Science World Journal <!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning ></w:PunctuationKerning> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas ></w:ValidateAgainstSchemas> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables ></w:BreakWrappedTables> <w:SnapToGridInCell ></w:SnapToGridInCell> <w:WrapTextWithPunct ></w:WrapTextWithPunct> <w:UseAsianBreakRules ></w:UseAsianBreakRules> <w:DontGrowAutofit ></w:DontGrowAutofit> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:"Arial Narrow"; panose-1:2 11 5 6 2 2 2 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:swiss; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:647 2048 0 0 159 0;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;} a:link, span.MsoHyperlink {color:blue; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed {color:purple; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --><!-- [if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]--> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 3pt 0pt;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt;">The SWJ is a peer review on-line international journal of broad appeal, aimed at fast publication of cutting edge research across the sciences. The Journal publishes multidisciplinary articles reporting on original research in the natural and physical sciences and their applications. The journal also promotes the application of computers in modeling and Bioinformatics. Other websites related to this journal: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></span></p> Kaduna State University, Faculty of Science en-US Science World Journal 2756-391X Copyright belongs to the journal. Journal is Open Access Prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and immunological status of HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy in Nyanya General Hospital Abuja, Nigeria <p>Intestinal parasites, especially in HIV/AIDS patients, are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and the immune status of HIV/AIDS patients on ART. Two hundred (200) HIV/AIDS patients were recruited from the ART clinic at Nyanya General Hospital in Abuja, Nigeria, for this cross-sectional institution-based research. To collect detailed demographic data, questionnaires were sent out. The direct wet mount, formol-ether concentration, and adjusted Ziehl-Neelsen staining were used to analyze stool samples. Patients' records were analyzed during this study period to assess their CD4<sup>+</sup> T-cell count and viral load status. The findings were compared using a contingency table analysis and the chi-square test. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare quantitative data sets. P value of 0.05 was described as statistically significant (P≤0.05).The findings of our study were 80 (40 percent) of the patients had intestinal parasitosis, with 11 (13.8 percent) of them having multiple parasitosis. <em>Cryptosporidium parvum </em>had the highest prevalence (16%), <em>Entamoeba histolytica </em>/<em>dispar </em>(13%), <em>Giardia lamblia </em>(7%), and <em>Entamoeba coli </em>(3.5%). <em>Strongyloides stercoralis</em>, <em>Ascaris lumbricoides</em>, and <em>Cystoisospora belli </em>each had a prevalence of 2.5 percent. The findings revealed that diarrhoea was linked to cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and cystoisosporiasis. In this study, there was no correlation between intestinal parasitosis and immune system function. In HIV/AIDS patients, prolonged and untreated diarrhoea can be crippling and fatal.</p> Ademu Abdulkadir Gazi Umut Ozkan Taylan Aysegul Copyright (c) 2023-01-03 2023-01-03 17 4 444 448 Sumudu-Bernstein solution of differential, integral and integro-differential equations <p>A numerical method based on the inverse Sumudu transform and the Bernstein polynomials operational matrix of integration is developed. The derived method is implemented in solving linear differential, integral and integro-differential equations. Also, a procedure for overcoming nonlinearity is developed and implemented to solve nonlinear Volterra integral equations. The approximate results are compared with the exact solutions and an existing method. Error estimation shows that the proposed method has elevated level of accuracy for just a few terms of the polynomial.</p> Vanenchii Peter Ayoo Terhemen Aboiyar Samuel Tarkaa Swem Copyright (c) 2023-01-03 2023-01-03 17 4 449 454 Modeling subsidy transfer in cooperative advertising using Stackelberg game theory <p>Dynamic game theoretic model approach stands out as a choice tool for considering subsidy transfer in cooperative advertising. In spite of the benefits of static models they are not known to have been used to study subsidy transfer. This work studies cooperative advertising subsidy transfer in a three-level manufacturer-distributor-retailer supply channel using Stackelberg static game. The retailer is directly involved in local advertising, while the manufacturer indirectly participates in retail advertising by providing subsidy to the retailer through the distributor. The work models the demand function using the effect of advertising on demand, and models the payoff using a revenue-expenditure formula. It considers four channel structures, and obtains the optimal advertising effort, the optimal participation rates, and the payoffs for each scenario. The work observes that the payoffs are large with distributor’s intervention subsidy, but best with subsidy transfer. They are worst with non-provision and non-transfer of subsidy. Thus, the supply channel members should prioritize the distributor’s participation in retail advertising either through subsidy transfer or intervention.</p> Peter Emeke Ezimadu Copyright (c) 2023-01-03 2023-01-03 17 4 455 462 Application of Aboodh transforms to the solution of n<sup>th</sup>-order ordinary differential equations <p>The study applied the Aboodh transform as a convenient and effective tool to provide exact solution to n<sup>th</sup>-order ordinary differential equation with constant coefficient based on the simplicity of the Aboodh transform and its fundamental properties. The Laplace transform is used to validate the exact solution provided by the Aboodh transform method.</p> Funmilayo F. Amurawaye Copyright (c) 2023-01-03 2023-01-03 17 4 463 466 Analytical solutions of some special nonlinear partial differential equations using Elzaki-Adomian decomposition method <p>We apply the Elzaki-Adomian Decomposition Method (EADM) in this study to solve nonlinear Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (BBM) and Fisher's partial differential equations (PDE). This method, being an integral transform, is a hybrid of two well-known and efficient methods: the Elzaki transform and the Adomian decomposition method. The method is demonstrated by solving two special cases of the BBM Equation and one special case of Fisher's partial differential equation. Because of its high convergence rate in approximating exact solutions, this approach is very dependable. The method can also produce numerical solutions without the usage of restrictive assumptions or the discretization typical of numerical methods; making it free of round-off errors. The Elzaki-Adomian Decomposition method employs a straightforward computation that leads to effectiveness. The efficiency of EADM is demonstrated in the significant reduction of number of numerical computations. The effectiveness and efficiency of EADM account for its broad application, particularly for higher order PDEs.</p> Hycienth O. Orapine Ali A. Baidu Godfrey Oko Elija Vafa Nyamtwam Copyright (c) 2023-01-03 2023-01-03 17 4 467 473 Assessment of the physicochemical characteristics of water in an urban river in Abuja, Nigeria <p>The assessment of physicochemical characteristics of water from River Wupa, Abuja, Nigeria was carried out to ascertain its suitability for domestic and industrial usage. Sixty water samples were taken from ten locations along the length of the river in both dry and wet seasons. The samples were analyzed for pH, temperature, EC, TDS, TSS, turbidity, alkalinity, DO, BOD, COD, hardness, sulphate, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, and chloride using standard methods prescribed by AOAC. The results obtained for these respective parameters pH, temperature, EC, TDS, TSS, turbidity, alkalinity, DO, BOD, COD, hardness, sulphate, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and chloride were (7.01-7.29), (20.70-22.10ºC), (172.20-293.00 μS/cm), (102.00-207.00 mg/dm3), (15.90-65.00 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>), (11.00-58.00 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>), (27.50-38.90 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>), (7.00-8.00 mg/dm3), (10.00-25.00 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>), (15.50-60.10 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>), (30.40-36.50 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>), (39.90-42.70 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>), (10.00-15.00 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>), (0.05-0.10 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>), (1.70-2.70 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>) and (37.00-49.00 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>) in dry season. In wet season the respective results were (7.24-7.43), (26.70-28.30ºC), (121.60-176.40 μS/cm), (62.00-86.50 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>), (287.00-430.00 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>), (299.00-492.00 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>), (23.70-35.00 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>), (7.00-9.87 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>), (12.00-20.00 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>), (14.60-45.00 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>), (28.00-40.00 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>), (27.60-30.80 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>), (9.00-15.00 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>), (0.03-0.09 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>), (1.80-2.70 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>) and (27.90-38.00 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>). These results revealed that the levels of all the physicochemical parameters determined for all sampling locations were below the tolerable limits recommended by NSDWQ and WHO except for turbidity, DO and phosphate values from all sampling locations which were higher compared to tolerable recommended limits. It is concluded that the water from River Wupa cannot be said to be wholly safe for usage by humans because of some health risks that are associated with the parameters with values higher than those of the regulatory bodies. It is, therefore, recommended that the water quality of the river be monitored regularly and the water should be treated to make it safe for use.</p> Adano Aminu Ja’afar Marcus Nengak Danjuma Magaji Joshua Ibrahim Opaluwa Obaje Daniel Copyright (c) 2023-01-03 2023-01-03 17 4 474 481 Comparative biocidal activities of some crude plant species powders against the cowpea weevil (<i>Callosobrochus maculatus</i> (F.)(Coleoptera: bruchidae)) <p><em>Callosobruchus maculatus </em>is one of the most important pests of cowpea in storage causing severe economic damage to the grain. This study investigated the efficacies of three plant materials (<em>Azadirachta indica, Calotropis procera and Chromolaena odorata</em>) leaves against the cowpea weevil<em>. </em>Concentrations of 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5g of the plant powders were used on 10g of grains with 10 adult weevils in each and a Control (untreated) in triplicates. The results showed significant (P&lt; 0.05) negatively effects of the plant materials on the survival of <em>C. maculatus </em>at the highest concentration. In all trails, mean daily mortality in adult <em>C. maculatus </em>were significantly(p&lt;0.05) increased. All plant powder type were effective but concentration-dependent, with <em>C. procera </em>recording significantly (P &lt; 0.05) higher mortality at the various concentrations while <em>C. odorata</em>, elicited the least mean daily mortality. The lowest LD<sub>50</sub> (0.63g) was obtained with <em>C. procera</em>. These plants materials were found to also affect the egg-laying capacity of <em>C. maculatus</em>. Treatment with <em>C. odorata </em>recorded significantly(P&lt;0.05) higher number of eggs laid at all concentrations, though the egg-laying capacity was also concentration-dependent; whereas <em>C. procera </em>recorded the least number of eggs laid. All the three plants powders tested demonstrated significant insecticidal potency on stored cowpea weevils, with <em>C. procera </em>and <em>C. odorata </em>showing significantly higher and lower insecticidal potentials respectively. These findings will help in solving problem associated with food security especially with respect to stored produce.</p> I.K. Olayemi S.O. Nasiru A.T. Ande I.M. Salihu A.C. Ukubuiwe K.A. Adeniyi D.A. Aliyu M. Nma-Etsu Copyright (c) 2023-01-03 2023-01-03 17 4 482 486 Evaluation of heavy metals contamination in the sediments of some selected water of South Senatorial District of Niger State, Nigeria <p>The present study was conducted to evaluate the level of contamination of heavy metals in the sediment samples of some water of south senatorial district of Niger State, Nigeria. Composite surface sediment samples (54) were collected from the fore, middle, and rear parts of the six (6) selected water bodies; digested and analysed for heavy metal concentration following the standard methods. The results obtained illustrated the decreasing concentrations of the heavy metals in the order of Fe (197.9±47.6) &gt; Mn (77.32±15.83) &gt; Zn (15.37±2.65) &gt; Cr (13.04±1.43) &gt; Pb (2.50±0.56) &gt; Cd (0.72±0.1) mg Kg<sup>-1</sup>. The overall concentrations of the studied metals were below the continental crust values as well as the sediment quality guidelines utilized in this study. Enrichment Factor (0.51 to 24.97) indicated a no to moderate enrichment for the heavy metals. The contamination factor ranged from 0.22 to 2.61 for the heavy metals. The degree of contamination of the sediment samples revealed a low degree of contamination in the sediment samples for all the sites. The geo-accumulation index illustrated none to moderate pollution (Class 0,3,4) of the sediment samples by the heavy metals. However, a negative moderate relationship existed between redox potential and pH; and between conductivity and chromium showing their dependence on each other. Thus, this study presents an indication of heavy metal contamination process in the selected water bodies and may serves a guide to other studies of metropolitan water bodies in order to determine for suitable remediation procedure.</p> Yunusa Audu Aliyu Danjuma Aliyu Naomi John Dadi-Mamud Copyright (c) 2023-01-03 2023-01-03 17 4 487 494 Biomimetics of fish scales: value and prospects <p>The body of an ideal fish is covered by scales which are either thin or thick. These scales arise as external growths from the epidermis of the skin. Fish scales are known to contain pigmentation that gives colour to the scales for example, the Minytrema melanops is greyish brown in colour because of the grey colour from the scales while its close relative the small mouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus is Olive-bronze in colour. Fish scales in general contain a variety of pigments that give the fish a variety of colors. Fish scales constitute about 2% of the total body weight, but said to be rich in nutritive components just as the flesh of the fish. The scale of fish is similar to the structure of a typical bone. Fish scales comprise of 40% -55%collagen type 1, hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate fat, lecithin and scleroprotein. The mechanical testing of fish scales was reported to show that the unique design of the strength of scales is significant for mechanical characteristics. Again, the mechanical strength and toughness displayed by fish scale composition (external ganoine layer and internal layer) with enforced mineral properties enable the protective nature of the scales. Fish skin can be used like any other leather for various wear-resistant items such as shoes bags and purses. With the use of various tanning processes and chemicals, fish skin is successfully used for shoes and clothing.</p> Marian Onwude Agbugui Abe Grace Osisienemo Copyright (c) 2023-01-03 2023-01-03 17 4 495 501 Determinants of bakers’ acceptability of wheat-cassava flour for bread production in Nigeria <p>Bread is a major staple food in Nigeria with rising costs occasioned by the increasing cost of importation of wheat. The Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) initiated partial substitution of wheat flour with cassava flour, to reduce wheat importation and promote economic development. This study examined the determinants of the acceptability of wheat-cassava flour for bread production in Oyo state. Data collected on the acceptability of wheat-cassava flour from bakers in Ibadan, Ogbomosho and Oyo were analysed with descriptive statistics and a logit regression model. Some 80 percent of the bakers used 10 percent cassava flour for bread production. Results of Logit Regression showed that level of experience, provision of training, access to wheat-cassava flour, and revenue as determinant factors of Bakers’ acceptability of wheat-cassava flour for bread production. The study recommends regular training for the Master bakers to increase the use of wheat-cassava flour throughout the country. The wheat-cassava flour should be made available for the bakers by ensuring adequate production through necessary policies.</p> Alamu Salawu Abideen Copyright (c) 2023-01-03 2023-01-03 17 4 502 506 Effect of particle size on tensile properties and density of <i>Delonix regia</i> seed particles filled unsaturated polyester resin composites <p>This study was aimed at examining the effect of particle size on the tensile properties and density of Delonix regia seed particles (DSP) filled unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) composites. The composites were fabricated using a glass mould via hand mixing, and the average DSP particle sizes of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 μm were used at 12 % filler loading. The effect of particle size on the tensile properties and density of DSP-filled unsaturated polyester resin was investigated. The results showed a decrease in tensile strength, tensile modulus, elongation at break, and density as the filler particle size increased. The smallest particle size (100 μm) has the highest values of tensile strength, tensile modulus, elongation at break (%) and density with the corresponding values of 35.43 MPa, 0.47 GPa, 7.09% and 1.22 g/cm<sup>3</sup> and the largest particle size (500 μm) with values of 15.25 MPa, 0.28 GPa, 5.17% and 1.12 g/cm<sup>3</sup> respectively.</p> H.I. Umaru U.S. Ishiaku M.K. Yakubu A.A. Kogo Copyright (c) 2023-01-03 2023-01-03 17 4 507 511 Comparative study and prevalence of plasmodium falciparum among children and pregnant women attending General Hospital, Lapai, Nigeria <p>Malaria is a life threatening disease caused by <em>Plasmodium </em>sp that is transmitted to people through the bite of infected mosquitoes. The <em>Plasmodium falciparum </em>specie have been confirmed to affects the lives of almost 40% of the world’s population with pregnant women and children under-five years of age being the most affected. Malaria infection during pregnancy is an important public health problem with substantial risks to both the mother and foetus. This study was undertaken to determine malarial infection among children and pregnant women attending General Hospital Lapai, Niger state, Nigeria with the intent to compare two methods of Rapid diagnostic test (RDTs) and microscopy in the diagnosis of malaria. A cross-sectional and Hospital-based surveillance study was conducted on 150 patients by collecting blood samples from children and pregnant women attending General Hospital Lapai, Niger state. Blood samples were collected and examined for the presence of <em>Plasmodium </em>sp by rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and mp microscopy. A total of 75 pregnant women and 75 children were sampled for malaria parasites infection. Out of the 75 samples collected from children under the age of 5 years, a total of 58 (77.3%) participants were found positive using Microscopy and 26 (34.7%) positive using RDTs technique. The findings demonstrated that Mp microscopy for detection of malaria <em>P. falciparum </em>was highly sensitive (80.7%) as compared to RDT (44.7%). And out of the 75 samples collected from pregnant women, a total of 63 (84.0%) participants were found positive using Microscopy and 41 (54.7%) positive using RDTs technique. The results obtained suggested that microscopy remains the gold standard method for diagnosis of malarial infection, although the HRP-2 pf RDTs can be used where microscopy is not available and in cases where urgent malaria diagnosis is needed. The sensitivity and specificity of the RDT kit used (Care start<sup>TM</sup> malaria Pf (HRP2) Ag RDT) were 98% and 97.5% respectively. This study recorded high prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women and children (63 (84.0%) Microscopy and 41 (54.7%) RDTs technique and 58 (77.3%) Microscopy and 26 (34.7%) RDTs technique respectively), attending General Hospital Lapai, Niger State. Regular environmental sanitation to dislodge mosquitoes from their breeding places will go a long way to reduce prevalence of malaria, and early antenatal booking for effective monitoring and prompt treatment of malaria in pregnancy will contribute significantly in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality, and its perinatal mortality. Routine intermittent preventive treatment of malaria is recommended for pregnant women in this area.</p> O.O. Mabekoje Ziyanu Kasim John Baba Kabir M. Adamu F.L. Jibril John James Copyright (c) 2023-01-03 2023-01-03 17 4 512 520 Distribution of heavy metal and phytoplankton in Calabar River Port Terminals, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria <p>An aquatic ecological evaluation of Calabar River Port terminals was carried out from February 2020 to January, 2021 with the aim of assessing seasonal variation of heavy metals and the distribution of phytoplankton. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was employed to analyze heavy metal concentration and standard procedure was use in the identification of phytoplankton from three sampling stations namely Eco marine terminal, INTELS terminal and Shoreline terminals in Calabar River port. Results showed elevated levels of lead, Chromium (0.28 ± 0.04), Nickel (0.67 ± 0.03), Lead (0.02 ± 0.02), cupper (0.03 ± 0.01) and Cadmium (0.31 ± 0.09) in all the stations beyond the NESREA recommended limits. The study also showed significant negative relationship between plankton and heavy metals. It recommends a yearly monitoring by regulatory agencies to ensure that shipping activities do not interfere with water quality at the terminals.</p> J.S. Hena J.I. Magaji D. Kulawe Copyright (c) 2023-01-03 2023-01-03 17 4 521 525 An adaptive framework for combating advanced persistent threats <p>Advanced persistent threats (APTs) pose a significant risk to nearly every organization. Due to the sophistication of these attacks, they can bypass existing security systems and largely infiltrate the target network. The prevention and detection of APT are challenging because attackers constantly change and evolve their attacking techniques and methods to stay undetected. As a result, APT often successfully compromises companies, organizations, or public authorities. This paper developed an adaptive security framework that continuously investigates the behavior of users of a network to protect it against threats. The framework constitutes of three main sections namely; Intrusion prevention, Intrusion detection, and Response to intrusions. The design model comprises the front end, middleware, and back end. The front end is implemented using HTML and Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) in Netbeans Integrated Development Environment (IDE) version 8.0.2. The middleware is implemented using Java Web of NetBeans IDE while the back end is implemented using MySQL server. The results show that the runtime security of the system is adapted according to the behavior patterns exhibited by the user hence, our system can detect zero-day attacks which signature-based intrusion detection systems cannot detect, thus protecting against these attacks. The work is recommended as a countermeasure against emerging persistent attacks.</p> Sandra Ngi Ade Iorshase Agaji Emmanuel Ogala Copyright (c) 2023-01-03 2023-01-03 17 4 526 534