Tanzania Journal of Health Research https://www.ajol.info/index.php/thrb <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"> </p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt; text-align: justify;"><em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;"><span style="font-size: 10pt;" lang="EN-GB">Tanzania</span></em><em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;"><span style="font-size: 10pt;" lang="EN-GB"> Journal of Health Research</span></em><span style="font-size: 10pt;" lang="EN-GB"> (<em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">TJHR</em>) aims to facilitate the advance of health sciences by publishing high quality research and review articles that communicate new ideas and developments in biomedical and health research. TJHR is a peer reviewed journal and is open to contributions from both the national and the international communities. </span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt; text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 10pt;" lang="EN-GB"> </span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"><em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;"><span style="font-size: 10pt;" lang="EN-GB">TJHR</span></em><span style="font-size: 10pt;" lang="EN-GB"> is published quarterly in January, April, July and October as an organ of the Tanzania Health Research User’s Trust Fund</span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"><span style="font-size: 10pt;" lang="EN-GB"><br /></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"><span style="font-size: 10pt;" lang="EN-GB">Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="http://www.bioline.org.br/toc?id=th" href="http://www.bioline.org.br/toc?id=th" target="_blank">http://www.bioline.org.br/toc?id=th</a><br /></span></p> National Institute for Medical Research en-US Tanzania Journal of Health Research 1821-6404 Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal. Early clinical markers of metabolic syndrome among secondary school adolescents in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/thrb/article/view/202394 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Metabolic syndrome is defined by the presence of three of four disorders; hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus type 2. The presence of anyone or two of these constitutes early markers of the syndrome. It occurs in children and adolescents but its magnitude has not been determined consistently in many countries including Tanzania.&nbsp; Detection of early clinical markers is an effective preventive strategy. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of early clinical markers of metabolic syndrome among secondary school adolescents in Dar es Salaam.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among secondary schools in&nbsp;&nbsp; Dar es Salaam. Structured questionnaires were used to record demographic data. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were taken using standard methods. Fasting blood samples were collected for blood glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria were utilized.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 217 adolescents were enrolled; of these males and females were 32% (69) and 68% (148) respectively. Of these; 75% (162) were young adolescents (14-17years). Participants from public and private schools were 48% (104) and 52% (113) respectively. Early clinical markers of metabolic syndrome were detected in 43% (94) with at least one clinical marker and 9% (19) with two markers. The prevalence of full-blown metabolic syndrome was 1.4% (3). Overall, the clinical markers included; dyslipidemia 30% (64), central obesity 22% (48), hyperglycemia 13% (29) and hypertension 2% (4). The prevalence of central obesity was 26% (42) among young adolescents and 11% (6) among elderly adolescents and the difference was significant (p value= 0.02).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Early clinical markers of metabolic syndrome exist among Dar es Salaam secondary school adolescents with dyslipidemia being the commonest marker while central obesity was much common among young adolescents. School programs for screening students for detection of early markers of metabolic syndrome are needed.</p> WARLES CHARLES LWABUKUNA YASSIN MGONDA Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Health Research 2021-10-09 2021-10-09 22 1 1 7 10.4314/thrb.v22i1.3 Individual capacities influencing uses of routine health data for decision making among health workersat Muhimbili National Hospital; Dar es Salaam – Tanzania: a quantitative study https://www.ajol.info/index.php/thrb/article/view/212874 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The availability of health workers with the capacity to read and understand statistical data and then use them for work-related decision-making, therefore, supporting their institutions or the existing health system at large in developing countries is important. However, in some countries, Tanzania inclusive, this has remained critical. This requires the capacity-building of potential users. The study aimed to assess individual capacities influencing use of routine health data for decision-making among Emergency Medicine health workers at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study design used was a descriptive cross-sectional using a quantitative approach. Stratified random sampling was used to sample Nurses, Medical officers, Residents, and Emergency medicine specialists. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The study involved 76 health workers working in the Emergency Medicine Department (EMD) at MNH.</p> <p>Results: Results showed 61.6% use of routine health data for decision making. Working experience, job title, and education level had a statistically significant association with information used for decision-making. There was a statistically significant difference in routine data use between those who had poor and good knowledge to collect, analyze, interpret, and use data. Also, results showed that there was a statistically significant difference in routine data use between those who had poor and good skills to collect, analyze, interpret, and use data. Specialists had a good level of knowledge and skills on data use compared to other health workers.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study demonstrates partial use of routine health data for decision-making with an interplay of individual capacities. A framework for statistical capacity building in Tanzania needs to be built, by training a cadre of health workers with core competencies and skills in measuring progress in the health system that could generate sustainable demand for data use within the health systems of the country.</p> Salim Mpimbi Mwangu Mughwira Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Health Research 2021-10-10 2021-10-10 22 1 10.4314/thrb.v22i1.1 Knowledge and utilization of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services among pregnant women in Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/thrb/article/view/213279 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among children is mainly vectored through mother-to-child transmission. Prevention of mother-to-child-transmission strategy is highly effective; however, its accessibility and utilization is affected by the lack of knowledge among other factors.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional study was conducted among antenatal care attendees in two districts in Tanzania to determine their knowledge and utilization of the prevention of MTCT services.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>&nbsp;We interviewed 160 antenatal care attendees aged 18-45 years with a mean (SD) age of 30.4 (6.3) years; 74 (46.2 %) were HIV-infected. HIV-infected women demonstrated significantly correct knowledge of HIV (<em>p</em>=0.001) and AIDS (<em>p</em>=0.014) than uninfected individuals. HIV-infected women also significantly demonstrated correct knowledge of mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy than HIV-uninfected women (<em>p=0.016</em>) and during delivery (<em>p</em>=0.005). A significant proportion of HIV-positive women compared to HIV-negative women were aware that correct use of antiretroviral during pregnancy can reduce the risk of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV (<em>p</em>&lt;0.039), but only 6 (3.75%) of all women were aware that correct use of antiretroviral during delivery can significantly reduce the risk of mother-to-child-transmission. HIV-infected women had significant comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS (<em>p=0.001</em>) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (<em>p</em>=0.006) than HIV-negative women. Comprehensive knowledge prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV was low among the study participants. Male partners’ involvement in maternal antenatal care was significantly higher among HIV-infected women than males from the HIV-infected women group (<em>p</em>&lt;0.006).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study demonstrated inadequate knowledge of PMTCT among women who made ANC visits. HIV uninfected women had poorer knowledge compared to the HIV-infected ones. Routine HIV counseling and testing services were highly accepted among these women.</p> Esther Ngadaya Angela Shija Calvin Sindato Amos Kahwa Godfather Kimaro Mbazi Senkoro Nicholaus Mnaymbwa Doreen Philibert Togolai Mbilu Celina Mandara Ramadhani Shemtandulo Thomas Mwinyeheri Aman Wilfred Sayoki Mfinanga Copyright (c) 2021-10-10 2021-10-10 22 1 10.4314/thrb.v22i1.5 Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome as a rare congenital hemiatrophy: a case report https://www.ajol.info/index.php/thrb/article/view/203897 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (DDMS) is a rare condition in childhood with very few cases reported in sub-Saharan Africa. Typically, the patient presents with facial asymmetry, seizures, and hemiparesis. Radiological findings include cerebral hemiatrophy, ipsilateral lateral ventricular dilatation, and hypertrophy of the calvarium and sinuses.</p> <p><strong>Case presentation:</strong> We present the report of a 3-year-old male with weakness of right upper and lower limbs, facial asymmetry, and seizures. Physical examination showed a well-nourished child with a squint of the right eye. There were brisk tendon reflexes with right-sided hemiplegia which is spastic with left limb preference. Computer tomography of the brain showed atrophy of the left cerebral hemisphere, ipsilateral lateral ventricular dilatation, and thickening of the ipsilateral cranium. The diagnosis of Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome was made. He was treated with sodium valproate and lamotrigine and presently physiotherapy and he had remained seizure-free.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome still affects children despite being a rare condition. There is a need for appropriate clinical and radiological assessment for the diagnosis of DDMS. Early identification and appropriate treatment will improve the general outcome of children with DDMS.</p> Azubuike Benjamin Nwako Charles Emeka Nwolisa Okechukwu Francis Nwako Magaret-Lorritta Chidimma Nwako Copyright (c) 2021-10-10 2021-10-10 22 1 10.4314/thrb.v22i1.4 A cross-sectional study on mother’s knowledge, feeding practices, childcare and malnutrition in Sumbawanga, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/thrb/article/view/208626 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Malnutrition is the major cause linked to many diseases and is a burden recognized in many developing countries including Tanzania. A child’s intake can have a significant impact on health, growth, and development. Understanding mothers’ knowledge of children’s intake can play a vital role in improving their nutritional status. This study aimed at exploring mothers’ knowledge, feeding practices, childcare, and malnutrition among children aged between six months and five years.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in Sumbawanga municipal, from September to December 2020. Data was collected from interviews filled in structured questionnaires among mothers of children aged six months to less than five years. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 based on a total of 190 study participants. Descriptive statistics and c<sup>2</sup> tests were used to assess the significance levels of associated variables.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The total sample of children included in the study was 190, therefore 190 mothers. Out of the 190 mothers, 65 (34.21%) had not attended formal education, 53 (27.89%) had a primary education level,&nbsp; 42 (22.11%) had a secondary education level and 30 (15.79%) has a college or university education level. The majority of mothers, 145 (51.58%) were single, divorced or widowed whereas the majority of mothers, 51.58% (98) were not employed. Marital status and education level had an impact on child’s care and malnutrition reported cases (c<sup>2 </sup>= 15.06, p &lt; 0.0001). Food availability in families of many children with more individuals living together showed to be significantly associated with incidences related to malnutrition (χ<sup>2</sup> = 25.76, p &lt; 0.001). Mother’s feeding practices of less than two times a day showed to be significantly associated with and incidences related to malnutrition (χ<sup>2</sup> = 23.54, p &lt; 0.0001). Mother’s good maternal care showed to be significantly associated with attendance to ANC services and husband/ partner's financial support (χ<sup>2</sup> = 43.22, p &lt; 0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Current mothers’ knowledge and practices about malnutrition and incidences of nutritional related-illness in children in Sumbawanga municipal calls for urgent health education to improve children’s health status.</p> Pessa Protas Clement Nyamunura Mweya Copyright (c) 2021-10-10 2021-10-10 22 1 10.4314/thrb.v22i1.2