High prevalence of tuberculosis among adults with fever admitted at a tertiary hospital in north-western Tanzania

  • Alfred Meremo Department of Internal Medicine, Weill Bugando School of Medicine
  • Benson R. Kidenya Department of Biochemistry, Weill Bugando School of Medicine
  • Stephen E. Mshana Department of Microbiology, Weill Bugando School of Medicine
  • Rodrick Kabangila Department of Internal Medicine, Weill Bugando School of Medicine
  • Johannes Kataraihya Department of Medicine, Weill Bugando School of Medicine
Keywords: Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, fever, adults, Tanzania

Abstract

Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death in developing countries where HIV is endemic. This hospital based study was done to estimate the magnitude of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis and to determine predictors of tuberculosis among febrile adults admitted at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC), Mwanza, Tanzania. A total of 346 adults febrile patients admitted in medical wards were studied. Sputum for AFB microscopy and chest X-rays was used to diagnose tuberculosis. Clinical features were collected using standardized data collection tool. HIV testing and CD4 counts were determined. Data were analyzed using STATA version 11 software. Of 346 febrile adults patients 116 (33.5%) were diagnosed to have tuberculosis; of which 79 (68.1%) and 37 (31.9%) had pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, respectively. Smear negative PTB were more common in HIV positive than in HIV negative patients (50% vs. 18.5%, p=0.007). Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis was more common in HIV positive patients than pulmonary tuberculosis (86.4% vs. 13.6%), p=0.0001). On multivariate logistic regression analysis the predictors of tuberculosis were; age above 35 years (OR =2.38, p=0.007), cardinal symptoms (OR=37, p<0.0001), pleural effusion (OR=24, p=0.0001), and HIV status (OR =3.2, p=0.0001). Of 79 patients with PTB, 48 (60.7%) were AFB smear positive and 31 (39.3%) were AFB smear negative. HIV patients with smear negative tuberculosis had significantly lower CD4 count than HIV patients with smear positive tuberculosis (63.5 cells/µl versus 111.5 cells/µl) [Mann-Whitney test p=0.0431]]. No different in mortality was observed between patients with TB and those without TB admitted in BMC medical wards (28.5% vs. 23.0%, p= 0.1318). Tuberculosis is the commonest cause of fever among adults patients admitted at BMC and is predicted by age above 35 years, positive HIV status, cardinal PTB symptoms, and pleural effusion. Routinely TB screening is highly recommended among adults with fever, cough, night sweating and wasting in countries where HIV is endemic.

Published
2012-07-30
How to Cite
MeremoA., KidenyaB. R., MshanaS. E., KabangilaR., & KataraihyaJ. (2012). High prevalence of tuberculosis among adults with fever admitted at a tertiary hospital in north-western Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Health Research, 14(3). https://doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v14i3.4
Section
Articles

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eISSN: 1821-9241
print ISSN: 1821-6404