Prevalence and predictors of anaemia among patients presenting with kidney diseases at the University of Dodoma Hospital in central Tanzania
Background: Anaemia is a common complication that contributes to the burden of kidney diseases. Anaemia confers significant risk of cardiovascular disease and contributes to decreased quality of life. While the primary cause of anaemia is the inadequate production of erythropoietin by the kidneys to support erythropoiesis, other factors may contribute to anaemia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of anaemia among patients presenting with kidney diseases at the haemodialysis unit of the University of Dodoma (UDOM) hospital in central Tanzania.
Methodology: In this retrospective study we reviewed data of patients who presented at UDOM haemodialysis unit in Tanzania with kidney diseases as from January 2013 to June 2015. Data were descriptively and inferentially analysed using Stata version 11 software.
Results: A total of 1,395 patients were involved in this study. Of these, 792 (56.8%) presented with kidney diseases, 249 (31.4%) were found to have anaemia. The leading cause of anaemia was chronic kidney disease (CKD) 136 (54.6%), blood loss 74(29.7), haemolysis 15 (6.0%), Nutrition 13(5.2%) and others 11 (4.4%). Glomerular filtration rate of < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 accounted for 59.1% of CKD. Median [IQR] serum creatinine level: 246 [177 – 317] μmol/L, Urea level 16[8 -24] mmol/L and haemoglobin of 9.8 [6.2 - 13.4] g/dL. Prevalence of anaemia was strongly associated with declining glomerular filtration rate (P= 0.01).
Conclusion: Anaemia is very common among patients presenting with kidney diseases. These patients require a thorough evaluation to identify and correct causes of anaemia other than erythropoietin deficiency.