Science World Journal <!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning ></w:PunctuationKerning> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas ></w:ValidateAgainstSchemas> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables ></w:BreakWrappedTables> <w:SnapToGridInCell ></w:SnapToGridInCell> <w:WrapTextWithPunct ></w:WrapTextWithPunct> <w:UseAsianBreakRules ></w:UseAsianBreakRules> <w:DontGrowAutofit ></w:DontGrowAutofit> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--><!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:"Arial Narrow"; panose-1:2 11 5 6 2 2 2 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:swiss; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:647 2048 0 0 159 0;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;} a:link, span.MsoHyperlink {color:blue; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed {color:purple; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --><!-- [if gte mso 10]> <style> /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]--> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 3pt 0pt;"><span lang="EN-GB" style="font-size: 10pt;">The SWJ is a peer review on-line international journal of broad appeal, aimed at fast publication of cutting edge research across the sciences. The Journal publishes multidisciplinary articles reporting on original research in the natural and physical sciences and their applications. The journal also promotes the application of computers in modeling and Bioinformatics. Other websites related to this journal: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></span></p> en-US Copyright belongs to the journal. Journal is Open Access (Dr Sadiq G. Abdu) (Dr A.S. Magaji) Wed, 19 May 2021 13:26:53 +0000 OJS 60 Growth and yield response of irrigated maize (<i>Zea mays L.</i>) to the application of different rates of inorganic fertilizer and poultry manure <p>The growth and yield response of irrigated maize (<em>Zea mays L</em>.) under varying levels of inorganic fertilizer and poultry manure was evaluated during 2019/2020 dry season at two locations (Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science, Kaduna State University, Kafanchan Campus and Kadawa, Irrigation Research Farm of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria) using a complete randomized block design with three replications. The experimental treatments consist of varying quantities of poultry manure: 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 tonnes per hectare that were incorporated in to the soil along with four levels of inorganic fertilizer 0, 100, 120, and 140 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> . The results of the field trials showed that all growth and yield parameters were significantly affected by poultry manure rate in both Kafanchan and Kadawa. However, the effect of poultry manure on maize plant height and cob diameter was not significant in Kafanchan. The application of inorganic fertilizer had a positive and significant influence on all maize growth and yield attributes in both locations. Irrigated maize yield showed significant increase with increasing quantities of inorganic fertilizer and poultry manure in both Kafanchan and Kadawa. The results of the field trial indicated that a combination of 120 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> inorganic fertilizer and 3.0 t ha<sup>-1</sup> poultry manure is desirable for optimum irrigated maize yield in Kafanchan and Kadawa.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Maize, Irrigation, Poultry manure, Mineral fertilizer; Grain yield </p> M.S. Yahaya, I. Bello, A.Y. Unguwanrimi Copyright (c) Wed, 19 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of sources of drinking water using water quality index in Bauchi Metropolis, Bauchi State, Nigeria <p>The study evaluated drinking water quality from four different sources in the study area using Water Quality Index (WQI) method. Thirty-two (32) water samples were collected from Borehole, Well, Tap and Sachet water. The quality of water samples were determined using the physicochemical parameters such as pH, Color, Odor, Taste, Temperature, Turbidity, Alkalinity, Calcium, Bicarbonate, Lead, Nickel, Nitrate, Sulphate, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Copper, Fluoride. The results indicated that borehole water quality from Dan Amar ward and Makama B ward were rated poor water, Tirwin and Dawaki borehole were rated unsuitable. The well water samples from Hardo was found as poor water, and well from Dan Amar, Tirwin and Makama B and Makama A were unsuitable for drinking purpose. The tap water sample from Tirwin was poor and the tap water samples from Hardo and Dawaki were unsuitable for drinking purpose. All the sachet water samples were found to be excellent. The results also revealed that, the water quality index (WQI) for borehole water samples ranges from 5.34 to 727.75; well water ranges from 0.80 to 532.53; tap water ranges from 27.43 to 516.23 and finally sachet water ranges from 32.17 to 46.27. The calculated WQI indicates that 25% of water samples are excellent for drinking. 46.9% of the samples fall in good class of WQI.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Water quality, Bauchi, Borehole, Well, Tap and Sachet water </p> Y.I. Garba, M.Z. Karkarna, M. Yayagana, D.M. Musa Copyright (c) Wed, 19 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation and path-coefficient analysis for grain yield and agronomic traits of maize (<I>Zea mays L.</I>) <p>Studies were conducted to estimate the direct and indirect effects of four agronomic traits on maize (Zea mays L.) grain yield by the application of simple coefficient correlation and path coefficient analysis in two experimental fields (Kafanchan and Kadawa). Generally, correlation coefficients among the yield component characters were similar in both locations; however path coefficients showed variation in Kafanchan and Kadawa. In the two research sites, plant height, cob length, cob diameter and 1000-grain weight had high positive correlation with maize grain yield and with each other. The path coefficient analysis revealed that plant height made the highest direct contribution (0.653 in Kadawa) to grain yield followed by 1000-grain weight with a direct contribution of 0.4290 in Kafanchan. The path analysis further disclosed these characters to be the most important components of grain yield. Both correlation and path coefficient analyses have established cob diameter as a less reliable agronomic trait than the other three variables included in the maize yield component analysis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Agronomic traits, Correlation coefficients, Path coefficients, Grain yield, Maize </p> M.S. Yahaya , I. Bello, A.Y. Unguwanrimi Copyright (c) Wed, 19 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Changing urban structure and physical expansion trends of Kafanchan Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria <p>This study examines the changes in the urban growth of the city using empirical methods. First, the population growth was analysed to track changes between 1978, 1991, and 2016. Secondly, the city's physical, structural expansion was assessed from 1990 to 2016 using earth observation satellite images over the two epochs on supervised classification and the maximum likelihood criterion. The study generated digital maps of land use/land cover changes of the two epochs. Results showed that the developed area had increased from 8.93 % in 1990 to 22.1 % in 2016. Most expansion took place at the periphery of the town. Considering population indices, from 1978 to 1991, there was 9.6% growth and a tremendous growth between 1991 and 2016 of 227.6%. Considering population growth and spatial land cover change increase, there is over 200% growth of both indices. The study recommends the need for the Kaduna State Urban Planning and Development Agency (KASUPDA to continuously monitor urban growth and compliance with the Master plan using similar empirical methods developed in this study.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Urban Growth, Urban expansion, Kafanchan, Population, Trends, GIS.&nbsp; </p> Godstime Kadiri James, Sanda Dogara Tah, Idris Mohammed Jega, Halilu Ahmad Shab, Matthew Olumide Adepoju, Justin Imhanfidon Copyright (c) Wed, 19 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Modelling the trend and determinants of stunted children age 0-59 months in Nigeria <p>Prevalence of Stunting among under-five children is very high in many developing countries of the World. As step towards reducing the prevalence, there is need to identify the important determinants and the Trend of Stunting in the specific context. This paper examined the general trend and determinants of stunting among children 0-59 months in Nigeria. The anthropometric indices Height for age z-score was used to determine a child’s nutritional status as whether a child is stunted and the impacts of some socioeconomic, Demographic, Community level, Environmental and maternal factors on this are determined. Results from this study shows that Child’s sex, mother’s birth interval, Mother’s and their partner’s educational status, Locality, geopolitical zones of the mother’s, Wealth index, parents source of drinking water among others contributed positively to Stunting among children 0-59 months in Nigeria (p &lt; 0.05). The general results showed that Stunting among less than five years children in Nigeria has significantly improves over time between 1990 and 2003 (p &lt; 0.05). Although following a sinusoidal pattern. Five waves of national data from the Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys for 1990, 1999, 2003, 2008 and 2013 were employed in the study.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Stunted, Malnutrition, Anthropometry, Height for Age, Logistic Regression. </p> U.M. Hassan, C.L. Ani, M.M. Ndaware, G.A. Adesue Copyright (c) Wed, 19 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Bacterial assessment of effluents from selected abattoirs into adjoining water bodies in Kaduna Metropolis <p>Abattoir effluents discharged into water bodies have high health implications. The study was carried within Mar to September 2019, to isolate and characterize bacteria from effluents discharged into water bodies from three Local Government Area Kaduna South (Kakuri), Chikun (Sabo-Tasha) and Kaduna North (Kawo) abattoirs within Kaduna metropolis. Three hundred of water samples were collected during the period of study. The samples were analyzed for bacterial content using standard Spread plate technique. The water samples collected content the mixture of blood, urine, piece of bone, faeces, etc. The result obtained from the water samples from the three abattoirs showed a bacterial high means count of 3.5 x 10<sup>3</sup>CFU/mL Kakuri abattoirs showed means bacterial count of 2.40x10<sup>3</sup>CFU/mL, Sabo abattoirs showed means count of 2.20 x10<sup>3</sup>CFU/mL and Kawo abattoir showed means of 1.90 x 10<sup>3</sup> CFU/mL <em>Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp., Salmonella sp., Enterobacter sp., Shigella sp. and Preteus sp. </em>were isolated from waste water samples obtained from the three abattoirs. Analysis of the water sample obtained from the three abattoirs were observed to have a high numbers of bacterial that are harmful to human like <em>E. coli.</em> There is need to study the ecological implication of these&nbsp; bacteria.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Abattoirs, Bacterial Content, Characterize, Effluent and Metropolis. </p> M.O. Joseph, B. Ibrahim, S.K. Zaky , S. Abdulkadir, I.K. Auta Copyright (c) Wed, 19 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Zoo management and tourist influx in Unilorin Zoological Garden, Ilorin, Nigeria <p>This study assesses the zoo management practices through a visit to the Unilorin zoo with a view to establish its current status. An exploratory survey was conducted through personal observation and in-depth interviewing while records of tourists’ patronage were obtained through administrative records. The results showed that more than forty-five (45) different species of animal were stocked between 1978 and 2018. The majority (fourteen species) of the stock were recruited in 2011 while the least was in 1978, 1985, and 2015. The food and feeding pattern of stock revealed carnivorous animals such as lion, leopard, crocodiles, hyena are usually fed 3 to 5 times a week (with exception of Jackal, snakes, and carnivorous birds which are fed once daily) while herbivorous animals eat on daily basis. The result further shows an increasing trend in tourists’ population from 5,819 in 2009 to 51,232 in 2015 but a declined patronage was noticed in 2016, 2017, and 2018, where tourists dropped to 47,803; 43,222, and 40,944 respectively. However, the zoo is developing with challenges and complications which arose from, insufficient funding and erroneous design of animal housing, however, they are, dedicating their efforts and resources to maintaining ethical principles of animal welfare and preserving nature.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Stock, Captivity, Ethical Principles, Exploratory, Patronage.</p> K.M. Adelakun, A.O. Ibrahim , A. Sulyman, O.L. Omotayo , E.O. Adedeji Copyright (c) Wed, 19 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of gamma rays on variability for yield attributing traits in Fonio (<I>Digitaria exilis</I> [Kippist] Stapf.) <p>A study was conducted to determine the mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of different doses of gamma rays in inducing variability that could be exploited in the genetic improvement of fonio. Seeds of five accessions of fonio were irradiated with five different doses of gamma rays (100 Gy, 200 Gy, 400 Gy, 500 Gy and 0 Gy as control). The seeds were sown in a plot in a completely randomized design with three replications to rise the M1 generation which was advanced to M2 generation. The result obtained from the M2 mutants revealed highly significant difference (P≤0.01) in the effects of different gamma rays doses on the growth and yield traits of fonio. This implies the presence of high genetic variability induced by the mutagen in fonio. The effect is concentration dependent, increase with decrease in irradiation dose. More so, the effectiveness of the mutagen decreases with increase in dose. Seven different chlorophyll deficient mutants were found in the form of: Albina, Chlorina, Lustescent, Striata, Viridis, Viriscent and Xantha, with Xantha, Chlorina and Albina as the most frequent chimeras, The result indicated that lower dose of gamma rays (100 Gy) is more effective and efficient as it induces favorable mutation that could be utilized in the genetic improvement of fonio. Accession Nkpowas was found to respond more to the mutagenic treatment.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Accessions, Fonio, Gamma Rays, Mutation. </p> S. Nura, A.K. Adamu, M.A. Adelanwa, I.S. Usman, H.E. Negbenebor, M.A. Aminu, K. Shehu Copyright (c) Wed, 19 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Stigma from psychoactive substance use: Sociodemographic correlation of the perceiver <p>Psychoactive substance use and abuse have been identified as the most stigmatized health condition. This often arises from ‘public’, ‘self’ and ‘courtesy’ stigmas and biases. In Nigeria, studies on stigma of psychoactive substance use and abuse are few and mainly from the perception of medical service providers. No previous Nigerian study according to search by the authors had published on stigma of psychoactive substance use from the perspectives of non-medical persons. This research is therefore aimed to study the prevalence and associated sociodemographic variables of public stigma meted out to users of psychoactive substances. The study instruments were filled by 480 members of staff of Kaduna refinery after obtaining their informed consents. Information on age, gender, educational characteristics and scores on Perceived Stigma of Addiction Scale (PSAS) were collected and analysed with IBM-SPSS version 21. Participants with no formal education are noted to have high public stigma against substance abusers. Belonging to middle age group and male gender are the two demographics that have non-significant low stigma mean scores. It is hoped that this study do provide a platform for interventional guide in reducing and preventing public stigma towards people with psychoactive substance use disorder.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Stigma, Substance use, Perceivers’ variables. </p> S.O. Adeyemi , B.A. Yakasai , J.K. Solomon, T. Abiola Copyright (c) Wed, 19 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of some heavy metals accumulation in <i>Borreria verticillata</i> (l.) Found along Zaria-giwa road, Kaduna state, Nigeria <p>The levels of some heavy metals (lead, cadmium, copper and zinc) were assessed in roadside soils and different organs of<em> Borreria verticillata</em> (L.) plants along Zaria-Giwa road, Kaduna state, Nigeria. The soils and plants samples were collected at distances of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 100 m from the roadside at four different locations namely: Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), National Animal Production Research Institute (NAPRI Shika), Marabar Guga and Ahmadu Bello University Dam Quarters. The samples were digested following the standard procedure. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (A.A.S.) was used in the determination of the metal ions concentration in the samples. The data obtained were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) where necessary. The result showed that, the heavy metals in the soil and plant samples had higher concentration at 0 m and decreased progressively with increase in distance from the roadside. The range of the elements levels in<em> B. verticillata</em> were Pb (4.82-22.34 mg/kg), Cd (1.02-4.29 mg/kg), Cu (5.03-62.18 mg/kg) and Zn (10.22-95.05 mg/kg). Pb and Cd were above the permissible limit set by FAO/WHO. All the highest metal concentrations were observed in the roots of the plant at ABUTH except for Pb. Heavy metal concentrations in soil and plant samples from ABU Dam quarters (control) were significantly lower than those of other locations. In conclusions, distance from the roadside and vehicular densities had a significant effect on the heavy metal concentrations in the samples.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Heavy metals, Roadside, Permissible limit, Soils, <em>B. verticillata</em>, Vehicular density.</p> L Upahi, S.O Alonge, M.L Balarabe Copyright (c) Wed, 09 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Combined oral administration of ethinylestradiol and levonorgestrel alters the expression of antioxidant and apoptotic markers in female rats <p>The use of ethinylestradiol and levonorgestrel (E/L) for birth control may result in serious adverse effects. Herein, the effect of (E/L) on the expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT)), and apoptotic regulator genes (B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), caspase 1 and 3) was evaluated. Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four equal groups. Group A (Control) received 0.5% DMSO, Group B, C and D received 0.015, 0.030, and 0.060 mg of E/L orally and daily for 21 days respectively. RNA extracted from brain, liver and kidney were purified, and the genes amplified using RT-PCR. Following analysis of the intensity of the amplicon bands on 1.2% agarose, the gene's relative expression compared with the expression β-actin was determined. There was significant downregulation of SOD and CAT genes in the liver, brain and kidney in all groups treated with E/L compared to control. Caspase 1 and 3 expressions were significantly elevated by 3.8 and 3.5 folds, respectively in the brain at the lowest E/L concentration. Expression of BCL-2 was downregulated in the brain and kidney in animals administered E/L at all concentrations. These findings suggest that E/L could modulate the expression of antioxidant and apoptosis marker genes.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Ethinylestradiol, Levonorgestrel, Contraceptive, Antioxidant, Apoptosis</p> A.D Wusu, H.A Bankole, A.A Fatai, R.I Kanmodi, P.E Obasieke, T.D Wusu, O.K Afolabi Copyright (c) Wed, 09 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000