Science World Journal https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj <!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning ></w:PunctuationKerning> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas ></w:ValidateAgainstSchemas> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables ></w:BreakWrappedTables> <w:SnapToGridInCell ></w:SnapToGridInCell> <w:WrapTextWithPunct ></w:WrapTextWithPunct> <w:UseAsianBreakRules ></w:UseAsianBreakRules> <w:DontGrowAutofit ></w:DontGrowAutofit> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:"Arial Narrow"; panose-1:2 11 5 6 2 2 2 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:swiss; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:647 2048 0 0 159 0;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;} a:link, span.MsoHyperlink {color:blue; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed {color:purple; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --><!-- [if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]--> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 3pt 0pt;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt;">The SWJ is a peer review on-line international journal of broad appeal, aimed at fast publication of cutting edge research across the sciences. The Journal publishes multidisciplinary articles reporting on original research in the natural and physical sciences and their applications. The journal also promotes the application of computers in modeling and Bioinformatics. Other websites related to this journal: <a href="http://www.scienceworldjournal.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">www.scienceworldjournal.org</a></span></p> en-US Copyright belongs to the journal. Journal is Open Access sgabdul@kasu.edu.ng (Dr Sadiq G. Abdu) abu_magaji@kasu.edu.ng (Dr A.S. Magaji) Tue, 16 Jan 2024 07:36:22 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.11 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Simulation and validation of the performance of a polycrystalline photovoltaic module https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262356 <p>The performance of a solar module is described by its Current-Voltage (I-V) and Power-Voltage (P-V) curves, it is therefore necessary to generate these curves in order to validate the parameters of the module namely Short Circuit Current, Open Circuit Voltage, Maximum Power, Current and Voltage at Maximum Power Points, Fill Factor, and Efficiency. This study highlights two methods of generating I-V and P-V curves from a 30W sunshine (AP-PM-30) module. The methods include a computer simulation using MATLAB/Simulink software and an experimental procedure at different values of Irradiance and cell temperature. Findings from this study show that an increase in irradiance at constant cell temperature of the solar module results to significant increase in the current produced but slight increase in voltage. Consequently, the power output of the solar module also increases, while increase in cell temperature at constant irradiance decreases the voltage but slightly increases the current produced by the module but power output decreases. Therefore, these explain the influence of irradiance and cell temperature on the performance of a photovoltaic module.</p> Usman Abdullahi, Muhammad Sani Abubakar, Alhassan Shuaibu Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262356 Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation into a deep-rooted crustal framework deduced from potential field data in Cretaceous and Tertiary strata, Sokoto Basin NW, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262291 <p>The Paleocene sediments from the Sokoto Group, which comprises of the Gamba, Dange, and Kalambaina formations, were covered by Maastrichtian sediments from the Rima Group, which includes the Wurno, Dukamaje, and Taloka formations. High-resolution aeromagnetic and satellite gravity measurements were used to study these sediments. The aforementioned strata correspond to the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in this research area and are situated in the south-eastern part of the Iullemmeden Basin. Our aim is to determine and explain the horizontal variation in density and magnetization using the whole regional satellite gravity and aeromagnetic data. The deeper magnetic and density sources were scanned using a two-dimensional (2D) radially averaged power spectrum analysis to produce the NE to SW and E to W trending models for the Moho, lower, and upper lithosphere under the study area. The results were further assessed using upward continuation, derivative analysis, and two-dimensional gravity and magnetic modeling. Numerous important structural trends (i.e., NE-SW, E-W &amp; ENE-WSW), have been identified as a result of the vertical gradients for the potential field data. Spectral analysis and Euler deconvolution can be used to calculate the depths to the lower and upper mantle crust boundaries as well as the depth to Moho<strong>. </strong>The findings of a qualitative analysis point to an intrusion of the Gundumi and Illo Formations that has a northeast orientation as the primary cause of the significant gravitational and magnetic interaction. The differences in the deep-seated crustal structures and mineralized anomalous bodies with depth were visible on anomaly maps with an upward continuation of 5 km, 7 km, 20 km, and 30 km. Quantitatively, the 2D regional models along the selected profiles (L<sub>1</sub>, L<sub>2</sub>, L<sub>4</sub>, L<sub>6</sub> and L<sub>7</sub>) display a typical lithostratigraphic succession of the Gundumi and Illo Formation (Continental Intercalaire, CI) type of crust, which is subdivided into the lower and upper mantle crust as well as the Moho. The sediment thickness by surface depth ranges from ∼4.06 km and ∼23.31 km. The Moho interface, lower and upper mantle crusts, and magnetic crust are all located at depths of around ∼10.23 km. The distance between the local models of the foundation rocks to the north and south of the Sokoto Group was approximately ∼6 to ∼8 km and ∼4.5 km, respectively.</p> Adamu Abubakar, Othniel Kamfani Likkason, Yunusa Abdulganiyu, Hadiza Umar Tsafe, Umar Mahmood, Bala Balarabe, Andarawus Yohanna Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262291 Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Depth estimation for geothermal reconnaissance deduced from aeromagnetic data over the Mambilla plateau and environs, Taraba State, Northeastern Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262297 <p>The geothermal gradient, heat flow and Curie point depth (CPD) were calculated using aeromagnetic data to assess their viability in terms of energy generation around Mambilla plateau and environ, Northeast, Nigeria. Each block of spectral plot was used to determine the depths to the top boundary (Z<sub>t</sub>), to bottom (Z<sub>b</sub>) and centroid (Z<sub>o</sub>). Empirical formula was used to calculate the geothermal gradient, Curie Point Depth (CPD) and heat flow in the area. The resulting depth measurements were then consider as the area's geothermal gradient, heat flow, and curie point depths (CPD). Two CPD locations with geothermal potential are described in the results: areas with shallow curie point depths (0.11-1.72 km) and areas with deeper curie point depths (0.34-4.46 km). The geothermal gradients measured range from 46.22 to 121.620<sup>o</sup>Ckm<sup>-1</sup>, while the measured heat-flow values range from 139.16 to 304.05 mWm<sup>-2</sup> . This study also reveals how complex magmatic and tectonic linkages of large intrusions and fault systems, particularly the Chain faults that may have extended into the study area, are related to geothermal systems. A common CPD of 3<sup>o</sup>C100m<sup>-1</sup> or 30<sup>o</sup>CKm<sup>-1</sup> and average thermal conductivity values ranging from 105.68 to 227.63mWm<sup>-2</sup> are considered to have a good potential for geothermal energy. This result have strong and positive correlation with what is obtained in some countries were geothermal energy is been utilized for power generation. The potential for geothermal energy resources in the area is therefore very high. The study's most important and practical finding is that the area has good potentials for geothermal energy resources, which could be used to compliment the Government-owned Mambilla Hydro-Electric Power Plant, as a reliable renewable energy source.</p> Andarawus Yohanna, Othniel Kamfani Likkason, Abubakar Sadiq Maigari, Ali Sani, Shekwonyadu Iyakwari, Adamu Abubakar, Mamidak Miner Iliya, Rawen Barnabas Ori, Gideon Ombugu Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262297 Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring wireless connectivity and network performance: A dataset of 4G LTE user equipment measurements https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262301 <p>Wireless networks, especially 4G LTE technology, have revolutionized the way we communicate and access information (Dike &amp; Iddy, 2023). The performance and reliability of these networks, specific to the network operator in this study, are critical factors in ensuring a seamless user experience. However, the understanding of network behavior in urban environments, characterized by high population densities and diverse mobility patterns, remains a challenging task. This paper presents a dataset comprising 4G LTE user equipment measurements collected along Sabon-Gari Market, located in Kano, Nigeria, using a major 4G LTE network operator. The dataset is the result of a comprehensive data collection effort aimed at understanding wireless connectivity and network performance within this urban market environment. The primary objective is to share and make available this dataset to the research community, fostering further investigations and advancements in the field of mobile communication technologies. The work undertook an extensive data collection campaign in Sabon-Gari Market using a major 4G LTE network operator. The G-NetTrack Pro Android application was utilized to capture user equipment measurements during a three-week period, encompassing both morning and evening periods. The aim is to provide valuable insights into the wireless connectivity and network performance characteristics of Sabon-Gari Market using a major 4G LTE network operator. Researchers and practitioners can leverage this dataset to analyze network behavior, study mobility patterns, investigate the impact of various factors on network performance, and develop innovative solutions to enhance wireless communication technologies in similar urban environments.</p> S.A. Garba, F.U. Ambursa, Y.S. Baguda, M.A. Shehu Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262301 Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge, perception and practice of antimicrobial stewardship among doctors in public secondary healthcare facilities in Kaduna State, Nigeria: A pilot survey https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262304 <p>Infectious diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially in Africa, Nigeria inclusive. Antimicrobials are used to treat microbes; hence their rational use is very crucial. This study assessed knowledge, perception and practice of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) among doctors in public secondary healthcare facilities in Kaduna State. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from March to May 2020 among doctors using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of sixty doctors were selected using a multi-stage sampling technique. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 23 and results were presented using tables and charts. Chi square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to test for association between categorical variables where appropriate. The level of statistical significance was set at p-value of &lt;0.05. The median age of the participants was 33.5 years. Over half (52.6%) of the respondents were unaware of the term AMS; 29.8% had good knowledge of AMS and 87.7% had positive perception towards AMS. Three out of ten (30.0%) respondents had good practice of AMS. There were no statistically significant associations between age, sex, educational qualification and department of the respondents and the practice of AMS. The respondents’ knowledge of AMS was poor and majority had positive perception, but the practice among them was poor. There is need for training and retraining of doctors on AMS by the State Ministry of Health and their professional associations in order to enhance knowledge and practice on AMS.</p> I.A. Joshua, Y. Yazid, R.D. Agbana, K. Sabitu, M.B. Sufiyan, S.B. Bature, J.M. Banda Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262304 Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Remediation of crude oil contaminated soil with locally formulated bioremediation agent https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262310 <p>Hydrocarbon pollution is one of the major environmental challenges facing the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, and over the years, various methods and strategies have been suggested to be used in tackling these problem. This research was aimed at restoring crude oil contaminated soil with locally formulated bioremediation agent (coded LOFBA). The local bioremediation agent (LOFBA) formulated consisted of cow dung, chicken droppings and periwinkle shells. Four soil treatments (unpolluted soil, polluted soil with crude oil, polluted soil remediated with LOFBA and polluted soil remediated with NPK) were setup using completely randomized blocked design (CRBD). The microbial isolates were identified on the basis of cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Physicochemical properties of the soil (pH, total nitrogen, sulphate, phosphorus, total organic carbon, moisture, exchangeable cations, heavy metals) were estimated using standard procedures while total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined using the gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GCMS). The LOFBA had pH 5.6, high calcium (47.325%), Nitrogen (1.49%), phosphorus (0.26%), electrical conductivity (194.81μmho/cm) and high counts of bacteria and fungi. The microbial isolates identified were <em>Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Acinetobacter aceti, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>and <em>Streptococcus pyogenes</em>. Soil remediated with LOFBA showed a significantly (p &lt; 0.05) higher bacterial counts total nitrogen and exchangeable ions (K, Mg, Na and Ca) than other treatments. Heptadecane, pristine, octadecane, eicosane, herieicosane and hentriacontane were more highly degraded in LOFBA remediated soil than NPK remediated soil. Naphthalene was the only PAH present in all soil samples after six months although LOFBA remediated soil had the lowest concentration. Besides, Acenaphylylene was detected in crude oil contaminated soil and soil remediated with NPK while none was detected in soil remediated with LOFBA. The results also revealed that total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) from unamended soil decreased from 21.33 mg/kg to 16.61 mg/kg (22.13% degradation), from 15.18 mg/kg to 3.03 mg/kg (80.04% degradation) in LOFBA remediated soil while that of NPK remediated soil decreased from 18.70 mg/kg to 7.97 mg/kg (57.38% degradation) after six months. The results indicate that the locally formulated bioremediation agent (LOFBA) enhanced the recovery of the oil contaminated soil better than NPK fertilizer. LOFBA is therefore, recommended for oil spill remediation in the tropic.</p> F.E. Ugoma, U.J.J. Ijah, O.P. Abioye, I.O. Musa Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262310 Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation of a one-step hybrid algorithm towards the solution of first order linear and nonlinear initial-value problems of ordinary differential equations (FOLNIVP) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262312 <p>The aim of developing any numerical method is to complement the challenges inherent in obtaining the analytical solution of a differential equation, if at all a closed form solution does exist. In this study we present a one-step implicit code of order eight block algorithms for the purpose of utilizing data at points other than a whole step number. The major advantage of hybrid method is that they possess remarkably small error constants which translate to better approximation. These methods constitute a class of methods whose computational potentialities have probably not yet been fully exploited. Therefore, the performance of the derived block hybrid algorithm is investigated using some numerical examples for the purpose of demonstrating its validity and applicability. The results obtained revealed that the algorithm is suitable for solving first order linear and nonlinear initial value problems (IVPs) of ordinary differential equations.</p> N.M. Kamoh, B.C. Dang, M.C. Soomiyol Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262312 Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A two-parameter estimator for correlated regressors in gamma regression model https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262315 <p>Gamma Modified Two Parameter (GMTP) is a novel biased two-parameter estimator proposed to address the effects of multicollinearity in Generalized Linear Models (GLMs). An expansion of the linear regression model's Modified Two Parameters (MTP) is the newly suggested estimator. The performance of the GMTP estimator over the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE), gamma ridge estimator (GRE), gamma Liu estimator (GLE), and gamma Liu-type estimator (GLTE) reviewed in this article are theoretically compared, and the estimator's properties is discussed. A simulation study that examine the effects of the dispersion parameter, sample size, explanatory variables, and degree of correlation are used to examine the superiority of the GMTP with four different biasing parameters over the MLE, GRE, GLE, and GLTE with regard to the estimated MSE criterion. The GMTP estimator with biasing parameters and outperforms the MLE, GRE, GLE, and GLTE, according to simulation research. More research can be done to see how well the GMTP estimator performs in comparison to other estimators that were not examined in this study. 2 k 4 k</p> Janet Iyabo Idowu, Akin Soga Fasoranbaku, Kayode Ayinde Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262315 Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation of the mycoflora of deteriorating tomatoes (<i>Solanum lycopersicum</i> Mill.) sold in Lokoja markets, Kogi State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262318 <p>The deterioration of tomatoes poses significant risks to public health as it can lead to the growth of fungi that produce harmful mycotoxins. This study focused on investigating the mycoflora associated with deteriorating tomatoes sold in selected Lokoja markets, Kogi State, Nigeria. A total of eighteen (18) samples, each containing three deteriorating tomatoes were randomly collected from six vendors in three different markets. Standard microbiological methods were employed to analyze the samples. The results revealed the presence of <em>Aspergillus niger</em>, <em>Microsphaeropsis arundinis</em>, <em>Penicillium </em>sp<em>. </em>and <em>Rhizopus arrhizus </em>as the predominant fungi in the deteriorating tomato samples. Samples from Adankolo market yielded the highest mean fungal load (4.63 × 10<sup>6</sup> CFU/g) and was significantly different (p<strong>≤</strong>0.05) from those of Old market (2.78 × 10<sup>6</sup> CFU/g) and Lokongoma market (2.67 × 10<sup>6</sup> CFU/g). Notably, <em>A. niger </em>had the highest occurrence (48.9 %) while <em>R. arrhizus had </em>the lowest occurrence (2.2 %). The presence of these fungal contaminants highlights the lack of fungi-free deteriorating tomatoes in Lokoja markets. The high occurrence of Aspergillus niger and the overall fungal load levels highlight the potential health risks associated with consuming these tomatoes. Consequently, the consumption of deteriorating tomatoes should be discouraged due to the potential health risks associated with mycotoxin production by these fungi. Strategies to mitigate fungal growth and spoilage of tomato in the markets as well as further research on mycotoxin production and health implications are fundamental for ensuring food safety and protecting public health.</p> Esther Okolo, Abdulsalam Abubakar Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262318 Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence and risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis (<i>Schistosoma haematobium</i> L.) among school children in Biu Local Government, Borno State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262358 <p>This cross sectional study was conducted between August-October, 2023 among 420 school-age children aged 5-16years attending public primary school in Biu local government, Borno state. The aim was to determine the prevalence, knowledge about the disease and risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis in the study area with the view of creating database information and awareness to the stakeholders. 10mls of urine sample was collected from each selected students and determination of <em>Schistosoma haematobium </em>eggs was done using standard sedimentation technique while microhaematuria were determined using a reagent strip and a well-structured questionnaire to obtained other required information. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis among the students was 0.5% and male students that are in age group between 11-13years has the prevalence of 1.5%. The prevalence rate 0.8% and 0.9% was found in Buratai and Tum while no infected student was found in the Biu metropolis. Also, prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis was found in samples with visible haematuria in their urine as 21.3% of male student has visible haematuria while only 8.6% female has visible haematuria in their urine. The different between different age groups and locations was statistically insignificant while sex and visible haematuria was statistically significant. There was high level of ignorance and poor knowledge about transmission, prevention and treatment of schistosomiasis among the student. The study concluded that the parasite is not endemic in the study area despite the high level of ignorance and poor knowledge about parasites among the student in the study area. There is need for public enlightenment to maintain the status in the area.</p> A.M. Usman, F.S. Baban Takko, M.D. Khadija Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262358 Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Quantitative estimation of metabolites and antifungal efficacy of leaf extracts <i>Aspilia africana</i> on cucumber and pawpaw fruit spoilage fungi https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262359 <p>Several reports have shown that about 25% of harvested fruits globally are lost to spoilage by microorganisms. The study determined the quantitative metabolites and bioactivities of <em>Aspilia africana </em>extracts on fungi from spoiled <em>Cucumis sativus </em>and <em>Carica papaya </em>fruits. The fungi from spoiled <em>C. sativus </em>and <em>C. papaya </em>fruits were obtained using mycological techniques. The quantitative metabolites and bioactivities of the aqueous (ALEAA) and ethanol (ELEAA) extracts of <em>A. africana </em>were determined using the standard protocol and disc diffusion technique, respectively. The fungal genera obtained were Aspergillus<em>, </em>Penicillium, Mucor, Fusarium, and Rhizopus. There were variations in percentage yields, physical appearances, and pH of the extracts. The results of quantitative estimation of metabolites showed that ALEAA had mean protein, carbohydrate, and lipid contents of 15.36 ± 0.32%, 60.97 ± 1.14%, and 6.66 ± 0.04%, respectively. Alkaloids showed a positive correlation with protein (r = 0.2028) and carbohydrate (r = 0.421), and a negative correlation with lipid (r = -0.6556) at p &lt; 0.05. The ELEAA exhibited more inhibitory effects on test fungal isolates, with mean zones of inhibition (IZs) ranging from 9.3 ± 0.1 to 18.8 ± 0.3 mm, than the ALEAA, with mean IZs ranging between 9.4 ± 0.4 and 16.0 ± 1.0 mm. The R coefficients of the extracts and IZs as exhibited by the fungi ranged from 0.5985 to 0.9936. The results have revealed quantitative metabolites and antifungal activities of the extract and also provided rationale for its utilization as a preservative for fruits against spoilage by fungi.</p> Olajide Joseph Akinjogunla, Ijato James Yeni, Oyetayo Olaoluwa Adefiranye, Edinam-Abasi Sunny Udofia, Uko Christopher Etok, Inyene Akan Akang Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262359 Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Performance of <i>Pistia stratiotes</i> (L.) as affected by water soluble fractions of Universal Energy Akwa Ibom crude oil in Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262608 <p>Environmental pollution and degradation caused by the processing and refining of crude oil has been on the increase since its discovery in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Its negative impacts are unquantifiable though its refined products are of immense benefits to the nation and the world at large. An assessment of the performance of <em>Pistia stratiotes </em>as affected by the water soluble fraction of Universal Energy Akwa Ibom crude oil was carried out in Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria in 2023. The five levels of WSF (0, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) were used. <em>Pistia stratiotes </em>thalli were obtained from below the Bridge along River Ethiope and exposed to the different treatments. The results showed a significant reduction (p≤0.05) in all the plant parameters measured (leaf area, plant number, fresh weights, dry weight biomass, relative growth rate and survival percentage) in plants grown in the WSF media when compared to their counterparts exposed to the control plots. Against the normal healthy plants observed in the control, signs of dieback, yellowness of leaves, suppress growth and deaths were observed in plants subjected to the water soluble fraction of the crude oil and the effects were WSF dose dependent. There was gradual reduction in the shoot biomass of the plant with increasing level of WSF. There is a gradual increase in the root biomass although there was a total root growth. The study has established that the performance of <em>Pistia stratiotes </em>was significantly affected by the presence of water soluble fraction of crude oil. The study has great implication on water biology and food security. Continuous environmental monitoring and remediation exercises should be conducted in oil producing communities by the government.</p> O.M. Agbogidi, C.O. Ogbemudia Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262608 Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of cellulolytic potentials of <i>Aspergillus</i> species isolated from central waste dump site of Nile University of Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262609 <p>A large number of microorganisms are capable of degrading cellulose but only a few of these microorganisms produce significant quantities of enzymes capable of completely hydrolyzing cellulose. Fungi are the main cellulase-producing microorganisms. This study was aimed to determine the cellulolytic potentials of <em>Aspergillus </em>species isolated from the central waste dump site of Nile University of Nigeria. In this study, fungal species were isolated from soil samples obtained from waste dump site using pour plate technique. The isolates were characterized using cultural and morphological features as well as microscopic examination. <em>Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, </em>and <em>Aspergillus terreus</em>, which were isolated were further screened on carboxymethylcellulose agar for their ability to degrade cellulose. Screening of fungal isolates was performed by plate method. Cellulolytic fungi were evaluated after 5 days for the production of cellulolytic enzymes by staining with 1% Congo red. The diameter of clear zone on fungal plates, gave an approximate indication of cellulase activities. <em>Aspergillus niger </em>had a zone of clearing of 25.50 mm while <em>Aspergillus flavus </em>had 18.50 mm. <em>Aspergillus terreus </em>did not show any cellulolytic activity. <em>Aspergillus niger </em>had the highest occurrence rate of 50%. <em>Aspergillus flavus </em>and <em>Aspergillus terreus </em>both had 25% occurrence rate.</p> G.G. Ezeagu, U.R. Sanusi, U.M. Wali, S.S.D. Mohammed Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262609 Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Production and purification of water using natural based adsorbent from plantain peels https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262611 <p>Activated charcoal or carbon commonly employed as filter examinant of water, and air with surface area of 300–2,000m<sup>2</sup>/g, adsorbs a wide range of impurities and contaminants. This study was undertaken to produce adsorbent from plantain peels (Natural based), for the treatment of water samples, subsequently tested. Pyrolysis activation method was adopted using H<sub>3</sub>P0<sub>4</sub> and KOH. Water samples of wells from Gonigora, boreholes from Ungwan Romi, fishponds from Kawo and Kaduna Polytechnic, river water from river Kaduna, rain, tap from Tudun Wada and Eva water from Coca-Cola were used for the analysis. Which include water treatment, pH determination, total suspended, total dissolved, and total volatile solids, colour and odour determination. The results showed activated carbon effectiveness on pH of water samples well within 7.00, for borehole, Tap, and 7.02, for pond, rain and Eva waters, while 7.10 for river water. This indicated that the adsorbent is active and compared favorably with the standard adsorbent which pH of the water samples treated were 7.00 for pond, rain, tap and Eva, while 7.02 and 7.04 for borehole and river water respectively. This validated the production of granular natural based adsorbent via pyrolysis of plantain peels at 450<sup>0</sup>C by chemical activation method. Therefore an economical adsorbent obtained naturally based as cheap, readily available waste material for future commercial purification application.</p> Baba Gabi, H. Umar, Y. Yakubu, B. Shehu Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262611 Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) on nutrient uptake and the growth of <i>C. retusa<?i> and <i>S. occidentalis<?i> under phosphorus stress https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262612 <p>This study investigates the influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) on the growth of <em>Crotallaria retusa </em>and <em>Senna occidentalis </em>under three phosphorus levels (low, medium, and high). Conducted in the experimental garden of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, the soil samples were collected from a degraded site at the Institute of Agricultural Research, sieved, and sterilized. Perforated buckets were filled with sterilized soil, and the trench method was employed for AMF application. Three phosphorus levels were tested, and seeds of <em>C. retusa </em>and <em>S. occidentalis </em>were planted in individual buckets. Daily watering and observations were carried out for twelve weeks, measuring seedling height, leaf length, width, and number of leaves. The results indicate that high phosphorus concentration (12g/bucket) constrains the growth of <em>C. retusa</em>, while medium concentration (6g/bucket) enhances shoot length, branches, and leaves. AMF inoculation significantly improves growth attributes, but reduced growth in <em>C. retusa </em>under high phosphorus suggests potential incompatibility between phosphorus and AMF. At week 6, medium phosphorus (6g/bucket) resulted in more leaves (122.17±37.61) than low and high levels. Lowest growth occurred at low phosphorus (0g/bucket). <em>Arbuscular mycorrhizal </em>fungi improved overall growth, but high phosphorus hindered <em>C. retusa </em>growth due to potential incompatibility with AMF. Overall, the study highlights the complex interplay between AMF, phosphorus levels, and plant growth, offering insights into optimizing conditions for the cultivation of <em>C. retusa </em>and <em>S. occidentalis</em>.</p> S.A. Jere, W.S. Japhet, D.N. Iortsuun, A.M. Chia Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262612 Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation of natural radioactivity in soil of selected hospitals in Imo State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262613 <p>We measured the terrestrial activity contents, radiation doses; hazard indices and excessive lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) from primordial radionuclides (<sup>226</sup>Ra, <sup>232</sup>Th and <sup>40</sup>K) in 50 soil samples collected from the five selected hospitals within Imo State, Nigeria. Radioactivity measurements were carried out by the method of gamma-ray spectrometry with thallium doped sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] detector. The mean activity values obtained for the radionuclides <sup>226</sup>Ra, <sup>232</sup>Th and <sup>40</sup>K (respectively) in Federal Medical Centre, Owerri (FMC); General Hospital, Umuguma, Owerri West, (GHW); Neuroscience Hospital, Ohaji Egbema (NHO); St. Joseph Hospital, Okigwe (SJH); Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu (IMSUTH) are: 20.56±4<strong>.</strong>73, 14.96±3.42 and 105.65±31.40 Bqkg<sup>-1</sup>; 11.77±3.03, 17.45±4.20 and 63.67±18.44 Bqkg<sup>-1</sup>; 17.97±4.65,10.02±2.18 and 190.43±42.83 Bqkg<sup>-1</sup>; 11.36±3.71, 17.39±4.46 and 76.29±25.08 Bqkg<sup>-1</sup>; and 11.84±3.64, 4.89±2.25 and 165.18±58.41 Bqkg<sup>-1</sup> respectively. These values were below the worldwide average values: 32 Bqkg<sup>-1</sup> for <sup>226</sup>Ra, 45 Bqkg<sup>-1</sup> for <sup>232</sup>Th, and 412 Bqkg<sup>-1</sup> for <sup>40</sup>K as documented by UNSCEAR (2000). <sup>40</sup>K recorded the highest mean activity compared to <sup>226</sup>Ra and<sup> 232</sup>Th in the studied soil samples. Radium equivalent activity (Ra<sub>eq</sub>), absorbed gamma dose rate (D<sub>r</sub>), annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), external hazard index (H<sub>ex</sub>), gamma representative index (Ι<sub>ϒ</sub><sub>r</sub>) and annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE), were calculated to quantify the radiation risk to the public from exposure to <sup>226</sup>Ra, <sup>232</sup>Th and <sup>40</sup>K in the studied samples. In addition, excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) was also accessed. The mean computed values of the excess lifetime cancer risk for FMC, GHW, NHO, SJH and IMSUTH are 0.08±0.03, 0.09±0.15, 0.10±0.2, 0.10±0.03 and 0.07±0.02 respectively. The mean values of these hazard parameters were within the acceptable safety limits provided for human safety and environmental protection.</p> Ibeabuchi E. Okwor, Chidi E. Akulor, Udoka M. Ukewuihe Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262613 Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of marketing performance of onion (<i>Allium cepa</i>) among participants in Kaduna and Katsina States, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262614 <p>The study analyzed the marketing of onion in Kaduna and Katsina States, Nigeria. A survey of 100 onion farmers and 200 traders in these two states was conducted in 2022. Four villages and four markets were purposively selected. Random sampling was used to select respondents using structured questionnaire alongside oral interview. The analytical tools used were descriptive statistics, marketing margin and multiple regression. Majority of the traders (71%) had marketing experience between 5 to 25 years. Analysis on marketing margin shows that the producer’s share in the price that the final consumer pays was 56%, the wholesaler receives 14% and the retailer gets 30%, while the total marketing margin in the complete distribution chain was 43%. Analysis on the effect of marketing costs on marketing margin using multiple regression reveals that commission paid to agents was significant at 1% for regional wholesalers and 5% for inter-regional wholesalers. Transportation cost had positive coefficients significant at 10% for regional wholesalers and 5% for inter-regional wholesalers. At the level of retailers, the commission and transport charges have insignificant effect and where they exhibited significant effect, they have negative t-values. The loading/un-loading cost, revenue charges and storage cost had insignificant coefficients and negative t-values. The study recommends provision of simple drying machine for processing onion into durable products, provision of efficient transport system, onion exportation to create competition, market access to reduce glut and enlightenment of market participants on joining cooperative societies for solving many of the marketing problems.</p> Maharazu Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262614 Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Green synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial activity of silver nano particles against some bacterial isolates https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262615 <p>Nanotechnology has emerged as a promising field for the development of novel antibacterial agents with reduced environmental impact. In this study, we present a novel green synthesis approach for the production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using a plant-based extract. These AgNPs were subsequently characterized using various analytical techniques, including UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). UV-Vis spectroscopy confirmed the formation of AgNPs by exhibiting a characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak at around 401 and 420 nm. XRD analysis revealed the crystalline nature of the AgNPs, with distinct diffraction peaks corresponding to the face-centered cubic structure of silver. TEM analysis demonstrated that the synthesized AgNPs were predominantly spherical in shape and exhibited an average size within the nanoscale range. FTIR analysis was employed to elucidate the potential bioactive compounds present in the plant extract responsible for the reduction and stabilization of AgNPs. Furthermore, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of these synthesized AgNPs against a panel of bacterial isolates. All the bacterial isolates were sensitive to the silver nanoparticles. <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>as found to be most resistant, while <em>E. coli </em>as found to be the most sensitive.</p> Baba Gabi, Aishatu M. Aliyu, Jonathan Tersur Orasugh, Zakari Abdullahi Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262615 Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous extract of <i>Calotropis procera</i> and its antimicrobial activity on clinical bacteria isolates https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262616 <p>The green synthesis of nanoparticles, utilizing aqueous plant extract as a capping and stabilizing agent, has attracted significant attention in various domains, particularly in pharmaceuticals and drug delivery. In this investigation, silver nitrate (AgNO<sub>3</sub>) salts were employed as precursors to fabricate silver nanoparticles using <em>Calotropis procera </em>(leaves/flower) extract, and the resulting nanoparticles were characterized. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed three primary functional groups at peaks of 2851.4 cm<sup>-1</sup>, 1543.1 cm<sup>-1</sup>, and 1323.2 cm<sup>-1</sup>, responsible for capping and stabilizing the synthesized <em>C.p</em>-AgNPs. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) demonstrated that the synthesized <em>C.p</em>-AgNPs exhibited spherical shapes with an average particle size ranging from 20 nm to 30 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis of the synthesized <em>C.p</em>-AgNPs indicated the presence of pure silver (Ag) at 54.32% in the region of 2.7 to 3.1 keV. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of <em>C.p</em>-AgNPs was examined, with the best inhibition observed at 0.5 mg/mL on Gram-negative bacteria <em>S. aureus </em>(12.0 mm) and <em>Streptococcus </em>spp (13.0 mm), and on Gram-positive bacteria <em>E. coli </em>(16.0 mm) and <em>Salmonella </em>spp (14.0 mm). The antimicrobial efficacy was dose-dependent, suggesting the potential for eradicating resistant human pathogenic bacteria. The antibacterial potential of <em>C.p</em>-AgNPs could be enhanced by increasing their concentration, depending on the specific application. Based on the study's findings, <em>C.p</em>-AgNPs derived from <em>Calotropis procera </em>can be employed for various biomedical purposes, such as textile coating by incorporating <em>C.p</em>-AgNPs in fibers and food storage by nanocapsulation of food items to extend their shelf life.</p> Abakeyah James Mamman, Bako Myek, Zakari Ladan Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262616 Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of <i>Ceiba pentanra</i> against some clinical pathogenic bacteria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262617 <p>Many of the plant materials used in traditional medicine are readily available in rural areas and thus have made traditional medicine relatively cheaper than modern medicine. Plants generally produce many secondary metabolites and these constitute an important source of microbiocides, pesticides and many pharmaceutical drugs. <em>Ceiba pentandra </em>is naturally present in equatorial Africa and naturalized in all the humid tropics including Nigeria. Ethyl acetate, ethanol and aqueous leave extract of <em>Ceiba pentandra </em>were assayed against clinical isolates of <em>S. aureus</em>, <em>P.vulgaris, E. coli </em>and <em>K. pneumoniae </em>by agar diffusion method. All the extracts showed antimicrobial activity against all the test organisms. <em>K. pneumoniae </em>was the most susceptible to the plant extracts while <em>E. coli </em>was the most resistant. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the plant extracts against the test organisms ranged between 15μg/mLto30μg/mL The minimum bactericidal concentration of the extracts was within the ranges of 15μg/mL and 35μg/mL Ethyl acetate extract of leaf of <em>Ceiba pentandra </em>appeared to be more effective than aqueous or ethanol extract as antimicrobial agent against all the test bacteria. The results obtained may suggest that the plant extracts possess useful antimicrobial properties.</p> A. Banso, M.A. Ajayi Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262617 Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of drought at different reproductive stages on yield and yield components of some cowpea (<i>Vigna unguiculata l. Walp</i>) varieties in Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262618 <p>Drought is one of the most unfavorable abiotic factors that can affect the growth and yield of cowpea. Drought at different reproductive stages can interfere with the morphological processes of plants. Therefore this research aim to determine the effect of drought at different reproductive stages on yield and yield components of some cowpea varieties. A screen house experiment was conducted at the Botanical Garden of Biological Science Department, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida, University during the 2022 cropping season The three cowpea varieties used were; FUAMPEA 1, FUAMPEA 2 and ITK89KD-288 which were planted and subjected to water stress at three different reproductive stages which included; early flowering stage, early pod set stage, early seed filling stage and a well-watered treatment to serve as control. The treatments were arranged in a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) in three replications. Cowpea yield attributes evaluated were; number of pods per plant, pod length, pod weight per pot, number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight, total grain yield per pot and estimated grain yield per hectare. Results revealed that variety was highly significant (p≤0.01) for pod length, total grain yield per pot and estimated grain yield per hectare. On the other hand, drought was significant (p≤0.05) for pod weight per pot. Variety however was not significant for number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 100 seed weight. Drought showed a highly significant effect (p≤0.01) on number of pods per plant, pod length, pod weight per pot, number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight, total grain yield per pot and estimated grain yield per hectare. Water stress at early seed filling stage significantly reduced total grain yield per plot and total grain yield per hectare. Drought at different reproductive stages affects the morphological and physiological processes of cowpea as a crop. This is an indication that water is very crucial during the growth and yield of cowpea.</p> H.M. Muhammed, D.Y. Stephen, U.A. Gabi, A.M. Rabe, M.L. Saratu Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262618 Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Statistical optimization of iodine adsorption for <i>Pentaclethra macrophylla</i> pods activated carbon production https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262619 <p>Efficient production of activated carbon (AC) depends on variables such as feedstock properties, preparation conditions, and activating agents. This study aimed to identify optimal conditions for AC production from African Oil Bean (<em>Pentaclethra macrophylla</em>) Pods (PMps) using potassium hydroxide (KOH) and phosphoric acid (H<sub>3</sub>PO<sub>4</sub>) as activating agents. Through a systematic iodine adsorption characterization approach and leveraging Response Surface Methodology as a chemometric tool, the study fine-tuned chemical activation and carbonization parameters (temperature, time, and impregnation ratio) for producing PMACs. The adjustments directly impacted the iodine number (I<sub>n</sub>) and yields (C<sub>y</sub>) of the PMACs (PMAC-KOH<sub>op</sub> and PMAC-H<sub>3</sub>PO<sub>4op</sub>). The predicted I<sub>n</sub> and C<sub>y</sub> values closely aligned with the observed values – (PMAC-KOH<sub>op</sub>: 918.58 mg/g predicted vs. 916.56 mg/g observed; PMAC-H<sub>3</sub>PO<sub>4op</sub>: 593.44 mg/g predicted vs. 592.88 mg/g observed) and (PMAC-KOH<sub>op</sub>: 39.60% predicted vs. 39.15% observed; PMAC-H<sub>3</sub>PO<sub>4op</sub>: 51.30% predicted vs. 51.10% observed), demonstrating precision of the production process. Key structural properties, including BET specific surface areas (SSA), total pore volumes (V<sub>t</sub>), and average pore diameters, exhibited notable differences between the PMAC-KOH<sub>op</sub> and PMAC-H<sub>3</sub>PO<sub>4op</sub>, with the former demonstrating superiority. Particularly, FTIR spectra highlighted higher aromaticity in PMAC-KOH<sub>op</sub>, revealing the preference for KOH over H<sub>3</sub>PO<sub>4</sub> in the chemical activation of PM<sub>ps</sub>. The high I<sub>n</sub> achieved with the PMAC-KOH<sub>op</sub> indicated its efficacy as a pollutant adsorbent, aligning with the established attributes of commercial granular activated carbons for pollutants removal from wastewater. This study establishes PMps as a dependable AC precursor, emphasizing the advantages of KOH over H<sub>3</sub>PO<sub>4</sub> in chemical activation. Future research should be directed at investigating PMAC-KOH<sub>op</sub> adsorption capabilities for diverse pollutants and exploring PMps' potential contributions to metallic or nanocomposite formations with other adsorbents.</p> Gabriel Ogbeh, Ayodele O. Ogunlela, Nicholas O. Emaikwu Copyright (c) 2024 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/262619 Tue, 16 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000