Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags <p><em>Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Science</em> (TAJAS) is a peer reviewed scientific journal that publishes original and scholarly research articles dealing with fundamental and applied aspects of agriculture, Food, Aquaculture and Wildlife. Occasionally invited review articles are published.</p> <p>Other websites associated with this journal: <a title="https://www.sua.ac.tz" href="https://www.sua.ac.tz" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://www.sua.ac.tz</a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a title="https://www.coa.sua.ac.tz/" href="https://www.coa.sua.ac.tz/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://www.coa.sua.ac.tz/</a>&nbsp;</p> en-US Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences <p><strong>FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE SOKOINE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, MOROGORO, TANZANIA</strong></p> Inheritance of Resistance to Ergot Disease in a Diallel Cross of Pearl Millet (<i>Pennisetum glaucum</i> (L.) R. Br.) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/195603 <p>field study was conducted to incorporate resistance to ergot and determine its inheritance in four pearl millet hybrids (SOSAT C88, Ex-Borno, LCIC 7902 and PEO 5948) from three resistant local pearl millet landraces (Geron Tsuntsu, Zango and Dandigali). Crosses of the seven pearl millet lines were carried out in all possible combinations but without reciprocals using diallel mating design to generate 21 F1 populations during the 2011 dry season to March 2012 under irrigation system at the University of Maiduguri Teaching and Research Farm, Nigeria. The seven parental lines and 21 F1 hybrids were evaluated for ergot disease, days to 50% flowering and grain yield in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications during the 2012 rainy season in Gombe, Nigeria. Results showed that each of the seven parent lines attained 50% flowering at statistically similar days with their respective crosses except for SOSAT C88 (SOSAT C88 vs Dandigali and LCIC 9702), Zango (Zango vs SOSAT C88, LCIC 9702 and Dandigali) and PEO 5948 x LCIC 9702. This synchrony provided a uniform condition and duration for evaluating the resistance to ergot infection in the crosses vis-à-vis the parent cultivars. F1 between either SOSAT C88, Ex-Borno or LCIC 7902 and each of landrace cultivars showed positive heterosis for ergot disease. Zango x Dandigali and Geron Tsuntsu x PEO 5948 showed the lowest incidence (15.00%, 16.67% respectively) while SOSAT C88 and SOSAT C88 x Ex-Borno gave the highest (50.00%, 45.00% respectively). Lowest ergot severity was recorded from F1 between Dandigali and either Ex-Borno (6.17%) or Geron Tsuntsu (6.33%) although not significantly (p=0.05) different from Geron Tsuntsu x PEO 5948 (08.08%) while SOSAT C88 and LCIC 9702 had the highest severity (31.61%, 33.25% respectively). SOSAT C88 x Zango gave significantly the highest grain yield (391.81 kg/ha) while SOSAT C88 recorded the lowest grain yield (101.11 kg/ha). The results of the study showed that the local landraces of pearl millet used in the study have genetic potential to manage ergot disease in hybrids of pearl millet due to their ability to confer resistance and desirable heterosis for disease and yield in their F1. Multi-locational trials need to be conducted on the crosses that showed resistance to ergot to confirm the stability and durability of their resistance.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Claviceps fusiformis, diallel mating design, incidence, pearl millet, severity.</p> P. Abraham P.D. Alimpta B.S. Bdliya Copyright (c) 2020-05-07 2020-05-07 18 2 50 58 Occurrence of Fungal Growth in the Traditionally Processed Cassava Produces in Lushoto, Rorya and Ukerewe Districts https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/195606 <p>The study was conducted in Lushoto, Rorya and Ukerewe districts of Tanzania on cassava processing and drying methods; storage and fungal growth on cassava products. One hundred and twenty (120) households were interviewed on cassava processing and storage methods. Cassava products samples were collected for laboratory fungal growth analysis. ‘Udaga’ was the only final cassava product produced from cassava roots from all three districts. ‘Udaga’ is a cassava product traditionally produced by peeling cassava roots, solid fermented once or twice and direct or indirect sun-dried. Cassava products were fermented by either heaping under roof, or on rock surface, or on cemented floor, in ‘tenga’ and in polypropylene bags. ‘Tenga’ is a big busket made of bamboo-wood-sliced stems with holding capacity ranging from 10-50 kg. The whole fermentation process took 18 days. During fermentation, cassava was covered either by banana leaves, or tree leaves, or cassava peels, or old cloth, or cactus leaves, or polythene sheets and sometimes left uncovered. Cassava products were dried for 12-196 h indirectly or on direct sun. The cassava products were stored for less than one month (52.5%), 1-2 months (36.7%), 3-4 months (7.5%), and 5-6 months (3.3%). The storage methods/tools mostly used for storing cassava product for more than one month were polypropylene bags (28.3%), platform-like/under roof (15.0%) and plastic containers (4.2%). The study noted that traditional methods of cassava processing which included fermentation, produced poor quality (unhygienic) ‘udaga’ which was associated with fungal growth. The fungus <em>Rhizopus spp</em>. was the most prevalent (59.2%) followed by<em> Cladosporium spp. (51.7%), Penicilium spp. (38.3%), Fusarium spp. (36.7%), Aspergillus spp. (20.0%)</em> and yeast (10.8%). Other fungi observed were <em>Curvularia spp.</em> (4.2%) and <em>Mucor spp.</em> (4.2%). The study noted that traditional methods of cassava processing produced poor quality (unhygienic) ‘udaga’ in the study areas.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Processing methods, cassava, storage methods, udaga</p> J. Chacha D.P. Mamiro Copyright (c) 2020-05-07 2020-05-07 18 2 59 69 Hygiene Status of Fish Smoking Facilities of Selected Fish Smoking Centers in Ibadan Metropolies Oyo State South-Western Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/195609 <p>The hygiene status of fish smoking facilities of selected fish smoking centers in Ibadan metropolies Oyo state South-Western Nigeria was studied. Forty five (45) swab samples were collected at 3 different sampling points (storage material, washing plastic bowls and smoking kiln) from 5 different fish smoking centers in the study area while 15 smoked fish samples (Scomber japonicus) and water samples each were also collected. Themicrobial analysis was done using standard microbiological procedures. Most of the fish smoking facilities within Ibadan metropolies have poor hygiene status as their storage materials, washing materials, water samples, smoking kilns and smoked fish products have Total Coliform Counts (TCC), Feacal Coliform Counts (FCC) and Salmonella/Shigella counts above recommended level. Lowest level of TPC was obtained in smoked fish samples from Elebu (4.004±0.01), Aleshinloye (4.301±0.01), Mapo (4.230±0.04) and Moor Plantation (4.205±0.02) respectively. Similar trend was observed for Total Fungal Counts (TFC), TCC, FCC and Salmonella/Shigella counts in most of the fish smoking centers. It is recommended that fish processors should get good water source for cleaning their fish and facilities as poor water source could aid transmission of microorganisms and diseases within fish processing facilities which may result in contaminated smoked fish product. The need for fish processors to improve their sanitary conditions was encouraged. It was also recommended that consumers should properly wash smoked fish products with clean portable water or precook them before eating so as to reduce the risk of food born diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Hygiene, status, fish smoking facilities, smoking centers</p> A.A. Ayeloja A.M. Idi-Ogede W.A. Jimoh S.A. Abdulsalami Copyright (c) 2020-05-07 2020-05-07 18 2 70 77 Maize Stover in Relation to <i>Fusarium</i> Inoculum and Mycotoxins in Maize Grains of Two Agro-ecological Zones in Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/195613 <p>Fusarium infection and the contamination of mycotoxins in maize are an important source of yield loss and deterioration of maize grain quality produced in Tanzania. This research aimed to establish information about which type of maize stover is the most important source of Fusarium inoculum. Three components of stover: straw, husks and litter (mix of silk, leaves and tassels) were randomly sampled in maize fields. Parallel to sampling maize stover, maize kernels were collected from the same fields. A molecular approach was employed to determine the toxigenic Fusarium species. This survey showed that the type of stover, the ecosystem and the mutual interaction strongly influenced the occurrence of F. verticillioides, F. graminearum and F. poae. Both F. verticillioides and F. graminearum were abundantly present in grains, husks and litter. However, F. poae occurred in lower frequencies. In regard to mycotoxins in maize kernels, Fumonisins (FBs) were predominantly present in almost 90% of the samples, the incidence of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone was rather low with 19% and less than 5%, respectively. Remarkably, fumonisin concentrations in maize from the Northern highlands exceeded legal threshold values (1000 μg/kg) more often than samples from Eastern lowland. Significant positive correlations between contamination of Fusarium in stover and maize grains were observed. Occurrence of Fusarium species in stover correlated positively with occurrence of fumonisins and deoxynivalenol in maize grains. These results showed convincingly that both ecosystem and stove type influence contamination of F. verticillioides, F. graminearum and F. poae. Appropriate management options for husks and litter in these areas are needed to minimize mycotoxin contamination.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Maize stover, Inoculum source, Fusarium, mycotoxins</p> R.R. Madege Copyright (c) 2020-05-07 2020-05-07 18 2 78 87 Multi-criteria Land Evaluation for Rice Production using GIS and Analytic Hierarchy Process in Kilombero Valley, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjags/article/view/195616 <p>A GIS-based multi-criteria land evaluation (MCE) was performed in Kilombero Valley, Tanzania to avail decision makers and farmers with evidence based decision support tool for improved and sustainable rice production. Kilombero valley has been identified by the government and investors for rice production intensification. Five most important criteria for rice production in the area were identified through literature search and discussion with local agronomists and lead farmers. The identified criteria were 1) soil properties, 2) surface water resources, 3) accessibility, 4) distance to markets, and 5) topography. Surveys, on-screen digitizations, reclassifications and overlays in GIS software were used to create spatial layers of the identified criteria. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method was used to score the criteria using local extension staff and lead farmers as domain experts on a scale of 0.0 – 1.0. Surface water resource scored the highest weight (0.462) followed by soil chemical properties (0.234). Other criteria and their weight in paranthesis are soil physical properties (0.19), topography (0.052), accessibility (0.036), and distance to market (0.025). The MCE results showed that about 8% of the study area was classified as having low suitability for rice production while only 2% was highly suitable. The majority of the area (about 89%) was classified as having medium suitability for rice production. Since the suitability decision was dominated by the surface water resource criterion, the rice suitability in the study area can be greatly improved by improving the water resources management.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: AHP, Kilombero Valley, multicriteria land evaluation, lowland rice, suitability analysis.</p> B.H.J. Massawe A.K. Kaaya L. Winowiecki B.K. Slater Copyright (c) 2020-05-07 2020-05-07 18 2 88 98