfer of metals from roots to shoots and from soil to roots were evaluated in terms of translocation and bioconcentration factor. TF values of 1.22 , 1.41, 3.57 and 1.86 for Cu , Cd , Pb and Ni respectively indicate that A. lebbeck was efficient in translocation of PTMs from roots to shoots and follows the trend Cu &gt; Zn &gt; Ni &gt; Cr respectively. This depicts the plant as a likely candidate for phytoextraction of Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni. BCF values of Zn (0.94), Cu (0.85), Cd (1.37), Cr (1.25), Pb (2.3) and Ni (1.66) were noted for the PTMs. This reveals that <em>A. lebbeck</em> may be suitable for phytostabilization of Zn and Cr in the contaminated soils as it retains high concentration of these PTMs in its roots in the study area.</p> Abdullahi Zakari Abdulrahman A. Audu Copyright (c) 2021-08-11 2021-08-11 16 2 157 161 Microbiological quality of anti-tuberculosis drugs commonly used at dots centres and pharmacies within Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna, Nigeria <p>Medicinal drugs of low-quality likely due to microbial contamination can result in increased morbidity and mortality thereby reducing the human population and may also result in emergence of resistant strain organisms in the environment. Studies suggest that there are a lot of counterfeit and substandard anti-tuberculosis drugs in circulation especially in Africa that are used for the treatment and control of tuberculosis whose damage on public health were mostly underestimated. Research on microbiological quality of anti-TB drugs is regrettably inadequate and scarce with most of the researches focused only on determining the active pharmaceutical ingredients of the drugs. This research aimed at assessing the microbiological quality of the anti-TB drugs used at DOTS Centres and Pharmacies within Kaduna metropolis, specifically to determine the total aerobic microbial count, total combined yeast and mould counts, the presence of indicator organisms; <em>Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, Staphylococcus aureus </em>and<em> Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> as well as the susceptibility of the isolates to standard antibiotics. A stratified random sampling was used. A total of fifty-two (52) samples comprising of Rifampicin, Pyrazinamide, Isoniazid, Ethambutol and 4FDC were collected for the study. Methods specified in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP, 2019) under the test for specified organisms and enumeration test were adopted for this research work. The study conducted established that the anti-TB drugs used at DOTS centres and Pharmacies within Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna, Nigeria do not contain any of the indicator organisms but some of the selected anti-TB drugs are contaminated with other strains of microorganisms with some not meeting the requirement for total aerobic microbial count and total yeast and mould count. The microbial contaminants found include species of; <em>Bacillus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alterneria, Curvularia, Aspergillus, Candida </em>and<em> Sporotricum</em>. Some of the selected isolates obtained from the selected anti-TB drugs were not susceptible to the standard antibiotics used; <em>Augmentin, Chloramphenicol, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Amoxicillin </em>and<em> Ofloxacin</em>, with highest resistance recorded in Amoxicillin for all the bacterial isolates. However, all the Candida species were susceptible to the antifungal drugs; <em>Ketoconazole, Fluconazole, Clotrimazole </em>and<em> Itraconazole.</em></p> B. Ibrahim S.U. Adamu I.H. Nock A.G. Aji Copyright (c) 2021-08-11 2021-08-11 16 2 162 171 Evaluation of the efficiency of constructed activated carbon for the treatment of abattoir wastewater <p>In Sub-Saharan Africa, effluents from abattoirs that contain dissolved suspended particles which could be either organic or inorganic are discharged untreated into rivers and lakes. Activated carbon filters can be employed in the process of removing these organic compounds from effluent, thereby making the water suitable for discharge or use in other processes. 5 liters of abattoir wastewater was used for this study, during which two different synthesized activated carbon from sawdust ACC and ACH were employed as filters for the treatment of abattoir wastewater, and thus physico-chemical, heavy metal and microbial analysis were conducted. Activated carbon used was synthesized by means of physicochemical activation of waste sawdust and later heated at 250oC, the material was chemically activated using a base calcium chloride, ACC and an acid phosphoric acid, ACH, respectively. It was found that the maximum percent removal of turbidity, pH, Alkalinity, BOD5, COD, TSS and Chloride ions were 88%, 16.4%, 0%, 89.5%, 95.2%, 96.9% and 81.9% for ACC and 99.8%, 20%, 22.9%, 92.2%, 96.2%, 97.9% and 80.8% for ACH. An increase in DO was observed at 51.1% and 53.3% for ACC and ACH respectively. It was concluded that the constructed ACC has better performance than that of ACH for most However, ACH presented better performance especially for the removal of dissolved solids. There is a need to dope activated carbon with nanoparticles for the treatment of abattoir wastewater.</p> Abubakar L. Hassana Labaran Tanko Nuradeen Copyright (c) 2021-08-11 2021-08-11 16 2 172 178 Effect of varying shade levels on vegetative performance and chlorophyll contents of groundnut (<I>Arachis hypogea</I> L.) shoots <p>Groundnut, also commonly known as peanut (<em>Arachis hypogaea</em>), is a tropical legume mainly grown to produce oil and for human and animal consumption. Light has been the most important factor influencing plant growth, with changes in irradiance having impacts on plant growth, morphology, and anatomy. This research was aimed to evaluate the effect of varying levels on vegetative performance and chlorophyll contents of groundnut shoots. This experiment was conducted in the Botanical Garden of the Department of Biology, Kaduna State University, Kaduna State Nigeria. Healthy seeds of <em>Arachis hypogaea</em> were procured from Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR), Samaru, Zaria. The seeds of A. hypogea were sown in polythene bags containing garden soil. This experiment was laid under Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), each treatments were replicated three (3) times. Growth parameters were measured using ruler and digital weighing balance. It was observed that, seeds germinated after 9 days. From the results obtained, shade affected all growth parameters studied. A. hypogea grown under shade showed reduction in number of leaves, root length, leaves fresh weight and dry weight, stem fresh and dry weights, root fresh and dry weight respectively. Results of chlorophyll composition showed the lowest content of chlorophyll in groundnut shoots grown under shade. It is recommended that, planting of groundnut under shade should be avoided because it ffects growth and chlorophyll compositions in <em>A. hypogea</em> shoots.</p> S.M. Tahir M. Faiza S. Sufiyanu Copyright (c) 2021-08-11 2021-08-11 16 2 179 182 Effects of varying concentrations of plant growth regulators on the <i>in vitro</i> propagation of Amaranthus (<i>Amaranthus tricolour</i> L.) <p>Amaranthus is an important vegetable crop that belongs to the family Amaranthaceae. An experiment was carried out to study the effects of varying concentrations of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) on the in vitro propagation of amaranthus seed using seed explants. The seeds were cultured in vitro on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal media containing different concentrations (0.1mg/L to 0.2mg/L) of auxin (NAA) gibberellin (GA3) and cytokinin (BAP). Early germination was observed in media treated with NAA 0.02mg/L. Best vigor was recorded in media treated with 0.20mg/L BAP treatment. All media has same number of leaves with the exception of 0.2mg/LNAA treatment. Highest root length was observed in media treated with 0.15 mg/L GA3 and 0.2mg/l GA3 and NAA. Highest shoot length was recorded in media treated with 0.15 mg/L GA3. Results of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicated significant differences among the treatments compared with the control (p &lt; 0.05). The protocol developed in this study is suitable for large scale seedling formation, biomass production and obtaining uniform materials for various in vitro studies for the improvement of amaranthus.</p> S.M. Tahir J.Y. Mathew Copyright (c) 2021-08-11 2021-08-11 16 2 183 188 Aluminium-copper-cullet metal composite: a secondary source of aluminium from waste materials <p>In this work, Aluminium composites were fabricated from recycled materials, using recycled Aluminium (Al) obtained from scrap door and window frames, copper (Cu) wire scrap and cullet powder (CP). The Al-Cu-CP metal composite was fabricated via stir casting method due to its simplicity and economic importance. The composite and the unreinforced Al were analysed for physical, mechanical and morphological properties. The analyses indicated that the chemical composition of the products covered all the initial components. The results of hardness tests were found to have improved significantly due to the impact of the reinforcement materials. The hardness increased from 40.625 HV of the unreinforced Al to 124.704 HV for Al-Cu-CP metal composite. The microstructural analysis of the composite revealed appreciable distribution of the reinforcement materials within the Al matrix. Evolution of new phases was also revealed which furthermore contributed immensely towards enhancing the strength of the composite. It is obvious that the properties of the Al-Cu-CP composite were relatively enhanced significantly. Thus, it could be used where high strength with less density composite is required such as automobile brake shoes and brake disc as a result of the upgraded mechanical properties.</p> N.A. Hussain S.S. Jikan N. Badarulzaman Z.M. Dagaci Copyright (c) 2021-08-11 2021-08-11 16 2 189 194