Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags <p><em>Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Science</em> (TAJAS) is a peer reviewed scientific journal that publishes original and scholarly research articles dealing with fundamental and applied aspects of agriculture, Food, Aquaculture and Wildlife. Occasionally invited review articles are published.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="https://www.sua.ac.tz" href="https://www.sua.ac.tz" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://www.sua.ac.tz</a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a title="https://www.coa.sua.ac.tz/" href="https://www.coa.sua.ac.tz/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://www.coa.sua.ac.tz/</a>&nbsp;</p> en-US Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences <p><strong>FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE SOKOINE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, MOROGORO, TANZANIA</strong></p> Occurrence of Clubroot Disease and Farmers’ Knowledge on its Management in Cabbage Growing Areas of Morogoro, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/198542 <p>disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae (Woronin) is recently one of the most economically important diseases of Brassica vegetable crops. It causes more than 10 -15% yield losses of cabbage in the world. A survey was conducted in August, 2018 to investigate farmers’ awareness of cabbage clubroot disease and assess its occurrence in cabbage fields at Mgeta Ward in Mvomero District, Morogoro, Tanzania. Mgeta Ward was purposely selected based on its intensive cabbage production and farmers concern on occurrences of clubroot disease. About 23 cabbage fields were surveyed for assessment of cabbage clubroot disease and 120 farmers were interviewed on indigenous knowledge on clubroot disease management and other pests of cabbage. Results showed that the level of education among the respondents was low as majority (95.5%) of farmers had primary education. Based on colored photograph of clubroot infested cabbage plant, a total of 88.3% of farmers interviewed reported the presence of the disease in their fields. Some farmers have been using several clubroot management options. Clubroot disease management options mentioned by farmers were such as crop rotation (33.7%), application of sulphate of ammonia fertilizer (5.0%), a combination of crop rotation and ashes during transplanting (3.7%), early maturing varieties (3.4%), a combination of crop rotation and using early maturing varieties (3.3%), early maturing varieties and crop rotation (0.9%), transplanting cabbage seedlings after adding ashes and later irrigate the fields until they are water logged (0.3%). However, 49.7% of the interviewed farmers had not used any means of controlling clubroot disease in their fields. Generally, the average disease incidence in all surveyed cabbage fields was 31.7%. Cultural practices are the only reliable management option since there is no currently fungicides recommended for clubroot management.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Plasmodiophora brassicae, survey, pests, disease control</p> E.S. Lyimo D.P. Mamiro P.M. Kusolwa A.P. Maerere H.D. Mtui Copyright (c) 2020-08-09 2020-08-09 19 1 1 10 Factors Influencing Use of Improved Postharvest Storage Technologies among Small Scale Maize Farmers: a Case of Kilolo district, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/198543 <p>The study assessed factors influencing the use of improved postharvest storage technologies among small-scale maize farmers in Kilolo District, Tanzania. Data were collected from 260 maize farmers by using the questionnaire, Focus Group Discussions (FGD) and through personal observations. Descriptive statistics such as means, frequencies, percentage and a binary logistic regression model were computed. Formal education, access to credit, access to extension services, membership in farmer groups and distance from home to the market place were found to be the farmers’ determinants of the use of improved postharvest storage technologies. The study recommends that extension agents should increase their contact with farmers, the government should look for possibilities to subsidize improved postharvest storage technologies with a high initial cost in order to enhance their use. Additionally, the Kilolo District Council and other development partners should encourage farmers to form groups for community food storage such as cereal banks and warehouse receipts system.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Factors, postharvest storage technologies, small scale farmers, Kilolo District.</p> J.K. Twilumba A.K. Ahmad G.L. Shausi Copyright (c) 2020-08-11 2020-08-11 19 1 11 21 Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices among Pastoralist and Crop Farming Communities in Mvomero District, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/198544 <p>This study aimed to determine feeding practices of infants and young children among pastoralist and crop farming communities in Mvomero district, Tanzania. A cross-sectional study involved mothers of children below two years of age, from crop farming (n=206) and pastoralist (n=142) communities. ProPAN research tools and procedures were adopted for data collection and analysis. Quantitative data were processed using ProPAN software and descriptive statistics, t-test and Chi-square test were done by SPSS version 21 software. Qualitative data were manually analyzed using the ProPAN matrices. Mean age of mothers (26 years) and of the studied children (12 months) were similar for pastoralists and crop farmers. About 35% (n=50) of pastoralist mothers had no formal education while 93% of the crop farming had at least attended primary school. High proportion of crop farmers (66.5%) initiated breastfeeding within one hour after delivery compared to about 35% in pastoralists. Pre-lacteal feeding was more common among pastoralists (37%) compared to crop farmers (22%). Early complementation was more common among pastoralists (87%) compared to crop farmers (48%). Limited knowledge on infant and young children’s nutritional needs, traditional beliefs and cultural restrictions were among the barriers to optimal infant and young child feeding practices. Awareness of mothers regarding the recommendations, and mother’s desire for their children to attain good health were the facilitators that enhanced mothers to comply with the recommended feeding practices. To promote optimum feeding practices in both communities, stakeholders should consider planning programs on educating community while addressing cultural specific barriers.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> children, pastoralist, crop famers, feeding practices</p> M.G. Kibona A.W. Mwanri Copyright (c) 2020-08-11 2020-08-11 19 1 22 33 Effects of Pre-harvest Application of Hexanal Formulation on Losses and Quality of Tomato (<i>Solanum lycopersicum </i>Mill) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/198545 <p>The study was conducted to determine the effects of field application of enhanced freshness formulation (EFF) on pre-harvest losses and tomato quality. The parameters assessed include pest defects on fruits, marketable and percentage non-marketable fruit, fruit firmness, and fruit weight. Three popular open pollinated varieties grown in Tanzania namely, Mwanga, Rio Grande, and Tanya were used. The experiment was laid out as Completely Randomized Design in a 4 x 4 x 3 factorial arrangement. Three factors, EFF concentrations, time of EFF application prior to the harvest, and tomato variety were evaluated. EFF concentrations of 0.01, 0.02, 0.04% m/v were tested. Untreated plots were included as control. The time of application was 7, 14, 21, and 28 days prior to the harvest. The results showed that pre-harvest application of EFF at 0.01 percent reduced percent non-marketable tomato fruit of Mwanga, Rio Grande, and Tanya cultivars by 28.99, 26.98 and 37.17 percent, respectively compared with the control. Moreover, pest defects were reduced by 29.45, 24.51, and 27.45 percent for Mwanga, Rio Grande, and Tanya, respectively over the control. Furthermore, fruit firmness was increased by 7.69 N/mm2, 6.33 N/mm2 and 5.98 N/mm2 compared with the control for tomato cv. Mwanga, Rio Grande, and Tanya, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Keyword</strong>: Hexanal, Non-marketable, Pest defects, Firmness, Tomato</p> S. Jaspa T. Msogoya G. Tryphone H.D. Mtui A. Baltazari A. Kudra M.W. Mwatawala Copyright (c) 2020-08-11 2020-08-11 19 1 34 43 Promoting Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management through the Process Approach: Experience from UMADEP Project of Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/198546 <p>The importance of the Uluguru Mountains in Morogoro Region depends on two aspects: first, productivity of the available non-restricted natural resources, and the ecological balance of the mountains in the restricted areas. Unfortunately, the increasing population pressure, continual indiscriminative slash and burn practices, intensive use of chemical fertilizers and conventional research approaches in the mountains threaten these two aspects in the complexity of the natural resource management. In order to redress the situation, the Uluguru Mountains Agricultural Development Project (UMADEP) has been using the process approach to sustainable agriculture and natural resource management (NRM) in Mgeta and Mkuyuni Divisions since 1993. Studies conducted in the Uluguru Mountains, have assessed the effectiveness of soil and water conservation (SWC) measures in soil erosion control and established reasons for adoption or non-adoption of SWC measures. The role of the process approach in promoting sustainable agriculture and NRM has not been studied. Using qualitative content analysis, this study attempted to highlight the outcome of the process approach in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of NRM activities. A series of activities have been implemented with the participation of rural communities, such as: Stakeholders’ engagement and networking, conservation of the environment and natural resources, rural micro-financing, business appraisal and marketing. These activities have been implemented through four iterative and continuous steps: Situational analysis (observation), collaborative planning (communication), action and critical reflection (social learning and negotiation). The lessons from this process indicate that: (i) community members should be actively involved in prioritizing issues and in developing the activity plans and working according to commonly agreed activity plans from the beginning of the project; (ii) sharing of experiences among farmers and between professionals through a process of regular farmers’ groups and local networks forums ensures sustainability of project interventions; (iii) the simpler the soil and water conservation and management technological interventions coupled with immediate economic returns (including availability of market) and loans, the faster the farmers can adopt the technologies; (iv) the process approach enables negotiation and social learning among programme actors. Finally, the experience points to the need for continuous re-building of livelihood security and social capital of the farming communities to achieve greater understanding of the importance of maintaining the environment in the long-term.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> process approach, sustainable agriculture, natural resource management, negotiation, social learning, UMADEP</p> A.Z. Mattee I.M. Busindeli E.T.N. Malisa Copyright (c) 2020-08-11 2020-08-11 19 1 44 52