Insecticide susceptibility status of human biting mosquitoes in Muheza, Tanzania

  • Basiliana Emidi Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, P. O.Box 2240, Moshi, Tanzania. National Institute for Medical Research, Headquarters, P. O. Box 9653, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
  • William N. Kisinza National Institute for Medical Research, Amani Research Centre, P.O. Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania
  • Robert D. Kaaya Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, P.O. Box 2240, Moshi, Tanzania
  • Robert Malima National Institute for Medical Research, Amani Research Centre, P.O. Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania;
  • Franklin W. Mosha Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, P.O. Box 2240, Moshi, Tanzania
Keywords: insecticide resistance, mosquitoes, Tanzania

Abstract

Background: There has been a rapid emergence in insecticide resistance among mosquito population to commonly used public health insecticides. This situation presents a challenge to chemicals that are currently used to control mosquitoes in sub-Saharan African. Furthermore, there is limited information on insecticide susceptibility status of human-biting mosquitoes in some areas of Tanzania. This study aimed to determine insecticide susceptibility status of human biting mosquitoes in a rural area of north-eastern Tanzania.

Methods: The study was conducted in two villages in Muheza district, Tanzania. Insecticide susceptibility bioassays were performed according to the World Health Organization standard operating procedures on two to five-day old human biting mosquitoes. The mosquitoes of each species were exposed to four classes of insecticides commonly used for malaria vector control. Mosquito mortality rates (%) were determined after 24 hours post insecticide exposure.

Results: Mosquito species tested were Anopheles gambiae s.l., An. funestus, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus species. Real-time PCR have showed that the main sibling species of An. gambiae complex and An. funestus group were An. gambiae s. s. (58.2%) and An. funestus s. s. (91.1%), respectively. All mosquitoes, except Ae. aegypti formosus were susceptible to pirimiphos-methyl (0.25%). An. gambiae s. l. was found to be resistant to permethrin (0.75%) but showed possibility of resistance to DDT (4%) and bendiocarb (0.1%). Our findings have shown that, An. funestus was fully susceptible to all insecticide tested.

Conclusion: The present study has revealed different levels of insecticide susceptibility status to four classes of commonly used insecticides in the most common mosquito vectors of human diseases in north-eastern Tanzania. The findings of the present study call for integrated vector control interventions.

 

Author Biographies

Basiliana Emidi, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, P. O.Box 2240, Moshi, Tanzania. National Institute for Medical Research, Headquarters, P. O. Box 9653, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Basiliana Emidi is PhD candidate in Medical Entomology at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, Moshi, Tanzania. She is also a Senior Research Scientist, working with the National Institute for Medical Research, headquarters, Dar es Salaam Tanzania.
William N. Kisinza, National Institute for Medical Research, Amani Research Centre, P.O. Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania
Centre Director, National Institute for Medical Research, Amani Research Centre, P.O. Box  81, Muheza, Tanzania
Robert D. Kaaya, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, P.O. Box 2240, Moshi, Tanzania
Laboratory technologist, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, P.O. Box 2240, Moshi, Tanzania
Robert Malima, National Institute for Medical Research, Amani Research Centre, P.O. Box 81, Muheza, Tanzania;
Medical Entomolgist, National Institute for Medical Research, Amani Research Centre, P.O. Box  81, Muheza, Tanzania;
Franklin W. Mosha, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, P.O. Box 2240, Moshi, Tanzania
Professor of Entomology, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, P.O. Box 2240, Moshi, Tanzania 
Published
2017-06-09
How to Cite
EmidiB., KisinzaW. N., KaayaR. D., MalimaR., & MoshaF. W. (2017). Insecticide susceptibility status of human biting mosquitoes in Muheza, Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Health Research, 19(3). https://doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v19i3.
Section
Articles

Journal Identifiers


eISSN: 1821-9241
print ISSN: 1821-6404