Science World Journal <!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning ></w:PunctuationKerning> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas ></w:ValidateAgainstSchemas> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables ></w:BreakWrappedTables> <w:SnapToGridInCell ></w:SnapToGridInCell> <w:WrapTextWithPunct ></w:WrapTextWithPunct> <w:UseAsianBreakRules ></w:UseAsianBreakRules> <w:DontGrowAutofit ></w:DontGrowAutofit> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:"Arial Narrow"; panose-1:2 11 5 6 2 2 2 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:swiss; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:647 2048 0 0 159 0;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;} a:link, span.MsoHyperlink {color:blue; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed {color:purple; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --><!-- [if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]--> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 3pt 0pt;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt;">The SWJ is a peer review on-line international journal of broad appeal, aimed at fast publication of cutting edge research across the sciences. The Journal publishes multidisciplinary articles reporting on original research in the natural and physical sciences and their applications. The journal also promotes the application of computers in modeling and Bioinformatics. Other websites related to this journal: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></span></p> Kaduna State University, Faculty of Science en-US Science World Journal 1597-6343 Copyright belongs to the journal. Journal is Open Access Artisanal quarries in Kaduna Metropolis with associated socio-economic benefits <p>This research assessed the socio-economic benefits that exist in artisanal quarries of Kaduna Metropolis. Rock quarrying like other mining sectors contributes significantly to the socio-economic development of those engaged in Quarry and their host communities. This study used questionnaire administration and field observation to collect data from 5 artisanal quarry sites in Kaduna Metropolis. Global position instrument (GPS) was used for taking the bearings and locations of the quarry sites. Geographic and Geologic maps of Kaduna metropolis were also used for the research. Result showed that Majority 238 (60%) of the respondents were married, majority of the workers were Moslems while only (18%) of them were Christians. The ethnic composition of the workers are Hausas forming the majority. Other ethnic groups were Isoko, Igbo, Ron and Guduf. Result also showed low level of education. Least monthly earning was N20, 000 per month by those engaged in artisanal Quarrying. The socio-economic conditions of overwhelming majority of the workers have improved as a result of earnings from the quarries. Observations and interview showed that the quarry miners did not use recommended safety wears. Many people are exposed to pollutants which may cause cancer later without realizing it.</p> O.G. Salawu Y.O. Sadiq Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 1 6 An assessment of the socio-demographic factors influencing maternal healthcare in Kogi State <p>Maternal health is paramount in ensuring the continuity of the human population as well as improving the socio-economic development of a nation. As evident in the target of the third (SDG) goal five set to reduce the global maternal mortality rate (MMR) to less than 70 per 100,000 live births by 2030. It is in this light that this research sought to assess the socio-demographic factors influencing maternal healthcare in Kogi state. The multi-stage sampling technique was used in sampling respondents for this study who were women in the reproductive age group aged 15-49. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. The study shows that 48% of women in the study area are of childbearing age are poor. Also, the study shows that the women had poor access to maternal healthcare service in Healthcare facility due to lack of money to pay for transportation, drugs and medical service charge at the facility. The study recommends women empowerment which will consequently enhance their economic incentives to accessing quality maternal health services in the study area.</p> Mercy Ovaioza Adenyuma Rhoda Mundi Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 7 15 Centre for exploration targeting and analytic signal techniques as tools for interpretation of aeromagnetic data: emphasis on parts of Mid-Niger basin, Nigeria <p>Ten aeromagnetic data sheets (each measuring about 55.74km2) covering some parts of Mid-Niger Basin, Nigeria and situated within latitude 8<sup>0</sup>00'N - 10<sup>0</sup>00'N and longitude 4<sup>0</sup>30'E - 7<sup>0</sup>00'E were acquired from the Geological Survey Agency of Nigeria and interpreted, using Oasis Montaj software. The data was digitized and assembled to produce a joint aeromagnetic data file for the area. The data was first reduced to pole and then subjected to CET grid analysis and analytical signal methods. The result of application of the CET phase symmetry grid analysis to the Total Magnetic Field Intensity data revealed the line-like regions of discontinuity and lineaments within the study area. The result of the amplitude domain analytic signal shows high amplitudes, ranging from 0.344 to 0.218 cycles which might be due to outcrops of magnetic rocks while intermediate structures have amplitudes ranging from 0.218 to 0.096 cycles could be areas of shallow intrusions of magnetic rocks into the sedimentary basin. The regions with the lowest amplitudes ranging from 0.096 – 0.064 cycles connote regions of deeper magnetic rocks at the basement depicting the trending of the basin in a NW-SE direction. The line-like regions and lineament features as well as the low amplitude regions could serve as migration and depositional environments for minerals and hydrocarbon accumulation respectively.</p> M.T. Tsepav Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 16 20 Determinants of the choice of healthcare services during and after pregnancy in some selected rural areas in Kaduna <p>Nigerian government in collaboration with donor agencies are making spirited effort to create awareness of the importance of antenatal care (ANC) most especially in rural areas. So that pregnant women will take ANC seriously. However, this has not yielded the desired result, hence, a study of this nature is a welcome development. Therefore, this studies focuses no investigating the determinants of the choice of healthcare services during and after pregnancy in some selected rural areas in Kaduna state. This was achieved through Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and Key In-depth Interview (KII) in the selected local government areas of Kaduna state. The qualitative data was transcript and analysed using content analysis method. The results show their knowledge about ANC, due to low literacy level and religious factor in most rural settlements visited. Furthermore, demand and supply side on ANC facilities are also poor and do not meet the minimum standard. The study concludes that demand and supply of ANC fall short of equilibrium, both are too low. Therefore the study recommended that government in collaboration with non-governmental organization such as World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF should design and implement campaign/interventions to enhance the literacy level and advocacy to reduce the influence of religion in healthcare service.</p> Victor Kyari Gimba Zubairu Tajo Abdallah Ruth John Chenbap Ibrahim Muhammed Micah Dogara Istifanus Anekoson Joshua Peter Ayuba Selbyen Evelyn Gimba Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 21 28 Preparation and characterization of a poly-herbal tea with effective antioxidant properties <p>Many herbal teas consist of poly-herbal materials that are often folk recipes with known health benefits. Poly-herbal teas containing the leaves of <em>Moringa oleifera, Zingiber officinale</em> and juice of <em>Citrus limon</em> were developed and evaluated for its physicochemical and stability properties. The herbal tea generally showed good physicochemical properties such as organoleptic properties, excellent flow, optimal ash value and moisture content. It showed stability properties that are characteristic of a good finished herbal product. The tea also showed effective free radical scavenging properties similar to that of ascorbic acid and consistent with its antioxidant benefits. Some of its physicochemical and antioxidant properties were diminished when stored in a stress environment. Formulating the poly-herbal recipe of <em>M. oleifera, Z. officinale</em> and juice of<em> C. limon</em> into herbal tea is an effective means of presenting the herbal medicine for use.</p> Philip F. Builders Boma B. Mohammed Yahaya Z. Sule Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 29 34 Solution of systems of disjoint Fredholm-Volterra integro-differential equations using Bezier control points <p>Systems of disjoint Fredholm-Volterra integro-differential equations and the Bezier curves control-point-based algorithm are considered. Systems of two, three and four Fredholm-Volterra integro-differential equations are solved using a developed algorithm. The convergence analysis for the Bezier curves method proves that it is convergent. The examples considered agree with the convergence analysis. The method is more accurate and effective when compared to other existing methods.</p> Peter Vanenchii Ayoo Richard Eneojo Amobeda Olabisi Akinwale Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 35 40 The effect of hydrogen on transient flow of hydrogen natural gas mixture <p>Hydrogen is a high pressure gas, hence hydrogen natural gas mixture require an accurate prediction of transient flow parameter. The reduce order modelling is used in analysis of transient flow, where viscosity change is neglected thereby reducing the governing equations to Euler equation based on the assumption. The hydrogen natural gas mixture is homogenous, with pressure and velocity considered as principal dependent variable where polytrophic process is admitted. For improvement on the accurate prediction of flow parameters on the analysis of transient flow of hydrogen natural gas mixture in pipeline implicit Steger-Warming flux vector splitting method (FSM) used in the construction of efficient reduce order model. The result shows significant improvement on efficiency, accuracy and uniqueness when compared to normal conventional numerical techniques. The effect of heat transfer is observed on heat flux and internal energy of transient flow. The methods of reduced order with and without static correction show significant agreement for different gas ratio. The prediction of flow parameter along the pipeline can improve<br>gas delivery and the analysis of transient flow behaviour at any point during the flow.</p> Baba Galadima Agaie Abubakar S. Magaji Muhammad Shakur Ndayawo Baba Ibrahim Mundi Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 41 47 The effect of methanolic crude extract of ocimum gratisimum leaves on insulin resistance and glut-4 gene expression in monosodium glutamate induced obese rats <p>Obesity is a complex chronic global disease affecting people worldwide across all ages, sexes, ethnicities and nationalities. It is accompanied by remodeling of adipocyte, insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. The present study was aimed to determine the effect of methanolic crude extract of <em>Ocimum gratisimum</em> leaves on insulin resistance and GLUT-4 gene expression in Monosodium induced obese Rats. Phytochemical screening of the crude extract of <em>Ocimum gratisimum</em> leaves was carried out before the grouping of animals. The study was conducted using thirty 30 male Wistar rats weighing between 100.0 – 150.0 g. The animals were divided into five groups of six each; Normal control (NC) rats, Obese control (DC) rats, Obese rats treated with <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em> (OG) 100 mg/kg B.W (OG-100), Obese rats treated with OG 200 mg/kg B.W (OG-200), Obese rats treated with orlistat 50 mg/kg B.W (OR-50). Obesity was induced by oral administration of 8 mg/g MSG for 7 days and animals were treated with respective doses orally for 1 week. The phytochemical screening of the crude extract of <em>Ocimum gratisimum</em> leaves revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides and the results obtained after induction of obesity with MSG showed significant (P&lt;0.05) increase in weight of the rats. After 1 week of treatment with the extract, the weight, non-fasting blood glucose (NFBG) and HOMA-IR level of the rats decreased significantly (P&lt;0.05) when compared to obese control rats. In addition, the level of serum insulin was increased significantly in all groups while fold expression of GLUT-4 gene was increased significantly (P&lt;0.05) in OG-200 only. In conclusion, the use of methanolic crude extract of <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em> leaves can be a therapy in the treatment of obesity due to its significant hypoglycemic, anti hyperlipidemic and insulin resistance lowering properties.</p> Hauwa'u Yakubu Bako Halliru Umar Farouk Hafsat Rufa'i Sumaiyah Shehu Amina Husnah Balarabe Jaafaru Sani Mohammed Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 48 53 Metal organic frameworks supported with emiraldine modified graphite electrode for amperometry detection of herbicide <p>The use of herbicide to destroy unwanted weeds by famers have created harmful environment for humans due to incomplete degradation of herbicides in the soil. The residue is washed into rivers during surface runoffs and consumed by humans. This requires the chemist to develop a sensor for detecting herbicides in there smallest availability in drinking water. In this work, a Polymer and Metal Organic Frameworks Graphite Electrode was developed for the detection of herbicide. These was achieved by homogenizing Emiraldine, Hkust and Graphite in a ratio 1:1:4 respectively in a mortar and pestle and then packed tightly into a 3 mL syringe using a copper wire as contact medium between chemical composite and the electrical setup to achieve and electrochemical reaction at the electrode interface. The interfaces serve as the redox mediator for electron transfer. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to study the morphology of the electrodes. The modification of the surface of developed carbon paste sensor with Emiraldine and Hkust-1 greatly improved the detection of the atrazine on the sensor with a working linear range of 0.4 – 1.0 μM and low detection limit of 0.09 ± 0.67 μM at pH 5 and scan rate of 50 mV/s. The modified electrode turned out to be highly stable and selective its amperometric behavior. Importantly, this method provided a promising electrochemical sensing platform for atrazine analysis and its detection for human safety.</p> Mary Gojeh Salit Patrick Bako Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 54 57 Insilico analysis of binding interactions and evaluation of mode of action of hydroxy tyrosol on candida albicans I, ii and parapsilosis <p>This work was aimed at purifying the most potent antibiofilm principle from <em>Acalypha wilkesiana</em> leaves against <em>Candida</em> species, analyzing its binding interactions with the molecular targets and evaluating its mode of action. Bioassay guided fractionation was carried and purification of the most potent fraction was achieved by Preparative -TLC. Proton NMR -spectroscopy was used to elucidate the structure of the most potent fraction which was hydroxy tyrosol (HT). There was significant (p &lt; 0.05) increase in the IC<sub>50</sub> of HT and caspafungin in the presence of sorbitol. In the presence of ergosterol, there was no significant (p &gt; 0.05) increase in the IC<sub>50</sub> of HT but there was significant (p &lt; 0.05) increase in the IC<sub>50</sub> of voriconazole. <em>Insilico</em> molecular studies revealed a good docking score (-7.7 and 4 hydogen bonds) with glucan synthase and (7.0 and 1 hydrogen bond) with lanosterole-14α- demethylase. The mode of action of HT is most likely by inhibiting the activities of β-1,3-D glucan synthase. The Significant increase in IC<sub>50</sub> of HT in the presence of sorbitol showed that its inhibition leads to depletion of cell wall glucan and subsequent lysis of fungal cells.</p> Maimuna Zubairu Ismaili Alhaji Umar Aliyu Salihu Jibril Abdullahi Alhaji Karina Mohammed Rabiu Mohammed Nasir Shuaibu Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 58 65 Analysis of spatio-temporal emissions from road transport in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria <p>The study analyzed the spatial and temporal concentrations of road transport the spatial variation in the concentrations of road transport emissions at specific periods (off peak and peak periods of traffic). ToxiRAE monitor was used to measure the amount of carbon-monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and Ammonia (NH3) while the MultiRAE plus monitor was used to measure volatile organic Compounds (VOCs) at different times and locations. These devices were used to ascertain the ambient concentration of selected gas emissions at road junction’s corridors in the study area. Sample sizes of 10% of road junctions in the study area (Kawo, Ahmadu Bello Way, Yakubu Gowon Way, Sabo Junction and NNPC Junction) were selected for emission measurement. The result showed that carbon monoxide is above the 20ppm stipulated by FEPA (Federal Environmental Protection Agency) base line while the remaining gases (NH<sub>3</sub> .889ppm, SO<sub>2</sub> .0836ppm, VOCs 1.628ppm, NO<sub>2</sub> .203ppm) has not gone beyond the local and international safe limits. The study concluded that it is pertinent to emphasize that, continuous exposure of urban residents to these emissions could have cumulative negative impacts on the health of urban residents and calls for concerted effort to be put in place to ensure that carbon monoxides from various road transport modes are within acceptable safe limit.</p> Garba Abdulhafiz Auwal F. Abdussalam Muazu Hillaru Tadama Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 66 71 Numerov solution of linear second order ordinary differential equations containing first order derivative term <p>A central activity in the numerical solution of differential equations is that of finding effective numerical methods to solve particular types of problems. One of such problems is the second order ordinary differential equations of the form 𝑦′′=𝑓(𝑥,𝑦). A very important algorithm towards the solution of this equation is the Numerov method. In this present work, the Numerov method is employed to solve linear second order ordinary differential equations involving a first derivative term. By a transformation of the equation, the first derivative term is eliminated by representing it with finite difference quotient at the grid points, resulting in an equation that makes it suitable for solution. Once this equation is solved, the approximate solution of the desired function 𝑦(𝑥) can be obtained at the grid points. Extensive numerical tests to illustrate the effectiveness and reliability of the method are presented. The numerical experiments were conducted using Maple 2019.0 software package.</p> A. Ndanusa K.R. Adeboye Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 72 75 Analyzing the transmission dynamics of tuberculosis in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria <p>A mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of tuberculosis in Kaduna metropolis, is formulated and analysed. For the prevalence of the disease, the model was considered in proportions of susceptible, exposed, infectious and recovered compartments. The disease-free equilibrium (DFE) and Endemic Equilibrium (EE) states of the model in proportions were obtained and DFE state was used to compute the basic reproduction number 𝑅0, as important threshold whose values allow to establish whether an infection will spread in a population or not. The stability analysis shows that the disease-free equilibrium is locally and globally asymptotically stable whenever the basic reproduction number is less than unity using Routh – Hurwitz stability criterion and Lyapunov function respectively. It is further proved using Routh-Hurwitz that the endemic equilibrium state is locally asymptotically stable whenever the basic reproduction number is greater than unity. The computed results of the basic reproduction number 𝑅0 estimated to be 1.0623, as well as the stability analysis revealed that tuberculosis infection will remain endemic (persist) in Kaduna metropolis. Furthermore, effective control measures such as expanded and regular immunization campaign will decrease the infection burden.</p> M.K. Dauda A.S. Magaji P.N. Okolo J. Bulus U.S. Shehu Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 76 82 The chemopreventive properties of isothiocyanate isolated from the seeds of moringa oleifera lam <p>Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are a group of plant phytochemicals believed to have numerous therapeutic properties. In the current study, Glucomoringin Isothiocyanate (GMG-ITC) was isolated and purified from the seeds of<em> Moringa oleifera</em> Lam. and used to treat Diethylnitrosamine-Induced Liver Cancer in rats. We observed that GMG-ITC treatment attenuated liver damage and significantly prevented the release of liver enzymes into blood plasma. In addition, the treatment significantly increased total antioxidant capacity of liver cancer induced rats that could have decreased the level of alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) in the blood. Thus, we postulate that pure isothiocyanate from the seeds of <em>M. oleifera</em> has potential anti-Liver Cancer activity.</p> Richard Auta Peter Waziri Jaafaru Mohammed Sani Rabiat Idrees Abubakar Samson Wayah Ibrahim Malami Bitrus Achi Yusuf Alhassan Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 83 86 The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients attending dermatology outpatient clinics at Barau Dikko Teaching Hospital (BDTH), Kaduna State University, Nigeria <p>Although psychiatric disorders are frequent among dermatological patients, a few studies have formally assessed the performance of any psychiatric screening questionnaire in dermatological practice. This study tested the ability of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to identify psychiatric morbidity in dermatological patients. A sample of 125 outpatients attending dermatology clinics at Barau Dikko Teaching Hospital (BDTH) Kaduna Nigeria, completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, a GHQ-12 and were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for WHO International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) by a trained mental health professional. Patients that scored “two” and above on GHQ-12 were selected for the stage two interview. Out of all dermatological patients who visited the health facility, 125 were recruited and consented to participate in the study giving a response rate of 100%, which makes up to 104% of the initial proposed sample size (n=120). Of the 125 participants, 48 (38.4%) were men and 76(60.8%) were women. The mean age was 27 years (SD, ±15 years; range, 18-55 years). The psychiatric morbidity was significant in our dermatological patients, thus indicating the use of GHQ 12 in assisting to formulate psychiatric interventions and possible reduction in morbidity and cost of treatment.</p> B.A. Yakasai H. Sani H.B. Yakasai Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 87 93 Comparison on the effect of freezing period on the ph and mineral content of meat, tilapia and catfish sold within Kaduna North and South Local Government Areas of Kaduna State <p>Cow, Ram, Goat, Catfish (<em>Clarius gariepinus</em>) and Tilapia fish (<em>Oreochromis noliticus</em>) flesh were examined for pH and mineral elements during a freezing period from Day 1- Day 30. The pH of the meat/fish samples were determined using a pH meter; the mineral content (Fe, Mg and Ca) were determined using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, while Na and K were determined using Flame Photometry. The mean mineral element contents of the meat and fish in the analysed period were Fe (0.69±0.22), Na (5.41±0.71), K (2.70±0.43), Mg (1.09±0.14) and Ca (0.46±0.16) for Cow. Fe (1.10±0.74), Na (5.92±1.22), K (2.49±0.14), Mg (0.90±0.28) and Ca (0.33±0.10) for Ram. Fe (0.85±0.54), Na (6.77±1.74), K (2.27±0.49), Mg (0.85±0.24) and Ca (0.40±0.17) for Goat. Fe (0.85±0.42), Na (5.36±0.65), K (2.91±0.35), Mg (1.11±0.06) and Ca (0.38±0.05) for Catfish. Fe (1.15±0.92), Na (6.58±0.42), K (2.70±0.33), Mg (1.35±0.37) and Ca (0.63±0.21) for Tilapia. All mineral contents were below the Recommended Dietary Intake due to the storage effect. It is therefore recommended that fresh meat and fish storage in refrigerators should not be for more than 10 days.</p> Yakasai Jamila Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 94 98 Prevalence of carbapenem resistant escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae in urine samples of patients attending selected general hospitals within Kaduna Metropolis <p>Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae(CRE) is a growing concern worldwide. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of carbapenem resistant <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> from urine of suspected urinary tract infected patients from (5) General Hospitals within Kaduna metropolis. Following the collection of (350) urine samples, <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> were isolated, identified and characterized using selective media (Eosin methylene blue and Macconkey agar), biochemical test and microgene kit respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out for all the isolates using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. The isolates that are resistant to morepenem and ertapenem were amplified to detect the resistance genes. The PCR amplified DNA products were examined for the common ESBL-encoding genes (bla TEM and bla SHV) and carbapenem resistance genes (blaKPC, blaNDM and blaVIM). In all the hospitals, female respondents recorded the highest prevalence (74%) than the male (25%). Among the study population, Escherichia coli was the most prevalent (28%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (13%).Among the five age groups, (≤10, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40 and 41years and above), (31-40) recorded the highest prevalence (5.4%) of <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>. Among the twelve antibiotics used, <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> recorded the highest number of resistant drugs. On the prevalence of <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> resistance to meropenem and ertapenem, (6.1%) was recorded for <em>Escherichia coli</em> and (6.5%) for <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>, which is slightly higher when compared with the previous report of (5.2%) and (2.5%) for <em>Escherichia coli</em>, and (7.8%) and (5.5%) for <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>. Following the examination of PCR Amplified DNA products, the ESBL genes (bla TEM and blaSHV) were detected while for the carbapenemase, only blaVIM gene was detected, with the absence of blaKPC and blaNDM genes. Detection of these genes constitutes an alarming threat, and have been the cause of country-wide epidemics of healthcare associated infections. There should be regular and strict monitoring of Carbapenem resistance among the Enterobacteriaceae from time to time in all general and teaching hospitals, as to curtail the rising incidence along with the public health burden associated with these resistance genes.</p> M. Suwaiba A.J. Dadah S.B. Sanusi Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 99 107 Kinetics and mechanism of the redox reaction of orange II with thiosulphate ion in aqueous acid <p>The kinetics of the redox reaction of orange II (OR-) with thiosulphate ion has been studied spectrophotometrically at constant ionic strength, I = 0.50 mol dm-3 (NaCl), [H+] = 5.0 X 10-2 mol dm<sup>-3</sup> (HCl) and T = 26 ± 1°C. The redox reaction displayed a stoichiometry of 1:4 and rate equation for the reaction is<br>-d[OR-]/dt = (a + b[H<sup>+</sup>])[OR-][S<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub><sup>2-</sup>]<br>The rate of the reaction increases with increase in acid concentration and in the ionic strength of reaction medium. The reaction shows a first order dependence on [oxidant] and [reductant]. Added cations and anions inhibited the rate of the reaction. Michaelis – Menten’s plot of 1/k<sub>1</sub> versus 1/ S<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub><sup>2-</sup> and spectrophotometric test suggest absence of an intermediate in the rate determining step. Free radical test did not yield gel formation. Based on the results obtained, this reaction is probably operating through the outersphere mechanism.</p> B. Myek S.O. Idris A.D. Onu M.K. Yakubu Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 108 111 On logistic growth model for forecasting Nigeria's population <p>The population of Nigeria has been increasing steadily without a corresponding increase in resources required to cater for the population explosion. When the growth in resources is not keeping pace with the rapid growth in population, this poses a great threat to the nation in terms of social, environmental and economic development. This paper focused on the application of logistic model to estimate the population growth of Nigeria. The carrying capacity and vital coefficients of the population were estimated. The study revealed that the population of Nigeria grows at the rate of 3.0% per annum. The model was also employed to forecast for the Nigeria population. The study shows that the population of Nigeria will be approximately half of its carrying capacity of 485558039.4 in 58 years’ time which corresponds to the year 2065.</p> Agog Nathan Samuel Samuel Sunday Bako Muhammad Ardo Bamanga Magdaline Peter Usman Byeli Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 112 115 The impact of spirituality and resilience on mental distress among inmates in a northern state, Nigeria <p>The burden of mental illness of inmates in low and middle income countries (LMICs) prisons was higher than in the developed ones. Positive interventions common in reversing the increasing prevalence of inmates’ mental distress in developed countries are rare in Nigeria, a LMICs. This study contributed to initiate mental health promotion in Nigerian prisons through studying mediating effect of positive interventions, specifically spirituality and resilience on inmates’ mental wellbeing. Mental distress of 63 male inmates of Bida prison, North-centre Nigeria was assessed with GHQ-12. The impact of resilience and spirituality on mental distress was measured by Resilience Scale and brief Spirituality Involvement and Beliefs Scale respectively. The mean age of participants was 27.27years (SD = 1.43years) and 70% of them had mental distress. Variables with statistically significant experience of mental distress were being single and having high mean resilience score. The study demonstrated the impact of marital status, resilience and spirituality on the mental wellness of the participants. This will aid mental health promotion of inmates in Nigeria prisons.</p> O.A. Adepoju B.A. Yakasai T. Abiola A. Raji O. Udofia Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 116 121 Allelophatic effect of prosopis africana (guill and per) taub pod powder on the germination indices of three varieties of abelmoschus esculentus (l.) Moench <p>The release of certain chemicals by plants has been found to significantly affect different facets of other plant life cycles, from germination through to reproduction. The study was carried out to investigate the allelopathic effect of <em>Prosopis Africana</em> pod powder on the germination, growth and yield attributes of three varieties of <em>Abelmoschus esculentum</em>. Germination indices such as germination percentage, germination rate and germination index were evaluated. Growth parameters namely; number of leaves, plant height, stem girth and leaf area were also assessed. The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 16.0 version. Duncan Multiple Range Test was used to separate mean differences (P&lt;0.05). Results revealed that the highest germination percentage, index and rate values were recorded for variety<em> Yellen</em> (100%, 3.447 and 0.5), respectively when treated with <em>Prosopis Africana</em> pod powder extract. Highest germination index values were recorded in okra varieties<em> Yellen, Clemson spineless</em> and <em>NHAe</em> when treated with 40, 60 and 40 g of the pod extract (3.447, 3.057 and 3.39) respectively. Least germination percentage, and germination index recorded in okra variety<em> Clemson</em> spineless and NHAe (7.22% and 0.39) respectively. Administration of 80 and 100 g of the <em>Prosopis Africana</em> pod powder extract resulted in a detrimental effect on the three okra varieties, thus concluded allelopathic at these concentrations.</p> Christiana Oreoluwa Oke Ayodele Samuel Oluwatobi Mariam Abiola Akanbi-Gada Victor Jesulayomi Bamisaye Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 122 127 Removal of lead (II) ions from aqueous solution using calcium alginate beads <p>The removal of metal ions from wastewaters using biopolymers such as calcium alginate is currently gaining importance in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the capacity of calcium alginate to adsorb Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution. The parameters investigated were the effects of initial solution pH, contact time and initial Pb(II) concentration. Results were fitted to both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The optimum pH of adsorption was 5.0 while the maximum adsorption was achieved within 60 minutes at initial Pb(II) concentration of 20 mg/L. The experimental results showed that the R<sup>2</sup> value for the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were 0.9868 and 0.8564 respectively. The maximum biosorption capacity Q<sup>o</sup> was 26.52 mgg<sup>-1</sup>. From the Freundlich plot the value of <em>n</em>, which indicates the sorption intensity, was calculated as 4.15. These results show that calcium alginate is a good adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) ions from wastewaters.</p> D.O. Jaliija M.G. Yahaya Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 128 131 Effect of cultivars on the growth and yield of ginger in Kafanchan, Kaduna State, Nigeria <p>Experiments were conducted in the wet seasons of 2018 and 2019 to study the effect of cultivar on the growth and yield of ginger (<em>Zingiber officinale</em> Roscoe) in Kafanchan in Jema’a Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The treatments consisted of three cultivars of ginger (China, UG1 and UG2) arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. The parameters measured included number of shoots per plant, number of leaves per shoot, plant height, ginger fresh weight and ginger dry weight. Cultivar significantly affected the ginger fresh and dry weights, moisture content and plant height but did not have significant effects on the number of shoots per plant and number of leaves per shoot. The mean fresh and dry weights were 54.3 and 14.1 t/ha, 40.2 and 12.8 t/ha, and 27.0 and 8.4 t/ha for the China, UG1 and UG2 cultivars respectively. The China cultivar produced heavier fresh rhizomes than the UG<sub>1</sub> and UG<sub>2</sub> in both years of the study and the mean but this weight advantage did not reflect in the dry weight of the ginger especially when compared with UG<sub>1</sub>. A further study is recommended to determine the pungency, aroma and oleoresin contents as well as market acceptability of the three ginger cultivars to enable a good recommendation to ginger farmers in the study area.</p> I.A. Sodangi Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 132 134 Correlation and path coefficient analysis of yield characters of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) varieties as influenced by minero-organic fertilizer <p>A field experiment was conducted during the wet seasons of 2019 and 2020 at the Research farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kaduna State University (09<sup>o</sup>34’N and 08<sup>o</sup> 18’ E, 740 m above sea level) in the southern Guinea savannah Nigeria, to determine the contributions of some crop characters to tuber yield of two sweet potato varieties as influenced by minero-organic fertilizer (MOF). The treatments consisted of three levels of minero-organic fertilizer (0, 500 and 1000 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), and two sweet potato varieties. The treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times. The correlations between number of tubers per plot (0.7740**) and tuber weight per plot (0.7804**) with total tuber yield were positive and highly significant. The direct effect on tuber yield based on the combined data was by number of tubers per plot (0.8023), which also made the highest direct percent contribution to tuber yield (18.79%). Shoot dry weight made the least indirect effect to tuber yield (-0.0507). The greatest positive combined contribution of 17.29% was made by number of tubers per plant via number of tubers per plot. The study revealed that number of tubers per plot should be explored by researchers during improvement programme of sweet potato.</p> Y.T. Magaji I.A. Sodangi Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 135 138 Trypanocidal activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata <p><em>Andrographis paniculata</em> used in this study belongs to Acanthacae family and is commonly known as king of bitters. This study aimed at evaluating effect of <em>A. paniculata</em> leaf extract on experimental rats infected with <em>Trypanosoma brucei brucei</em>. Cold maceration was used for extraction and the biomass was fractionated in open column chromatography. One of the ethanolic fractions obtained from A. paniculata was evaluated for <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> activities using RPMI 1640 cell culture media and experimental wistar rats respectively. The fraction exhibited trypanocidal activity by completely clearing trypanosomes within 18h incubation when compared with standard control (diminazene diaceturate). Our findings from <em>in vivo</em> assay of the isolate on <em>T. brucei brucei</em> showed that trypanocidal activity is dose-dependent. Parasitic replication was faster among the experimental rats treated with lower concentrations in comparison with higher concentration. Moderate average packed cell volume (PCV) was recorded among the treated animals compared with the positive control. Three major absorption bands of interest in the fraction examined were 3268cm<sup>-1</sup>, 2926 cm<sup>-1</sup> - 2855 cm<sup>-1</sup> and 1748 cm<sup>-1</sup> revealing the presence of O-H<sub>str</sub>, C-H<sub>str</sub>. and C=O<sub>str</sub>. stretching vibrations.<em> A. paniculata</em> can be explored for development of new trypanocidal agent for the management of trypanosomiasis.</p> Z. Ladan T.O. Olanrewaju D.B. Maikaje P.N. Waziri Copyright (c) 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 15 4 139 144