Evaluation of the wound healing activity of formulated ointments and water preparation from Sida rhombifolia leaf extract
Background: Several plants including Sida rhombifolia Linn. (Malvaceae) which are said to be used by traditional health practitioners in Tanzania for wound treatment have not yet been evaluated. The objective of this study was to investigate the ointment formulation of S. rhombifolia leaves for its potential wound healing activities.
Methods: Wound healing activity of S. rhombifolia leaves was investigated in mice using 50%, 33% and 25% formulated 80% ethanolic leaves extract ointment and water preparations. Excisional and incisional wound-induction models were used with 6 albino mice in each group. The wound diameter (for contraction assessment), duration of re-epithelisation in days, percentage tensile strength as well as the degree of collagenisation and fibrosis were investigated.
Results: S. rhombifolia leaves extract had significant mean percentage wound closure for all ointment formulations used and for the water preparation from day 7. A significant percentage tensile strength on day 10 for all formulations used was observed. The 50% ointment had a mean of 64.1±1.7 (p=1.2-09), 33% ointment had a mean of 64.0±3.2 (p=2.4-08) and the 25% ointment had a mean of 53.1±4.0 (p=1.3-06). A remarkable fibrosis and collagenisation for the 50% ointment and the water preparation was observed.
Conclusion: The formulated ointments and the water preparations of S. rhombifolia leaves have a potential benefit in enhancing wound healing. A bioassay guided fractionation is recommended to allow identification of its active compound(s) with wound healing activity for drug development.