Spatial and temporal variation in physico-chemical parameters at Ugbevwe Pond, Oghara, Delta State
Water quality describes the physicochemical, biological and radiological characteristics of water. A field study was conducted to determine the spatial and temporal variation in the physico-chemical, nutrients and heavy metals parameters at Ugbevwe Pond, Oghara, Delta State. Water samples were collected from three stations of which station 1 and 2 are disturb with anthropogenic activities from August, 2014 to May, 2015 covering the wet and dry seasons. A total of 34 parameters were analyzed in water using standard methods. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the mean values of the physico-chemical parameters across the three stations. The test of difference in the mean values between the wet and dry season shows that twelve (12) parameters had seasonal differences (P<0.05) with electrical conductivity, salinity, total dissolved solids, sodium, ammonium-nitrogen, nitrite, iron, zinc and copper having higher values in the dry season while dissolved oxygen, phosphorus and manganese have higher values in the rainy season. The water quality index is 70.10 and is rated as Medium water quality according to the National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NSFWQI) and Waters achieving only an average rating generally have less diversity of aquatic organisms, frequently have increased algal growth and may not be suitable for recreational purposes or other purposes which involve direct contact with humans.
Keywords: physicochemical parameters, pond, heavy metals, water quality index