Science World Journal https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj <!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning ></w:PunctuationKerning> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas ></w:ValidateAgainstSchemas> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables ></w:BreakWrappedTables> <w:SnapToGridInCell ></w:SnapToGridInCell> <w:WrapTextWithPunct ></w:WrapTextWithPunct> <w:UseAsianBreakRules ></w:UseAsianBreakRules> <w:DontGrowAutofit ></w:DontGrowAutofit> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:"Arial Narrow"; panose-1:2 11 5 6 2 2 2 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:swiss; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:647 2048 0 0 159 0;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;} a:link, span.MsoHyperlink {color:blue; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed {color:purple; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --><!-- [if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]--> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 3pt 0pt;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt;">The SWJ is a peer review on-line international journal of broad appeal, aimed at fast publication of cutting edge research across the sciences. The Journal publishes multidisciplinary articles reporting on original research in the natural and physical sciences and their applications. The journal also promotes the application of computers in modeling and Bioinformatics. Other websites related to this journal: <a href="http://www.scienceworldjournal.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">www.scienceworldjournal.org</a></span></p> Kaduna State University, Faculty of Science en-US Science World Journal 1597-6343 Copyright belongs to the journal. Journal is Open Access Science-systems as a catalyst to sustainable national security in Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/222452 <p>It is the duty of any government in power to secure and protect its citizens. Security is the pillar upon which every meaningful development in any nation is sustained. There is no nation without a security challenge, but the type of insecurity experienced among the nations and the way it is confronted differs. This research is centered on Nigeria with its multifarious security challenges that threaten its existence and has brought about backwardness in sustainable national development and threat to national security. These security challenges as highlighted are terrorism, herdsmen attacks, kidnapping, banditry, political violence, ritual killings, ethno-religious crisis, armed-robbery, militant groups and many more that have metamorphosed into a cankerworm that confronts the nations’ existence. These has created a porous security condition that challenges the national security and impedes development. The method proposed in tackling these security issues is the deployment of the right science-systems in the country to address these thorny security lapses trailing the nation. Specifically, science-systems will help enable intelligence, information technology which breads (information and network security, emergency response systems, integrating information), intelligent gathering and monitoring systems, strong and viable national database, energy systems, toxic chemicals and explosive materials, science and technology systems, and training of security agencies on national inclusivism.</p> G.E. Ekeh H.A. Okemiri E.O. Uche-Nwachi L.K. Ekeh Copyright (c) 2022-03-06 2022-03-06 16 4 397 401 Vibration of single – walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) on a Winkler foundation with magnetic field effect https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/222453 <p>In this study, vibrational analysis of a single – walled carbon nanotube (CNT) incorporating longitudinal magnetic field based on Euler -Bernoulli Beam theory (EBBT) and Eringen’s Non – local Elasticity theory is used. One parameter finite element method together with Newmark time integration method is used to study effects of non -local parameter, magnetic field and fluid velocity on the deflection of the pipe. MATLAB software is used to simulate the system response. From the result obtain, its shows that fluid velocity affects most, the deflection of the pipe than non –local parameter and magnetic field strength.</p> A.I. Shaba M. Jiya Y.M. Aiyesimi A.A. Mohammed Copyright (c) 2022-03-06 2022-03-06 16 4 402 406 Heat transfer on unsteady MHD flow of fourth-grade fluid in a horizontal infinite parallel plates with suction effects https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/222454 <p>This work examines the heat transfer on unstable MHD flow of fourth grade fluid in horizontal parallel plates. The plates are arranged so that the upper plate oscillates and moves while the lower plate is stationary. The temperatures prescribed by the plates are uniform and asymmetric. Dimensionless parameters are set to convert the governing equations to dimensionless form. Solutions for momentum and energy equations are explicitly obtained through the He-Laplace scheme. The effect of various flow parameters on velocity profile and temperature distribution is discussed using graphs. Significant results of this study show that velocity profile and temperature distribution increase with the increase in thermal radiation parameter, while the velocity and temperature distribution decrease with the increase in suction parameter. The results of this work have significant application in refrigeration industry for refrigeration, energy transfer in cooling tower, evaporation, etc.</p> Joseph Kpop Moses Abubakar S. Magaji Tijjani Nasiru Zakari Copyright (c) 2022-03-06 2022-03-06 16 4 407 414 Comparative study on the concentration of heavy-duty trucks and small motor vehicles soot in Lafia metropolis, Nasarawa State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/222455 <p>Soot samples from Heavy Duty Trucks (HDT) and Small Motor Vehicles (SMV) exhaust were investigated for the presence of some heavy metals using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results showed the Pb concentration in HDT ranges from 0.911±0.001 ppm to 0.069±0.008 ppm whereas, for the SMV it ranges from 0.456±0.000 ppm to 0.091±0.000 ppm. Almost all available Cd and Cr escaped leaving a non-detectable limit except for one of the SMV which showed a highly objectionable value of Cr 4.336±0.004 ppm. The concentration of Al ranges from 0.126±0.002 ppm to 0.093±0.001 ppm for the HDT; and 0.150±0.000 ppm to 0.057±0.001 ppm for the SMV. The Fe values ranges from 65.885±0.006 ppm to 27.834±0.009 ppm for HDT and 52.448±0.003 ppm to 2.418±0.001 ppm for the SMV. There is a clear indication that fragmented soot contributes to heavy metal pollution in Lafia Metropolis based on this study.</p> Nasirudeen M. Baba Friday Onwukwe Muhammad E. Binin Copyright (c) 2022-03-06 2022-03-06 16 4 415 418 Fruit wine produced from pawpaw (<i>Carica papaya</i>) and watermelon (<i>Citrullus vulgaris</i>) using <i>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</i> isolated from selected fermented foods https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/222456 <p>This study was aimed at investigating the suitability of the fruits (pawpaw and watermelon) as substrates for wine production and the efficiency of yeast isolated from fermented foods for alcoholic fermentation of fruits. Yeast cells were isolated using pour plate technique. The probable isolates were confirmed using molecular procedure. The yeast cells were used to ferment pawpaw and watermelon Juice (must) to produce wine. During fermentation aliquot samples were removed daily from the fermentation tank for analysis of pH, temperature, total titrable acidity and total viable yeast counts were determined at 24 h interval. During wine production temperature ranged from 27 °C to 30 °C. There was a gradual decrease in pH (ranging from 4.4 to 3.3) and specific gravities (ranging from 0.99 to 0.84), with increase in titratable acidity (ranging from 1.53 to 2.23%) and alcohol contents (ranging from 0.0 to 13.63 %). Proximate composition revealed that fruit juices had higher percentage moisture content, ranged from 76.72% to 85.94%, ash content of 0.08% to 0.67%, protein content of 4.59% to 5.69%, percentage fat content of 7.35% to 8.75%, and total carbohydrates of 1.46% to 5.99%,while proximate composition of the produced fruit wine revealed percentage moisture content of 83.45% to 85.12%, ash content of 0.17% to 1.05%, protein content of 3.17% to 5.47%, percentage fat content of 7.45% to 830%, and total carbohydrates of 1.08% to 3.80% respectively. Microbial analysis and sensory evaluation of the produced wine was carried out using nine (9) point hedonic scales by 10 panellists, Sensory evaluation (P&gt;0.05) rated the wines acceptability as Pawpaw wine &gt; Watermelon wine &gt; blend of Pawpaw and Watermelon wine. Shelf life assessment of the produced fruits wine were carried out and samples were plated on nutrient agar and sabouraud dextrose agar for enumeration of bacteria, using standard procedures. During shelf life assessment, it was observed that there were no spoilage or growth of microorganisms in wines samples at room temperature (26oC) and refrigeration temperature (4oC) except <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>. This study revealed that watermelon is the most acceptable wine and could be produced from this fruit with yeast from palm wine.</p> B.D. Kantiyok S.S.D. Mohammed A. Yabaya Copyright (c) 2022-03-06 2022-03-06 16 4 419 427 Bacteriological and parasitological analysis of hand-dugged well water in selected areas of Rigachikun community, Kaduna https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/222457 <p>Inadequate provision of potable pipe borne water in Rigachikun leads to the consumption of untreated and inadequately treated well water which has been responsible for water borne diseases. A total of 20 samples from four locations (Unguwan liman, (ULR), Hayin Rigachikun (HRN), Rigachikun Bus-stop (RBS), and Rigachikun New layout (RNL) five samples each from the locations were collected for total bacteria load and prevalence of parasites using standard Microbiological and Parasitological techniques. The result showed that the total bacterial count in all the samples ranged from 0.78 and 0.84cfu/ml at Rigachikun Bus Stop and Hayin Rigachikun respectively in wet season as the least bacterial load and the highest bacterial load of 3.50 and 2.56 CFU/ML at Unguwan liman and Rigachikun New Layout respectively in dry season. Five genera of bacteria were isolated and identified, <em>Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi,</em> <em>Bacillussp</em> and <em>Pseudomonas sp Salmonella</em>, had the highest occurrence followed by<em> E. coli</em> then <em>Stapylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Bacillus sp</em>., with <em>Pseudomonas sp</em>. occurring least. The Parasitological study reveals four genera of protozoan parasites, namely: <em>Gardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli</em>, and <em>Cryptosporidium parvum</em>; the prevalence of the parasites were <em>Gardia lamblia</em> 45%, <em>Entamoeba histolytica</em> 60%, <em>Balantidium coli</em> 10%, and <em>Cryptosporidium parvum</em> 35%. The study has shown high level of bacterial and parasitic contamination in all the samples obtained from the selected locations. Hence, there is the need for proper treatment of hand dug well water and hygienic practices by households to reduce the risk of disease outbreak caused by the organisms encountered in this study.</p> K. Auta A. Lawal I. Basira S.A. Mohammed I.A. Isaac Copyright (c) 2022-03-06 2022-03-06 16 4 428 432 Physicochemical analysis of groundwater in the vicinity of an industrial area: a case study of Mopin Community, Ota, South-Western Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/222459 <p>The pollution of a water source poses a health risk to its consumers. The aim of this work is to analyse the physicochemical characteristics of groundwater in Mopin Community, Ota in South-western Nigeria to ascertain the quality and possible effects of the effluents from neighbouring Industrial Estate. The parameters determined were Total hardness, alkalinity, sulphate, phosphate, nitrate, chloride, heavy metals, Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), and Total dissolved solids (TDS). Four groundwater samples were collected within the months of October, 2010 to June, 2011 and the physicochemical parameters were analysed according to APHA (1992). Heavy metal levels were also analysed using AAS machine after sample digestion. All analysis was carried out in triplicates. The results of this study indicates that the measures of gross organic pollution; COD, BOD and TDS were within WHO Permissible limits with average values of 64.79±28.05mg/L, 2.58±0.47mg\L and 127.5±23.63mg\L respectively. Average alkalinity and total hardness of 21.53±16.8mg\L and 32.75±13.50mg\L was also recorded. Nitrate and sulphate levels were higher than the phosphate levels. The heavy metal levels were of the decreasing order Pb&gt;Zn&gt;Cr&gt;Ni&gt;Cu&gt;Co&gt;Cd. This study showed that the effluents had little or no impact on the groundwater and the water is fit for consumption.</p> Ekute Bethel Onyeka Copyright (c) 2022-03-06 2022-03-06 16 4 433 435 Histophatological studies on effect of serum liver enzymes of <i>Naja nigricollis</i> and <i>Bitis arietan</i> venom https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/222460 <p>Snake envenoming is a major problem in West Africa especially Nigeria which has the highest risk to humans and animals. In this study, the histophathological effect of <em>Naja nigricollis</em> and <em>Bitis arietan</em> crude venom at a sub-lethal dose have been investigated on liver of male mice. Venom injected interpretoneally (ip) in mice and 3.5mg/kg body weight at time intervals of 3, 6 and 24h after injection. Enzymes serum aspartate transaminase (AST) showed a tendency to increase with time, the increase was recorded significant from 2, 6 and 24 h with value from 0.1699 ± 0.06841 to 0.2362 ± 0.02916 of the <em>Bitis Arietan</em> venom when compared with the <em>Naja nigricollis</em> venom of 0.1569 ± 0.0598 to 0.018297 ± 0.07783. The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) revealed a tendency to decrease with time and was found to significantly decrease at the 3, 6 and 24 h from the beginning of the experiment.&nbsp; In the present work, the elevated activity of AST might indicate liver and other vital organ damage brought about by the venoms. Knowledge of the biochemical parameters of snake venoms is very important in understanding the pathological manifestation of the envenomation and may be also fundamental in deciding on appropriate drugs to use in clinical envenomation.</p> B.G. Kurfi H.M. Ibrahim A.M. Abdulazeez Copyright (c) 2022-03-06 2022-03-06 16 4 436 440 Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding of neonatal health among mothers in Chikun Local Government Area, Kaduna State https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/222461 <p>Caregivers play an important role in the care of neonates and the prevention of neonatal deaths. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of neonatal health among mothers in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna state. A community-based cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 147 mothers were selected using a multi-stage sampling technique. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 25 and results were presented in tables and charts. The mean age of respondents was 33.4 ± 6.9 years. Most respondents were married (90%), attained tertiary level of education (61.2%) and had two or fewer children (53.1%). The respondents had fair knowledge (48.3%), good attitudes (95.9%) and fair practice (56.5%) regarding neonatal health. Maternal knowledge and practice regarding neonatal health were suboptimal. There is a need to mount interventions aimed at educating mothers to improve their knowledge and practices related to neonatal care and the well-being of their babies</p> Awawu Grace Nmadu Emmanuel Daniel Nwan Istifanus Anekoson Joshua Victoria Nanben Omole Bilkiu Nwankwo Abdulrazaq Abdullahi Gobir Copyright (c) 2022-03-06 2022-03-06 16 4 441 446 Distribution of Bifidobacteria in saliva of infants attending postnatal clinic in three public health facilities in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/222463 <p>This research is aimed at evaluating the distribution of <em>Bifidobacterium</em> species in the saliva of infants from three selected public health facilities providing postnatal services in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State. Samples were randomly collected by oral swabs method from 96 male and female infants taken for postnatal clinic in the three hospitals. Sample population is infants within the age range of 0-2yrs attending postnatal clinic. Demographic information on each infant was obtained through questionnaire that was completed by the mothers. Initial identification of Bifidobacteria was carried out by subjecting sampled saliva to biochemical test of Catalase, indole and fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase. Based on the biochemical characteristics, the isolated bacteria were reduced to 12 isolates. Using genus specific primers for <em>Bifidobacterium</em>, molecular characterization was carried out on the 12 isolates obtained by biochemical test for <em>Biofidobacterium</em>. Out of the 12 isolates subjected to molecular analysis, five were confirmed to be <em>Bifidobacterium</em> while sequence analysis of two of the samples carried out identified the species as <em>Bifidobacterium longum</em>. All the five isolates of <em>Bifidobacterium longum</em> were from saliva samples collected from male infants aged between 1 – 6 months. In conclusion, <em>Bifidobacterium longum</em> appears to be present in male infants within the age group 1 – 6 months than females within the same age group.</p> Zahra’u Umar Yahaya Abdullah Umar Ahmad Babangida Suleiman Nkechi Eucharia Egbe Abdullahi Isiyaka Alhaji Enimie Enduerance Oaikhena Rabiat Lawal Aisha Sanusi Gumbi Copyright (c) 2022-03-06 2022-03-06 16 4 447 451 On the study of chaotic behavior using the logistic function https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/222464 <p>The study uses the idea of logistic function to illustrate the presence of chaos as the cause of the absence of periodic formation. The logistic function is used in demonstrating, proving, and explaining <strong>Definition 6</strong> and <strong>Theorem 1</strong> through examples, tables, and figures. A system in recurrent behavior is describable when it is stable. However, chaotic behavior is seen when the system moves beyond periodic making it difficult to predict or describe the nature of the system. The WolframAlpha computational knowledge engine was used in obtaining the tables and the figures for the study. The study shows that when the parameter of the logistic function is at exactly 4 there is an uncorrelated behavior of the system indicating a new regime called chaos. Finally, the study shows that after successive iterations of the system there is no recurrent formation which is due to the system showing un-periodic, unstable, and uncorrelated.</p> Patrick Anamuah Mensah William Obeng-Denteh Kwasi Baah Gyamfi Mary-Ann Msuur Shior Benedict Celestine Agbata Copyright (c) 2022-03-06 2022-03-06 16 4 452 454 The fixed point as a period-1 recurrent in opological dynamical systems https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/222466 <p>The behavior of the dynamical orbit of a system by describing it relies on the method used. The paper uses the logistic function to illustrate and describe the fixed point of the periodic–like recurrence as a periodic -1 recurrent. The study is based on <strong>Theorem 1</strong>:(𝑋,𝑇)is a fixed (Stationary) recurrent point, <strong>iff</strong> for all 𝑥∈𝑋 and an operator 𝑇:𝑋→𝑋 a continuous map and any neighborhood 𝑈⊂𝑋 then,<strong>⋃</strong>≔{𝒏∈𝑹:𝑻<sup>𝒏</sup>(𝑼)≠∅}∴ 𝑻𝒏(𝒙)=𝒙∈𝑼,𝒏∈𝑹,𝒏&gt;𝟎, <strong>Theorem 2</strong>: a point 𝐱 is periodic -1 or fixed point if 𝐅(𝐱)=𝐱, 𝐅𝐢𝐱(𝐅)=𝐏𝐞𝐫<sub>𝟏</sub>(𝐅) and form a fixed (Stationary) recurrent point 𝐓<sup>𝐧</sup>(𝐱)=𝐱∈𝐔,𝐧∈𝐑,𝐧&gt;𝟎 and, <strong>Definition 7</strong>: a point 𝒙∈ 𝑿 is said to be recurrent if for any neighborhood 𝑼 of𝒙, there exists an integer 𝒏≥𝟏such that 𝑻<sup>𝒏</sup>(𝒙)∈𝑼 through the application of the logistic function. The application of the logistic function on the two theorems (<strong>Theorem 1</strong> and <strong>Theorem 2</strong>) and <strong>Definition 7</strong> explained that period-1 recurrent only exists when there is the existence of fixed point (periodic orbits) which depends solely on the initial point and the parameter 𝜶 of the logistic function..</p> Patrick Anamuah Mensah William Obeng-Denteh Kwasi Baah Gyamfi Benedict Celestine Agbata Mary-Ann Msuur Shior Copyright (c) 2022-03-06 2022-03-06 16 4 455 459 Determination of sex and species composition of tsetse flies from selected communities of Kagarko L.G.A. Kaduna State https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/222467 <p>Tsetse flies are the exclusive biological vectors of African trypanosomes in Africa, which are estimated to cover about 80% of the country’s total area, hindering rearing of livestock and creating health risk to humans as well. This study was performed to determine the sex and species composition of tsetse flies from selected communities of Kagarko Local Government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Sampling of flies was done using standard biconical traps according to the method of Challier and Larvessiere and were sorted into sex and species using morphological distinctions as described by Leak. The study was carried out for four (4) months, during which forty seven (47) tsetse flies were caught, 16 (34.04%) were male and 31(65.96%) were female and all forty seven (47) flies were members of the <em>Glossina palpalis palpalis</em>. The abundance of more female flies supports the fact that they live longer, go out more frequently in search of blood meal due to reproductive requirements and the presence of only Glossina palpalis palpalis implies that it is the dominant species, hence, transmission of trypanosomiasis as <em>Glossina palpalis palpalis</em> are the major vectors of trypanosomiasis in Nigeria.</p> S.A. Mohammed I.K. Auta I. Basira B.A Kugu S.U. Adamu Copyright (c) 2022-03-06 2022-03-06 16 4 460 463 Assessment of heavy metal levels in fish tissues, water and sediment from Epe Lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/222468 <p>Pollution of heavy metal in water bodies is a threat to public water supplies and also to consumer of fishery sources. This study aimed at investigating the distribution of heavy metals in some fish species, water column and sediment of Epe Lagoon. Water samples, sediments and ten fish species (Synodontis schall, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, Megalaspis cordyla, Ulua mentalis, Caranx hippos, Tilapia guineensis, Marcusenius cyprinoides, Xenomystus nigri, Oreochromic niloticus, Clarias gariepinus) were sampled in 2019. Heavy metals (Zinc, Copper, Manganese, Iron, Lead and Cadmium) were detected in three matrices including fish tissues, water and sediment using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The heavy metal level ranges of the metals detected were: Zn: 1.128 to 4.875 mg/kg; Cu: ND to 0.488 mg/kg; Mn: 0.5 to 7.480 mg/kg; Fe: 0.125 to 9.125 mg/kg; Pb: ND to 0.875 mg/kg; and Cd: 1.750 to 2.750 mg/kg. The highest mean concentration of the heavy metal in all fish species is Zn, followed by Mn, Cd, Fe, Cu and Pb. The mean concentration of metals determined in the water samples ranged from 0.020 – 0.635 mg/L and for sediments the range was 0.669 – 17.453 mg/kg. The results obtained show high levels of Mn, Fe and Cd in some fish species which can pose danger to consumers of foods and water from this Lagoon. There is therefore the need for continual assessment of the level of pollution of this Lagoon with a view to reducing this level via sensitization and education.</p> Amina Muhammad Mustapha Adamu Yunusa Ugya Zainab Mustapha Copyright (c) 2022-03-06 2022-03-06 16 4 464 469