Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags <p><em>Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Science</em> (TAJAS) is a peer reviewed scientific journal that publishes original and scholarly research articles dealing with fundamental and applied aspects of agriculture, Food, Aquaculture and Wildlife. Occasionally invited review articles are published.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="https://www.sua.ac.tz" href="https://www.sua.ac.tz" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://www.sua.ac.tz</a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a title="https://www.coa.sua.ac.tz/" href="https://www.coa.sua.ac.tz/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://www.coa.sua.ac.tz/</a>&nbsp;</p> en-US Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences 0856-664X <p><strong>FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE SOKOINE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, MOROGORO, TANZANIA</strong></p> A review of post-harvest milk losses in Tanzania’s milk sector: Lessons from production to consumption https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263047 <p><em>Tanzania has engaged in various policies, strategies and programmes in order to increase production, processing and marketing infrastructure for milk and milk products and minimise animal product losses. However, not much is known in relation to post-harvest milk losses. Therefore, the review paper aims to establish from empirical literature the extent of Tanzania’s post-harvest milk losses and the causes in relation to efforts made by the government to minimise the same. To achieve the above, the authors used various databases to locate documents reporting on Tanzania’s post-harvest milk losses whereby 1605 documents were identified and screened remaining with 82 that were deemed relevant. Thereafter, an assessment of the 82 documents led to only 12 being included in the critical review, with ten being dropped due to either being similar or using the same data. Therefore, in the end, only two documents are captured in this paper. Generally, the review shows that there is insufficient empirical information on Tanzania’s post-harvest milk losses with the most recent study having been conducted almost 19 years ago. In addition, the study’s scope was quite limited, covering a sample of 66 respondents and a narrow geographical coverage of only three regions (i.e. Coast, Dar es Salaam and Morogoro). Furthermore, the study used the rapid appraisal approach. Therefore, there is a need for disaggregated information on Tanzania’s extent of post-harvest milk losses at various nodes of the milk value chain so as to inform policy makers and other stakeholders interested in curbing the same.</em></p> C.B. Lugamara J.K. Urassa G.D. Massawe Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 1 8 Governing the commons: An appraisal of Ostrom Principles in the context of Community Forest Management Agreement in Zanzibar, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263048 <p><em>Ostrom Design Principles (ODPs) are widely used as an analytical tool for assessing the governance of common pool resources, including Community Forest Management (CoFM). This study applied ODPs to assess the practices of the Community Forest Management Agreement (CoFMA) in Zanzibar, Tanzania, using interviews and Focus group discussions (FGDs). This paper found that the CoFMA adapted all eight principles of Ostrom’s design. However, it was found to have low local community participation in implementing various CoFMA activities, such as community participation in land zones (24.8%), formulation of by-laws (31.3%), and conservation meetings (33.4%). The Chi-squire test (X<sup>2</sup> =23.371) revealed that participation in conservation meetings during CoFMA establishment had a significant association with participation in zoning community land and the formulation of by-laws among local community members (P&lt;0.000). In CoFMA, financial motivation and alternative sources of income in communities are emphasised to reduce community dependence on forests, while in ODPs they are silent. It is concluded that CoFMA has adopted all ODPs to govern community forests. Nevertheless, the full implementation of ODPs in CoFMA has been difficult because the communities lack reliable alternative sources of livelihood, and the idea of CoFMA was not a community initiative since it was opposed by some of the community members. This paper recommends that for successful adoption and implementation of ODPs in CoFMA,there should be community-lead, financial motivation from the global north and the government to support communities livelihood projects. Also, the distribution of incentives from CoFM among community members should be included in the by-laws.</em></p> Mohamed Khamis Said Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 9 21 AI-driven internet of Agro-Things adaptive farm monitoring systems for future agricultural production and food systems in Africa https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263050 <p><em>Emerging technologies like Machine Learning (ML) and the Internet of Things (IoT) assist farmers in addressing challenges and maximizing limited agricultural resources. Data-driven farming requires integrating various tools across the production chain, along with a System of Systems (SoS) approach for scalability, adaptability, and sustainability. Essential technologies include Artificial Intelligence (AI), Blockchain, big data analytics, remote sensing, and the Internet of Agro-Things (IoATs). This paper presents novel techniques for improving agricultural productivity among African small-holder farmers using ML and IoATs. It shares experiences in developing digital agriculture platforms, climate-smart farming, and a business-oriented approach. Key technologies covered are: (a) IoT-based agricultural systems, and (b) AI/ML for increasing productivity. The paper showcases real-time ML-driven IoATs implementation for farm-level crop monitoring and yield prediction. The paper outlines recommendations, trends, and research directions in digital and data-driven agriculture in Tanzania. By leveraging ML and IoT, this paper offers innovative techniques to transform agriculture and empower African small-holder farmers. Integration of advanced technologies and sustainable farming approaches contributes to addressing food security, resource efficiency, and economic development.</em></p> A.A. Barakabitze J. Jonathan C. Sanga Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 22 33 Population densities and species richness of Hymenoptera, Araneae, and Coleoptera communities associated with Cucurbit in different altitudes of Morogoro, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263053 <p><em>The influence of altitudes on the community structure of insects was investigated in 10 localities from two agroecological zones in Morogoro, Tanzania. The nonparametric estimator, coupled with the species accumulation curve based on Chao estimator, was used to estimate species richness. Three orders with 33 families were collected from 360 pitfall traps with 2133 individuals recorded. The average abundance of anthropods was significantly higher in the Plateau zone (47.78±3.02) compared to the mountainous (14.84±6.0). Kruskal-Wallis test (χ<sup>2</sup> _18.11 df 9 p = 0.03) revealed a significant difference among the sites studied, with a higher abundance and species richness recorded at Sugeco (545) followed by Mafiga (310), the other sites ranged between 67 to 278 individuals. The common anthropods families found in both zones are Formicidae, Lycosidae, Scarabidae, Agelenidae, Chrysomelidae, and Carabidae. All localities reached an asymptote with more than 95% sampling efforts. The insect groups studied were species-rich, except at Ruvuma and crop museum. The relative abundance decreased with increasing elevation, which could be attributed to weather conditions.</em></p> L.D. Lyimo J.A. Bakengesa P.M. Bwire S.A. Kabota Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 34 45 Zero-valent iron-aluminium co-corrosion: A potential comprehensive low-cost method for water defluoridation https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263056 <p><em>Climate change coupled with population increase has forced communities in fluoride rich areas to turn to fluoride contaminated groundwater to fill in the water deficit created by drying of water sources and increasing water demand. Application of low-cost materials such as iron and aluminium hydroxides in the field is limited by expensive preparation steps involved. This study investigated the applicability of Fe and Al, in their metallic states, in water defluoridation by allowing simultaneous corrosion of zero-valent aluminium (ZVA) and iron (ZVI) to form in situ hydroxides. The effect of time, dose, concentration and pH was studied by varying one parameter at a time while controlling others. Findings reveal that, mixing the two materials in their metallic state have the same synergistic effect on their fluoride removal properties as their corresponding (hydr)oxides. Whereas in their pure metallic states, iron and aluminium lowered the concentration of fluoride from 15 - 13.09 mg/L and 15 - 14.9 mg/L respectively, their mixture lowered fluoride levels from 15 - 7.74 mg/L in the period of seven (7) days. Spiking the fluoride solution with Fe3+ ions was found to enhance fluoride removal by lowering Fluoride levels from 15 - 0.8 mg/L in the same period. This could imply that a fluoride removal mechanism in this process involves precipitation of fluoro-complexes of iron rather than those of aluminium. These findings, therefore, suggest that a step involving conversion of ZVA and ZVI into their (hydr)oxides can be skipped in water defluoridation without significantly affecting their fluoride removal capacities.</em></p> E.S. Lema H.T. Mwakabona Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 46 53 Texture specific regression models for predicting soil EC<sub>e</sub> values from EC<sub>1:2.5</sub> for effective soil salinity assessment in Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263059 <p><em>Electrical conductivity of saturated soil paste extract (EC<sub>e</sub>) is a standard laboratory soil salinity measurement. However, due to difficulty of ECe measurement, electrical conductivity of soil to water suspensions (EC<sub>soil:water</sub>) such as EC<sub>1:2.5</sub> are used and its values converted to EC<sub>e</sub> for salinity interpretation in crop production. This study was conducted to develop texture specific regression models for predicting EC<sub>e</sub></em> <em>values from EC<sub>1:2.5</sub></em> <em>for Tanzanian soils. A total of 198 composite soil samples at 0 – 30 cm depth were collected from Kiwere, Dakawa, Sakalilo and Mwamapuli irrigation schemes in Iringa, Morogoro, Rukwa and Katavi Regions respectively and analyzed for soil texture, EC<sub>1:2.5 </sub>and EC<sub>e</sub></em> <em>using standard laboratory methods. The dominant soil textural classes were clay, sandy clay loam, sandy clay, and clay loam. There were significant differences (P&lt;0.05) between mean values of EC<sub>1:2.5</sub></em> <em>and EC<sub>e</sub></em> <em>(dS m<sup>-1</sup>) in all textural classes. The regression models indicated significantly strong linear relationships between values of EC<sub>1:2.5</sub></em> <em>and EC<sub>e</sub></em> <em>for all textural classes with R2&gt;0.90 and P&lt;0.001 for both regression models with and without intercept. The regression models without intercept performed better in predicting soil EC<sub>e</sub></em> <em>from EC<sub>1:2.5</sub></em> <em>than regression models with intercept by having higher P-values, slope value closer to 1.0 and lower RMSE values between measured and predicted EC<sub>e</sub>. The study recommends regression models expressed as EC<sub>e</sub></em> <em>= 2.0963 EC<sub>1:2.5</sub></em> <em>for clay; EC<sub>e</sub></em> <em>= 2.7714 EC<sub>1:2.5</sub></em> <em>for sandy clay loam; EC<sub>e</sub></em> <em>= 2.3519 EC<sub>1:2.5</sub></em> <em>for sandy clay and EC<sub>e</sub> = 2.0811 EC<sub>1:2.5 </sub>for clay loam soils for predicting soil EC<sub>e</sub></em> <em>from EC<sub>1:2.5</sub></em> <em>in Tanzania.</em></p> D.P. Isdory B.H. Massawe Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 54 61 SmartTB: An innovative digital data-driven platform for enhancing tuberculosis treatment monitoring in Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263062 <p><em>Tuberculosis is known to be a killer disease in Tanzania. Despite this, deaths can be reduced if patients are diagnosed early and receive treatment. The treatment duration is extended, and patients are required to visit healthcare clinics regularly for medication procedures. Ensuring proper observation of treatment procedures is essential for successful outcomes. In Tanzania, TB treatment is provided free of charge to curb transmission and prevent drug resistance. However, many TB patients discontinue treatment due to forgetting clinic visits on scheduled dates. To address this challenge, an innovative digital data-driven TB treatment monitoring platform called SmartTB has been developed. SmartTB serves as a reminder for patients' treatment schedules and offers real-time reporting. This study utilized the agile methodology to gather requirements from three Tanzanian hospitals and develop the system. User acceptance testing validated the system's performance, demonstrating its capability to support TB patients' treatment monitoring and data management. Nevertheless, SmartTB has not been launched for operational use, necessitating effective cooperation from stakeholders, including healthcare providers and policymakers, to ensure its integration into the country's healthcare system</em></p> J. Jonathan A. Barakabitze Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 62 68 Smallholders farmers access to agricultural information: A case of Lushoto and Korogwe Districts, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263063 <p><em>Smallholder farmers’ access to agricultural extension is critical for high productivity. Therefore, the paper assesses smallholder farmer’s access to agricultural information in Lushoto and Korogwe Districts, Tanga Region. Specifically, it identifies types of information accessed and the respective sources. A cross-sectional research design was used whereby data were collected from 200 randomly selected smallholder farmers using a structured questionnaire, interviews and focus group discussions. Quantitative data were analysed using (SPSS) version 26, and content analysis was used for qualitative data. The findings show that more than a half of the surveyed farmers accessed their agricultural information through their relatives/neighbours, radio, agricultural officers, and Television and only a minority (18.5%) accessed the same through social media and the internet. In addition, Pearson chi-square analysis results show that improved seed varieties, market information, best farming methods, pest management and manure were the highly searched types of agricultural information from social media and the internet (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, binary regression analysis results show that smallholder farmers’ likelihood of using social media and the internet was significant (P≤ 0.05) in relation to information (fertilizer, improved seeds and agricultural incentives). Therefore, it is concluded that despite the challenges which smallholder farmers face in accessing types of agricultural information using multiple sources, their use of ICT to curb the shortfall is still limited. Thus, the Government, agricultural sector stakeholders and development partners are urged to promote farmers’ digital literacy so that they can use ICT in </em><em>meeting their agricultural information needs. </em></p> J.J. Bakunda J.J. Ringo J.K. Urassa Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 69 85 Unleashing the power of agricultural data: Insights from Tanzania's digitalization of routine data system https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263067 <p><em>Across Africa, including Tanzania, numerous countries have embraced digitalization in their agricultural information systems to harness the benefits of improved efficiency and productivity. The adopted systems can be grouped into two main categories: those aiming to improve farmers’ productivity and efficiencies and those aiming to improve organizational administrative efficiencies. While the former has received significant scholarly attention, the latter has not been fully investigated. Thus, using the case of the Agricultural Routine Data System (ARDS), this paper analyzes the system’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) for effective designing of digital agricultural information systems. A survey of 30 agricultural extension agents working at ward and village levels was conducted. Additional data were collected through a documentary review of grey literature about ARDS and in-depth interviews with six key informants. It was found that ARDS is a robust system that captures essential agricultural information though it is challenged by combining information for crops and livestock. The study concludes that the adoption of ICT has great potential to increase food production and farmers’ income by optimizing agricultural production and enabling informed decision-making enhanced by quality data. To improve the performance, the study recommends training to be offered to frontline extension agents on how to collect quality data, exclude livestock information from the system and digitalize the system at the village and ward levels.</em></p> J.S. Kahamba R. Martin Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 86 96 Competences of agricultural extension agents in using value chain approach in advising farmers in Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263068 <p><em>Recently, value chain approach in agriculture has been promoted in order to cope with market challenges which smallholder farmers face. This has necessitated changes in roles of extension agents who are supposed to advice farmers beyond the production node. However, most of the extension agents have assumed the new roles without being equipped necessary knowledge and skills to enable them discharge their roles effectively. In this context, extension agents’ competences in advising farmers along the entire value chain and its implication are not fully investigated and understood. The, purpose of this study was to investigate the competences of extension agents in advising farmers along agricultural value chain in Tanzania. Specifically, the study sought to answer three questions; 1) to what extent do extension agents support farmers along the value chain? 2) which aspects of the value chain are well supported and which ones are not well supported? 3) what are the perceived obstacles that limit extension agents advise farmers beyond the production node?. To answer these questions a convenient sample of 196 field extension agents was used. Data was collected using an online questionnaire supplemented by Key Informant Interviews conducted through mobile phones. Quantitative data was analysed by SPSS and qualitative data was analysed thematically. Findings show that extension agents have sufficient knowledge and positive attitude that would enable them to perform their work effectively. However, the knowledge and positive attitude have not been translated into practice. Limited access to retooling training was the major obstacle limiting extension agents perform their roles effectively. For farmers to become competitive in the global market, the study recommends retooling training on marketing and market linkage to be offered to field extension agents.</em></p> V.J. Kalungwizi R. Martin I.M. Busindeli Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 97 107 The influence of growth regulators and type of cuttings on sprouting and rooting of <i>Commiphora swynnertonii</i> (Burrt.) and <i>Synadenium glaucescens</i> (Pax.) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263069 <p><em>Vegetative propagation through stem cuttings is useful for threatened plant species with abnormal flowering and fruiting behaviors, poor abilities to germinate, formulate seedlings </em><em>or regenerate. This research investigates the impact of growth regulators on sprouting and </em><em>rooting of C. swynnertonii and S. glaucescens. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 3 replications was used. The experiment involved 2 plant species; C. swynnertonii and S. glaucescens, 3 cutting types; softwood, semi-hardwood, and hardwood. Each cutting had a length of 25 cm to 30 cm. Two plant growth regulators (PGR); 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were applied. Application of growth regulators NAA and IAA resulted into the tallest shoots (&gt;100cm) from softwood, hardwood and semi hardwood types of cuttings </em><em>of C. Sywnnertonii. Shoots from softwood and semi hardwood types of cuttings of S. glaucescens </em><em>which were treated with NAA attained shoot length of 45 cm while the rest gave the shortest shoots of less than 40 cm. The use of NAA and IAA on softwood cuttings of S. glaucescens resulted into equally the highest rooting efficiency of 98% and 95% respectively. However, the same plant growth regulators NAA and IAA applied on semi hardwood cutting of C. sywnnertonii resulted in 60% and 30 % rooting respectively. Effects of growth regulators on both shoot and root formation was significantly dependent on plant species and environmental conditions. Therefore, we recommend a similar study to be carried out under different conditions to verify the results before recommending </em><em>commercial cultivation using these treatments.</em></p> R.R. Madege S. Babu F.P. Mabiki Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 108 122 Optimization of inulin extraction from sisal wastes using Response Surface Methodology https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263070 <p><em>Inulin, a natural prebiotic dietary fiber with several health benefits, is commonly extracted from Jerusalem and Chicory plants. Even though boles and sisal wastes contain a high amount of inulin, extraction of inulin from such materials has not been well explored or optimized. The conventional methods that are normally used in inulin extraction from other plant sources have created a foundation for the extraction of inulin from sisal wastes. However, the methods need to be optimized to improve yield and quality. The purpose of this study was to identify and optimize important factors that influence inulin extraction. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with Box–Behnken design involving three levels of three independent variables (i.e. extraction temperature, extraction time, and solvent composition) was used. A second-order polynomial equation was formulated to describe the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. The optimal extraction conditions, which had high a inulin yield (18.24%), were extraction temperature of 80°C, time of 90 min, and solvent composition of 40%. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the model was highly significant, with a coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>) of 0.9205. The optimization of the extraction process of inulin from sisal waste resulted in a significant increase in the yield of the extracted inulin. Therefore, sisal waste can be a potential source of inulin, and the optimized extraction process can be useful in industrial applications.</em></p> N. Majaliwa J. Kussaga F. Mabiki B. Kilima F. Nyamete Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 122 133 Implementation of agricultural sector development programme’s priority interventions: Are the interactions among agricultural sector lead ministries optimal? https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263075 <p><em>Tanzania’s efforts to reduce poverty involve among others the implementation of Agricultural Sector Development Programme (ASDP) aimed at improving agricultural sector’s performance. However, literature shows dismal performance of the sector despite implementation of ASDP since 2010. It was hypothesised that the interaction among the ASDP actors is not synergetic and hence has not optimally contributed to the execution of ASDP. Guided by Ostrom’s Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework and the Social Network Theory (SNT), the study examined the interaction patterns among the ASDP actors and their influence on the implementation of ASDP’s priority interventions. The QUAL-quan design was adopted whereby data collection methods employed included key informant interview, focus group discussion, and questionnaire survey. Through content analysis and descriptive statistics, it was observed that the implementation of ASDP involved a high level of multifaceted interactions among the key actors. Study participants acknowledged predominance of strong actors’ interactions but did not consider this to be enhancing the ASDP implementation. This is because there were actor-specific issues which constrained execution of their roles to the network. For example, farmer groups were too weak to deliver the expected project results. Consistent with the SNT, actors could interact strongly but combined effect is subject to successful execution of roles that are based on their relationship with other actors in the network. For interactions to be synergetic―enhancing agricultural sector transformation through ASDP―the involved actors should have the necessary capacity and should play well their strategic role towards achieving the common good.</em></p> E.T. Malisa S.S. Nyanda F.P. Mabiki J.K. Urassa Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 134 145 Impacts of climate change on traditional irrigation farming systems and adaptation strategies in West Usambara Highlands, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263078 <p><em>Climate change is among the challenges to sustainable development due to its effects on major sectors of economy worldwide. However, its impacts differ from one system to another depending on the magnitude, vulnerability and adaptive capacity of the system. This study assessed the impacts of climate change on crop yields in Ndiwa and Chamazi traditional irrigation farming systems and their adaptation strategies. A cross-sectional research design was adopted employing purposive and systematic random sampling to select 380 respondents for this study. Data was collected through household survey, Focus Group Discussion, interviews, observation and documentary reviews. The results showed that, within 42 years (1981-2022), climate change has caused yield decline (maize, beans and irish-potatoes) by 12% to 51% and Maize being the most affected crop. The decrease in crop yield was linked to the decreased amount of water for irrigation and outbreak of crop diseases. Major adaptation strategies adopted as mitigation measures include cultivation closer to water sources (93.8%), early planting (86.9%), crop diversification (72.6%) and digging of shallow wells (58.7%). However, some adaptation strategies are detrimental to the environment. Adaptive capacity of farmers is low to medium. We recommend to improve adaptive capacity of farmers through access to climate information, financial resources, agricultural extension services and improved irrigation infrastructures.</em></p> F.L. Maro A.J. Tenge Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 146 160 Effects of biodegradable mulch films in common bean (<i>Phaseolus vulgaris</i> L.) performance: On-station trials https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263101 <p><em>Different types of mulches have varied levels of efficiency. This study compared effects of using biodegradable mulch films (BMF) in common beans production compared with selected types of dead mulches used in Tanzania. Two different experiments in four replications were conducted using completely randomized block design on-station at SUA. In the first experiment, the treatments were BMF, pimento grass, maize straw and control. In the second experiment the treatments were BMF, butterfly pea, maize husks, and control. Crop performance indicators including germination, number of leaves, plant height and number of pods were recorded weekly using 9 representative plants in each plot. Number of weeds were counted physically weekly using quadrant method. Dry grain yield was also recorded in each experiment. The data were analysed for the effects of treatments to experimental units using ANOVA at 5% significance level. Results from the first experiment showed that BMF performed significantly better than other tested mulches in yield, weed control, branching, number of leaves, and number of pods. BMF did not do well in seed germination and plant height. Results from the second experiment showed that BMF had significantly better performance in terms of number of pods, grain bean yield, weed infestation control, plant height and number of branches. These initial results on use of industrial BMF calls for further research which may lead to promotion of use of these environmentally friendlier mulch films as compared to very slowly degradable plastic mulch films currently used in some farming systems in Tanzania.</em></p> B.H. Massawe L. Moisan T. Semu S. Nchimbi-Msolla Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 161 168 Determinants of smallholder rice farmers’ market outlet selection in Mbarali and Mvomero Districts, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263102 <p><em>Understanding smallholder farmers’ market outlets have the potential to improve the productivity and incomes of smallholder farmers engaged in rice farming. Tanzania rice farmers select market outlets from a diverse spectrum. There is a scarcity of empirical information on the drivers of farmers’ decision-making associated with market outlets in the context of Agricultural Marketing Co-operative Societies’ marketing initiatives. This paper explores the smallholder rice farmers’ drivers for the selection of market outlets. A cross-sectional research design was used. A sample of 382 smallholder rice farmers was selected from three co-operative societies selected from two districts in Morogoro and Mbeya Regions. Multivariate Probit regression was applied to examine the determinants of market outlet selection decisions. It was found that the market outlets were wholesale, retail, millers, middlemen and private buyer. The majority (65.7%) of farmers sold to more than one outlet. The quantity of paddy sold, access to market information, smartphone ownership, access to credit, the amount of rice sold and frequency of extension visits were the important determinants of the selection of market outlets (p&lt;0.05). It is concluded that the majority of farmers have access to multiple market outlets which contributes to livelihood improvement. To promote livelihood through agricultural transformation in Tanzania, policymakers should prioritize increasing smallholder rice farmers' access to market outlets through initiatives such as building rural infrastructures, improving market information systems, and promoting public-private partnerships.</em></p> C. Mauki J. Jeckoniah G. Massawe Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 169 179 Age differentiations and poverty status among Tanzanian smallholder maize farmers: Perspectives on income and food poverty https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263103 <p><em>Understanding the intricate relationship between agricultural production and poverty is crucial for enhancing household welfare and societal development. However, research on poverty among different age groups of smallholder maize farmers is insufficient. In this study, employing a non-experimental approach, we examine the determinants of poverty status across 7,646 smallholder maize farmers using a logistic regression model. Our findings underscore the importance of factors like household head's gender, off-farm employment, household size, land use, fertilizer use, education, seed type, cooperative membership, and food security, influencing poverty status across various age groups concerning income and food poverty. The poverty status is significant influenced by education, Sex of household head, food security status, type seed used for both income and food. But cooperative membership, household size and land size were significant influence income poverty status only. These results have significant policy implications, highlighting the need for age-specific solutions in the smallholder maize sector. Also, emphasizes the policies to promote educational enhancements, improved maize seeds, and cultivate a sense of dignity in farming among the youth. Encouraging cooperative engagement and enhancing access to agricultural resources, along with optimizing land use, are critical steps toward economic empowerment and poverty alleviation.</em></p> D.M. Msengi A. Akyoo Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 180 191 Awareness on type 2 diabetes mellitus does not necessarily translate to a better knowledge and practices on prevention and management among adults https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263107 <p><em>The prevalence of diet-related non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes is on the rise in Tanzania. This creates a need to explore knowledge on prevention and management for designing appropriate interventions. This study aimed to assess the prevalence, knowledge and practices on prevention and management of type 2 diabetes among adults in urban areas of Dodoma region. This cross-sectional study involved 313 randomly selected adults. A pre-tested questionnaire adapted from the Tanzania STEPS SURVEY was administered through face-to-face interviews. Fasting blood capillary was tested using Gluco-plusTM. Sixty three percent were females and 53.6% (n=168) completed primary school. About 11% (n=35) had diabetes and 23% (n=72) pre-diabetes of which 82% (n=88) were undiagnosed before this study. About 60% (n=188) knows that diabetes can be prevented whereby 34% (n=64) and 21.3% (n=40) mentioned preventive measures to be physical activities and eating balanced diet respectively. Knowledge was positively associated with education level (AOR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.57-3.25) and female sex (AOR 1.76, 95% CI: 1.08-2.87). Half of the respondents did not know how to manage diabetes; 46% (n=70) mentioned diet as the only management strategy while 24% (n=36) mentioned physical activity. Furthermore, all participants were aware of type 2 diabetes existence of which 48% (n=150) reported it to be a consequence of overweight/obesity. However, about 89% (n=278) were unaware of gestational diabetes. Although pre-diabetes and diabetes rate was high, majorities were undiagnosed before the study and there was limited knowledge on prevention and management of diabetes creating a need for public education.</em></p> S.S. Msollo G.L. Shausi A.W. Mwanri Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 192 205 Influence of low intensity education programme on knowledge, perceptions and willingness to use owl for rodent control in agriculture https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263110 <p><em>Rodent pests contribute significantly to pre-harvest and post-garvest crop loses. The use of owl appears to be more attractive means of rodents control in agricultural crop farming primarily due to its minimal environmental impact compared to industrial chemicals. Despite owls‘ potential as means to control rodents, their uptake by smallholder farmers is low due to negative perception on the owl. Therefore, this study assessed the influence of low intensity education programme on farmers’ perceptions and willingness to use the owls for rodent control. This information is valuable for developing strategies to ehance the use of owls for rodents control. Longitudinal design was adopted to collect data from 200 selected maize farmers in four wards of Iringa and Mufindi districts in Iringa Region, Tanzania. Questionnaires were used for data collection on perception and willingness. Data were analysed using SPSS. The average knowledge score increased significantly from 1.9 to 4.3 after training (p=0.00). Futhermore, positive perception improved from 36% to 90% after training. The mean score responses on willingness to invest resources to create favaourable environment for attracting owl in their farms increased significantly from 1.9 to 4.2 (p=0.00). The results show that low-intensity training or education programme improved the perception and willingness to use owls for rodents control, offering a potential avenue for changing negative perceptions and improve the adoption and use of owls to control rodent pests. The adoption of owl as biological rodents control could also serve to reduce the use of chemicals that can potentially harm other unintened animals.</em></p> N. Mwalukasa A. Kimaro Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 206 214 Gender and mechanization in small-scale irrigation schemes: Analysis of agricultural machinery access by smallholder rice farmers in Mbarali District, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263118 <p><em>Given that women in Tanzania bear a disproportionate amount of the agricultural labour burden, it is anticipated that agricultural mechanization could help them substantially. However, the impact of agricultural mechanization is gendered, with women not receiving the same benefits as men, particularly in terms of access. Smallholder farmers use agricultural machinery inequitably. This paper explores the socio-economic factors linked to gender inequalities in agricultural machinery access for smallholder rice farmers. A cross-sectional research approach was used to collect data from 397 farmers randomly selected from small-scale irrigation schemes in Mbarali District. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. The data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study found the most used agricultural machinery are power tillers and combine harvesters, with a larger proportion of male farmers using combine harvesters (84.1%) compared to 59.7% of women. From the binary logistic regression analysis, agricultural machinery access for male farmers is positively associated with education, membership in scheme associations, and farming experience. Female farmers’ access to agricultural machinery is significantly associated with land size cultivated, membership in the scheme association, and off-arm income activities (p&lt;0.05). Male farmers had more access to agricultural machinery than female farmers. It is concluded that membership in a scheme association, education and training, off-farm income activities, and land area cultivated are potential determinants of agricultural machinery access. It is therefore recommended for enhancing land access, particularly for female farmers, and creating an enabling environment for gender equality in agricultural machinery access.</em></p> N. Mwalyagile J.N. Jeckoniah R.J. Salanga Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 215 229 Heavy metal pollution in soil, water and vegetables in Dar es Salaam – Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263120 <p><em>Heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Cd and Pb) in soil and vegetable leaves (Amaranthus blitum, Ipomea batata and Cucurbita maxima) were determined along Msimbazi River, in Dar es Salaam – Tanzania. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer was used to analyse all samples, and results obtained were compared with standard limits. Laboratory results showed that concentrations of heavy metals in soils were all below maximum limits. Vegetable samples had copper concentrations below standard limits. The concentrations of Cadmium, Lead and Chromium were between 0.309 ± 0.01 mg/Kg and 0.331 ± 0.01 mg/Kg, 2.526 ± 0.01 mg/Kg and 9.143 ± 0.11 mg/Kg, and 1.118 ± 0.01 mg/Kg and 13.981± 0.87 mg/Kg, respectively, that exceeded maximum standard limits of 0.02, 2 and 1.3 mg/kg, respectively. The presence of such elevated levels of dangerous heavy metals in edible vegetables indicates a potential health risk to urban consumers of vegetables grown along Msimbazi River, through long-term dietary intake. The trends for heavy metal concentrations in soil, water, and vegetables, for the past 20 years, for the same study site, were also established. The trend for average concentrations of heavy metals in soils and vegetables showed average increases from year 2000 to 2010 and decreases from 2010 to 2020. On the contrary, concentrations of heavy metals in water showed an increase from year 2000 through 2020, except for chromium that decreased from 2010 to 2014. This information is vital for policy makers and other concerned stakeholders in monitoring urban vegetable farming activities in major cities especially Dar es Salaam.</em></p> M.W. Lema Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 230 238 Unlocking the potential of bamboo entrepreneurs: Characteristics, innovations, and economic performance in Tanzania's Southern Highlands https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263123 <p><em>This study focuses on bamboo entrepreneurship in Tanzania's Southern Highlands, where bamboo is a significant non-timber forest product (NTFP) offering employment opportunities in raw material collection, processing, and marketing. Bamboo possesses unique mechanical and chemical qualities that attract various enterprises, leading to eco-innovations that improve eco-efficiency and contribute to the circular economy. Despite its global significance, bamboo resources in Tanzania have received limited research attention, and the potential for innovation remains underrecognized. Thus, the study aimed to explore the characteristics, performance, and innovation propensity of bamboo entrepreneurs in the region and identify factors influencing their innovativeness. Using systematic random sampling with proportional allocation, households involved in bamboo value chains were selected for the study. Findings from the study indicated that traditional knowledge and individual ideas were the primary sources of innovation, contributing 42.27% and 30.28%, respectively. Local competitors played a significant role as well, contributing 10% to the innovation process, while other sources such as the internet, mass media, and expert advice had minimal influence (each less than 10%). Furthermore, the study highlighted that the location of raw material supply significantly impacted the economic performance of bamboo entrepreneurs. Factors such as short distance (79.63%), cost-effectiveness (75.93%), and large culm size (37.04%) were crucial considerations in this regard. Additionally, aesthetic appeal (34.0%) and adherence to tradition (33.33%) were found to be relevant factors influencing their innovativeness. In conclusion, bamboo resources hold immense potential for elevating living standards and contributing to the achievement of sustainable development goals in Tanzania's Southern Highlands.</em></p> P.J. Lyimo J.S. Japhet G.E. Kaaya F.M. Ntenga K. Masaka G. Mbeyale S. Nyefwe Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 239 246 Indigenous knowledge, innovation and utilization technologies of bamboo: A case of Southern Highlands of Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263124 <p><em>Bamboo is a potential source of climate-smart income generation. However, bamboo has not gained significant influence on the farming-production lands, furniture and construction industries, thereby missing the substantial contribution it could make to local community development. This study aimed to fill the information gap concerning indigenous knowledge, innovation and utilization technologies performed by the local communities in the Iringa, Njombe and Mbeya regions of the Sothern Highlands of Tanzania. Systematic random sampling using a sampling frame generated with the help of village leaders was employed to draw the respondents. Focus group discussion, household survey and key informant interview were used to obtain information from consumers, bamboo producers and enterprises. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics. Findings on the sources of innovation demonstrate that indigenous knowledge (42.27%) and personal technical skills (30.2%) are main sources of knowledge for product innovation. Majority of traditional bamboo enterprises gain the necessary skills, knowledge and creativity via local competitors, mass media and internet. Information exchange (80%), joint buying of inputs and selling of products (73.3%), experience sharing (73.3%), and group works (26.67%) are most tactics that aid improvement and spread of innovation technologies. The study reveals that local communities utilise bamboo for food and drinks (bamboo juice and ulanzi), basketry, miscellaneous crafts, house construction, furniture, medicine and fuel use. Therefore, local community's indigenous knowldege promote innovation through use of bamboo to guarantee their livelihood and improved environmental conservation.</em></p> P.J. Lyimo J.S. Japhet G.E. Kaaya F.M. Ntenga K. Masaka G. Mbeyale S. Nyefwe Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 247 257 Assessment of soil erosion hotspots by RUSLE Model using remote sensing and GIS in Morogoro Region, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263127 <p><em>Soil erosion is a significant constraint on soil productivity and agricultural endeavors in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania. The districts of Mvomero, Morogoro urban, and Morogoro rural heavily rely on agriculture, making the preservation of key water bodies like Mindu Dam crucial. The dam and its catchment areas currently face threats from siltation, necessitating effective land and water resource management. Sustainable land management practices are imperative to prevent soil degradation and erosion, and identifying soil erosion hotspots is essential for resource prioritization. This study employs GIS-based analysis using the Revised Universal Soil Erosion (RUSLE) Model to assess potential water-induced soil loss risks in the mentioned districts. The analysis reveals spatial trends and distribution of soil erosion risks due to rainfall. Soil loss magnitudes range from very slight (&lt;2 tons/ha/year) to very severe/catastrophic (&gt;100 ton/ha/year), with mountainous regions being prone to high erosion hotspots. Mvomero district stands out, with 42.8% of its land potentially susceptible to unacceptable soil losses (&gt;5 tons/ha/ year) for tropical and/or shallow highland soils without appropriate support and conservation practices during land use, particularly agriculture. Similarly, both Morogoro urban and rural areas face potential risks of unacceptable soil loss (&gt;5 ton/ha/year), affecting 35% and 38% of their respective land areas. Implementation of support and conservation measures is essential, especially for agricultural activities. The study highlights spatial variability of soil erosion severity, necessitating tailored management strategies in the three districts based on identified erosion hazards.</em></p> P.M. Hieronimo T.J. Bosco Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 258 269 Antibacterial and antifungal properties of silver nanoparticles synthesised using phytochemicals from <i>Zanthoxylum piperitum</i> leaves https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263131 <p><em>Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have recently emerged as a potential treatment for diseases caused by multidrug-resistant microorganisms. The high surface area-to-volume ratio of AgNPs could deliver high performance as an antimicrobial agent. The current study investigated the synthesis and antimicrobial properties of AgNPs fabricated using phytochemicals extracted from Zanthoxylum piperitum leaves (Japanese pepper). ZPLAg-NPs (4.25 mg/mL) were prepared using green chemistry procedures, and the successful synthesis was indicated by a maximum absorption band at 420 nm in a UV-Vis spectrum. The fabricated ZPLAg-NPs showed remarkable effectiveness against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The antimicrobial efficacy was shown by minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.07 and 0.13 mg/mL for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The nanoparticles also yielded minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of 0.53 and 0.13 mg/mL for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Similarly, the ZPLAg-NPs showed efficacy against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger, producing MICs of 1.06 and 0.13 mg/mL, respectively. MBCs of 1.06 and 0.53 mg/mL were displayed for Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger, respectively. The findings from this study demonstrated that ZPLAgNPs could serve as a potential microbial agent for treating some bacterial and fungal diseases. .</em></p> A.J. Mwakalesi M.J. Nyangi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 270 277 Genetic diversity and structure of <i>Opsaridium microlepis</i> along Lake Nyasa, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263132 <p><em>Opsaridium microlepis is a fish species that serves as a source of revenue and protein to most people living near Lake Nyasa. However, the population of this species has witnessed a worrisome decline, leading the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) to classify it as a threatened fish species. The current work used partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences to investigate the genetic diversity, effective population size, and structure of O. microlepis along the Lake Nyasa areas of Tanzania. The findings indicated that Kafyofyo had the highest nucleotide diversity (π = 0.20%) and haplotype diversity (h = 0.78), while Katumba had the lowest nucleotide diversity (π = 0.08%). The lowest haplotype diversity (h = 0.50) was recorded at Katumba and Mbambabay. The molecular analysis indicated significant differences across the subpopulations investigated (Overall PhiST (ΦST) = 0.093, P &lt; 0.05). The mean Sum of Square deviation (SSD), Harpending's raggedness index (HRI), Tajima's D (D), and Fu's Fs (Fs) were 0.014, 0.157, 0.108, and -0.88680 respectively and neither the mismatch distribution nor the neutrality test findings were significantly different from zero. The mismatch distribution supports the idea of sudden population expansion. Consequently, the effective population size estimates are large for sampling sites with higher genetic diversity. Thus, the current study's findings can serve as a foundation for long-term strategic plans to conserve and manage populations of O. microlepis in areas with low genetic diversity and effective population size.</em></p> A. Nehemia A.J. Mwakalesi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 278 283 Gender dynamics and climate variability in small-scale fish business: A case of Mwanza Region, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263137 <p><em>Small-scale fish businesses in Mwanza, Tanzania are crucial to the local economy, providing livelihoods and ensuring food security. However, the impacts of climate variability on gender dynamics often marginalize women in this sector, due to prevailing norms and power imbalances. This study explores how climate variability affects gender dynamics in the sector; Strategies employed by women to adapt to climate change and, how can gender-sensitive interventions enhance the resilience of small-scale fish businesses in the face of climate change. The study adopts a feminist theory framework to understand gender roles and power dynamics in shaping various social, economic, and political outcomes and Socio-ecological systems framework to analyze complex interactions between human societies and the environment. Qualitative research methods, such as interviews, focus group discussions, observation, are employed, with data analyzed thematically and discursively. The study found that climate variability affects existing gender dynamics by exacerbating women’s difficulties in accessing fish resources and creates opportunities for women to take new roles and responsibilities. The study found that women employ different strategies such as enhancing resourcefulness and diversifying income-generating activities. The study found that gender-sensitive intervention enhance the resilience of small-scale fish businesses by promoting access to climate change information; capacity-building programs on climate-smart fishing techniques, sustainable resources management and access to financial credits. The study concludes that, climate variability exacerbates gender inequalities in the sector and recommends to policymakers, stakeholders, and relevant institutions to take responsibility for implementing gender-sensitive interventions like climate information, training, and financial support to women.</em></p> A.M. Gibe J.N. Jeckoniah F.A. Massawe Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 284 293 In the midst of global anti-tobacco farming and smoking campaigns: How resilient and sustainable are the tobacco farming co-operatives in southern Africa? https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263141 <p><em>Cognizant of the harms registered through tobacco farming and consequently smoking on the environment and human health, the world is witnessing campaigns against both tobacco farming and smoking. These campaigns are expected to affect the tobacco sub-sector, which contributes to the economies of the leading tobacco-producing countries, namely Zimbabwe, Zambia, Tanzania, Malawi, and Mozambique. The campaigns have in some countries been followed by governments’ partial engagement or total disengagement from providing inputs, credit, extension services, and price support. To protect this subsector, tobacco farmers, inter alia, had to engage agricultural and marketing cooperative societies (AMCOS). However, the extent to which AMCOS engagement by farmers has been realized is empirically unknown. Amid these campaigns, understanding how resilient and sustainable tobacco cooperatives have been, remains imperative. Resilience building supports people and institutions in adapting to new circumstances, hence sustainability. This article analyses the resilience and sustainability of Tobacco co-operatives using a documentary research method. In this article, resilience has been analyzed based on (i) networks, (ii) innovation, and, (iii) the role of the state. Varied degrees of government support to the tobacco sub-sector have been identified. Contract farming has been exploited to fill the gap where the minimal role of the state has been registered. Despite the global anti-smoking campaigns, tobacco production is on the increase in southern Africa. Resilience and sustainability have been observed to vary country-wise. Due to tobacco’s economic value in these countries, the campaigns cannot bear significant positive results in the absence of alternatives to tobacco farming.</em></p> M. Muhanga M. Katundu Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 294 305 Perceptions of Tanzanian livestock dependent communities on climate related changes: A case of the Maasai pastoralists in Longido District, northern Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263145 <p><em>The study was carried out in Longido District, northern Tanzania to understand the Maasai pastoralists‘ perceptions and interpretations of changes in climate and variability and determine their livelihood coping strategies with climate variability and change following a devastating drought in 2009/2010. Primary and secondary data were collected using household questionnaires, </em><em>key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. The perception of climate change and </em><em>variability was supported with a time-series analysis of rainfall and temperature data. The results show that the Maasai pastoralists are aware of the current variations and changes in climate, which they admit to have become increasingly difficult to predict using their traditional knowledge. Furthermore, the study identified indicators of climate change and variability and the associated adversities as perceived by the Maasai pastoralists in the study area. The statistical analysis of 30 years of climatic data produced results that are in agreement with the Maasai pastoralists’ perception of climate change and variability. It is imperative to understand people’s perceptions and their responses to climate-related impacts in the future. Since some of the pastoralists’ ways to </em><em>cope with climate-related adversities are failing, new means or techniques have certainly emerged. </em><em>It is recommended that the present techniques in designing alternative adaptive strategies for pastoralism should be examined and up-scaled, which is the most productive form of land use for </em><em>a patchy and scattered range of land resources.</em></p> R.J. Salanga M.I. Muhanga Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 306 321 Farmer’s knowledge and practices on proper use of pesticides on tomato production to ensure safety among consumers: A case study of Mvomero District, Morogoro https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263147 <p><em>Farmer’s knowledge and practices on proper use of pesticides in vegetables production is very crucial for increasing productivity while reducing the associated health risks. However, knowledge and practices on the use of pesticides in tomatoes production is limited. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing knowledge and practices on proper use of pesticides in tomatoes production for appropriate interventions. A cross sectional study was done at Doma and Mlali wards in Mvomero district among 120 randomly selected tomato farmers who were face to face interviewed using a questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were done using SPSS<sup>TM</sup></em> <em>version 20. Results showed that 100% of farmers used pesticides to control tomato pests and diseases of which 54% preferred Snow tiger (Chlorofenapyr) and Dudumetrin (Sumithrin). About 85% reported to be reading pesticide instructions before applying but 45.8% among them did not adhere to the instructions claiming the recommended dosage to be inefficient. About 57% harvest tomatoes after seven days while others harvest at any time when they get customers. Ninety two percent of the farmers know the effects of improper use of pesticides on health however; among them 20% are not sure of the specific health effects. Knowledge on health effects of improper use of pesticide was significantly associated with reading instructional labels (AOR 2.99, 95% CI: 1.06-3.95) after adjusting for education levels and attending trainings on pesticides use. Generally, there is low knowledge on proper use of pesticides in tomatoes production and their associated health effects which creates a need for educating farmers and the public on proper use of pesticides to safeguard the health of consumers.</em></p> S.S. Fundikira E. Selestine S.S. Msollo Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 322 332 Public perception of climate risk and adaptation in Tanzania: A systematic review https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263152 <p>Climate change is a pressing global challenge of the 21st century, with impacts including global warming, drought, famine, floods, tropical storms, and cyclones. One of the biggest challenges to mitigating climate change is people's perception of its risks. This study provides valuable insights on the public perception of climate risk and adaptation in Tanzania through a systematic review of peer-reviewed papers. The search was conducted using keywords related to climate change awareness, knowledge, perception, attitude, and risk adaptation from the Sokoine University of Agriculture Institutional repository (SUAIR) for publications between 2010 and 2022, 48 peer reviewed articles were reviewed. The review found that there is a high level of awareness (87.5%) of climate change, with many (77%) recognizing its impacts on their daily lives in terms of economic activities and gender roles. However, the perception of climate risk varies depending on factors such as gender, location, and socioeconomic status. For example, people living in rural areas perceived climate risks such as floods and drought more than those in urban areas did. Attitudes towards climate change adaptation also vary among different groups, with some people such as farmers more resilient and willing to adapt than pastoralists, people living in urban areas than people living in rural areas. The review identifies knowledge gaps in understanding the causes and impacts of climate change. Overall, this systematic review provides a comprehensive picture of current knowledge and understanding of the public perception of risk adaptation in Tanzania, highlighting areas for further research and policy action.</p> P.S. Nyinondi M.E. Sospeter Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 333 346 Determinants of access to farmers’ organization input credit among smallholder sugarcane farmers in Tanzania: A case of Kilombero Valley https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263153 <p><em>Agricultural financing is imperative for enhancing agricultural productivity and rural development in general. There have been several efforts from the government and other stakeholders in private sectors and non-governmental organizations to enhance input credit access to rural farm households. However, rural input credit market imperfection remains a predominant barrier, making, input credit access among smallholder farmers a less understood phenomenon. In this paper, the determinants of input credit access by smallholder farmers in Kilombero valley, Tanzania are analysed based on a cross-section survey involving 274 randomly selected smallholder sugarcane farmers. Applying the double-hurdle econometric approach, the study found that farm size, age, education, years of membership to farmers organization, and distance from farm to the factory as significant factors determining the probability of smallholder farmers accessing input credit. Similarly, fertilizer, membership to farmers organization, and distance from farm to the factory were significant determinants of the intensity of input credit access. The findings imply that policies that strengthen the rural input credit market are imperative for reducing transaction costs and easing liquidity constraints for purchasing critical agricultural inputs such as fertilizer, pesticides and improved seed varieties. The government should invest in financial literacy programs for smallholder farmers to help them understand credit options, manage their finances effectively, and use credit for productive purposes this is due to the fact that many smallholder farmers have primary level of education. However, limitation of this study is application of cross-sectional design, thus, a longitudinal study may offer a better option for causal-effect analysis.</em></p> Y.L. Maki M. Milanzi J. Sesabo E. Makoye Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 347 357 Pigeon peas: An opportunity for improving nutrient content of food consumed among resource-poor households to ensure sustainable health https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/263156 <p><em>Pigeon pea is an affordable legume and important source of protein, fibre, vitamins and minerals. Despite its nutritional importance, the crop has not been adequately utilized for human consumption in Tanzania due to limited recipes, knowledge and inadequate agricultural development. This study aimed utilising pigeon peas to enrich the nutrient content of food consumed among resource poor households Laboratory-based experiments and consumer preference tests were conducted in Morogoro and Lindi regions. A total of 452 consumers were involved to collect both qualitative and quantitative data. Analysis of Variance was used to check whether there is a difference between sample means. Tukey test was used to determine differences between the samples at p&lt;0.05. Pigeon pea-based noodles, instant porridge, chapatti, biscuits, African doughnut and bread were developed and tested for their sensory attributes at a five-point Likert scale. Developed products had more than 50% of recommended intake of protein, iron, zinc and pro vitamin A. Highest preference scores for colour, aroma and mouthfeel were observed in all pigeon pea-based products with differences between samples. Samples PPBN718 (noodles), PPIPofspr (porridge), PPBS123 (biscuit), PPBC412 (chapatti), PPAD234 (African doughnut) and PPBB917 (bread) were most preferred among others. The Pairwise Comparison counts indicated that 87% of consumers most preferred instant porridge and 58% preferred the bread. The reason for preferences differs significantly among age groups and sex. Incorporate pigeon peas flour into different foods significantly improve the nutrient content of developed foods products. This creates an opportunity of pigeon peas to enrich different foods products.</em></p> Z. Majili Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-22 2024-01-22 22 2 358 372