Nigerian Journal of Animal Science <p>The <em>Nigerian Journal of Animal Science</em> (NJAS) is an official publication of the Animal Science Association of Nigeria (ASAN) that is published twice a year in two issues. The Journal publishes carefully peer-reviewed original research articles on various farm and laboratory animals covering diverse areas such as production, management, health, physiology, nutrition, feeds and feedstuff, breeding and genetics, reproduction, animal products, biotechnology, socio-economics, extension, farming systems and crop/livestock interactions within the context of sustainable livestock production among others.&nbsp; Review articles should cover new development in a field of livestock production.</p> Animal Science Association of Nigeria (ASAN) en-US Nigerian Journal of Animal Science 1119-4308 <p>Copy right of all published material rests with the<em> Nigerian Journal of Animal Science</em>.</p> Assessing the genetic diversity of South-western Nigerian Indigenous Pig (<i>Sus scorfa</i>) using mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence <p>In this study, the maternal genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of South-western pig population were assessed. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from air-dried blood spotted on Fast Technology for Analysis (FTA) card. The extracted DNA were amplified with predefined mitochondria (mtDNA) primers. A total of 843 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region of 30 pigs were analyzed. Seven (7) haplotypes and 64 polymorphic sites were identified, with no insertion or deletion between nucleotide 3 and 835. The mean haplotypic and nucleotide diversity were found to be 0.381±0.058 and 0.315±0.155 respectively. The phylogeny revealed one divergent haplotype clade, suggesting one possible maternal lineage (European domestic pig) in South-west Nigerian pigs. The median joining network formed a star-like pattern, suggesting population expansion from a small number of founding ancestor (IFE1). Genetic variation within and between populations accounted for 63.32% and 36.68% of the total genetic variation respectively. This study concluded that there was relatively high genetic diversity in our indigenous pig population, thus, will probably pave way for preservation and improvement of Nigerian pigs as genetic resources.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: mtDNA, genetic variation, phylogenetic relationship</p> A.B. Ajibike B.M. Ilori O.S. Akinola B.M. Awodiya S.O. Durosaro M. Wheto A.O. Adebambo Copyright (c) 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 22 3 1 9 Normal electrocardiographic parameters of Auraki donkeys in Sokoto, Nigeria: baseline for adaptation <p>Donkey is becoming an endangered species regionally in northwestern Nigeria and nationally. Indigenous species have suffered a sharp decline in population from hunting, diseases and slaughter as food animals by different tribes in Nigeria. Very little information on their cardiac excitability is available, owing to negligence and lack of comprehensive and coherent national program on donkeys’ conservation and preservation, hence the need to carry out the study. The study was carried out using 22 apparently healthy Jacks (male donkeys) with a mean age of 8 ± 0.7 years and an average weight of 135kg ± 0.5. The donkeys were manually restrained on standing position on an insulated ground surface using a rubber mat; Electrocardiogram was conducted using single lead channel ECG recorder (EDAN VE-100). The durations of P, R, T, QRS, P-R interval and Q-T interval were recorded as well as the amplitudes of P, R and T. The highest amplitude of P- wave was obtained in lead II while the highest R-wave amplitude was obtained in lead aVR. P and T wave’s durations were highest in lead aVR while higher R-wave and QRS complex durations were obtained in leads aVL and aVF, respectively. The P-R and Q-T intervals (duration) were highest in lead I. Positive P-wave, Negative T-wave and Negative deflection of QRS complex were predominant. Variable QRS-complexes were recorded with predominant QS deflection. The mean heart rate was 52.8±1.8 and ranged between 30-142beats/minute. ECG parameters of donkeys in Sokoto differ from that of other breeds. Data generated will serve as baseline references for quick detection of deviations and early diagnosis and management of potential cardiovascular conditions in studied breed.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Arrhythmias, Electrocardiogram, Tropics, Auraki Donkeys, Extinction, Sokoto</p> B. Saidu A.I. Jafaru H.M. Ibrahim A. Abdulrasheed N. Abdulazeez A. Dahiru A.J. Bamaiyi A.M. Abdullahi N.N. Pilau Copyright (c) 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 22 3 10 16 Effects of supplemental Vitamins E and C on growth performance and physiological responses of broiler chicken under environmental heat stress <p>Growth and physiological responses of broiler chicken fed supplemental Vitamins E and C in feeds under heat stress was evaluated. One hundred and twenty Arbor acre broiler chickens were used for the experiment. At day-old, the birds were acclimatized for 7 days, after which the birds were randomly allotted into 4 treatment groups which was replicated three times with 10 birds per replicate in a Completely Randomized Design. Four experimental diets were formulated in which the first treatment (T1) served as the control without vitamin, second treatment (T2) had 100mg of vitamin C per kg of feed, third treatment (T3) had 200mg of vitamin E per kg of feed, and fourth treatment (T4) had combination of 100mg vitamins C and 200mg Vitamin E per kg of feed. Data were collected on feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, environmental temperature, relative humidity, rectal temperature, pulse rate and respiratory rates of the chicken. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and Analysis of Variance using SAS (9.13). There were no significant effects on growth performance parameters monitored. Physiological indices showed mean values of 40.08 ± 5.85 0C, 67.41 ± 7.22 beats/min and 60.34 ± 5.84 breathes/min for rectal temperature, pulse rate and respiratory rate of the broiler chicken, respectively. There were low and positive correlations between rectal temperature and pulse rate of the chickens (r = 0.23); rectal temperature and respiratory rate (r = 0.15); pulse rate and respiratory rate (r = 0.32). There were significant (p&lt;0.05) effects of Vitamins C and E on rectal temperature, respiratory rate and pulse rate of the chickens. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that Vitamin C supplement was most effective than Vitamin E and their combination in suppressing thermo-physiological responses of the broiler chicken.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Humidity, response, temperature, physiology, supplement</p> T.I. Ijadunola M.A. Popoola M.O. Bolarinwa K.A. Ayangbola C.A. Omole Copyright (c) 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 22 3 17 25 Effect of <I>Curcuma longa</I> powder on growth performance, haematological and microbiological parameters of cockerels <p>This study was conducted to assess the effect of Curcuma longa on growth performance, hematological and microbiological parameters of cockerels. A total of one hundred and eighty (180) cockerels with an average weight of 250±0.50g were randomized into six treatment groups. Each treatment group comprised of ten birds per replicate and was replicated three times. Treatment 1 (T1) (250 mg turmeric/kg of feed + coconut oil), treatment 2 (500 mg turmeric/kg of feed + coconut oil), treatment 3 (250 mg turmeric/kg of feed), treatment 4 (500 mg turmeric/kg of feed), treatment 5 (control), treatment 6 (500 mg turmeric/kg of feed + Vitamin C).Weekly body weight and daily feed intake of the birds were recorded for 7 weeks, after which carcass analysis was carried out. At the end of seven weeks, blood samples from ten birds per treatment were collected for haematology and serum biochemical parameters after which six chickens were humanely sacrificed for carcass analysis. Samples of ingesta were collected from crop and ileum and analyzed for lactobacillus counts. There was significant difference (p&lt;0.05) in the average weight gain of birds with birds in treatment 2 having the highest weight gain. In all carcass parameters, there was no significant difference among the treatments. The packed cell volume (PCV) of birds in T1 group (27.00±0.45%) was significantly highest when compared with birds in other treatments. The serum total protein and albumin of birds in groups T4 (7.860±0.15g/dl) and T6 (7.880±0.36g/dl) were significantly (p&lt;0.05) highest compared to other groups. There was no significant difference in the lactobacillus counts in the crop while birds in T2 group had the highest (2.68±0.21 CFU/ml) lactobacillus counts. It can be concluded that <em>Curcuma longa</em> fed to cockerels have no deleterious effect and can be included in their feed up 500 mg/kg of feed with or without coconut oil.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Curcuma longa</em>, cockerel, growth performance, haematological parameters, microbiological indices</p> B.O. Oyebanji A.R. Ogunbawo G.O. Odiai A.A. Abdulazeez Copyright (c) 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 22 3 26 37 Comparative study of some biochemical and physiological profile among Nigerian sheep <p>Physiological and biochemical data of the four breeds of sheep were collected from Bauchi, Kastina, Nasarawa and Anambra States for Balami, Uda, Yankasa and West Africa Dwarf sheep, respectively using a multi-stage sampling method. A total of 46 Balami (18 males and 28 females), 30 Uda (5males and 25 females), 36 Yankasa (9 males and 27 females) and 37 WAD (7 males and 30 females) were sampled. Sampling was done from the selected States based on distance from one another and an abundance of sheep. Data were collected during the hottest season of November to March. Blood samples were collected from 60 adult sheep out of the entire population for the study. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein puncture using a 5ml syringe, and the samples were then transferred into well-labelled ethylene diamine tetra acetate (EDTA) bottles. Data collected for the study were analyzed using the General Linear Model Procedure of SAS using the fixed-effect model that incorporated breed, sex and age of the sheep. The pulse rate of adult Balami sheep was higher than what was obtained from the other three breeds (P&lt;0.01). The pulse rate for Balami sheep was 94.33±6.50 beats per minute as against those of WAD, Uda and Yakasa (77.42±8.38, 76.85±8.38 and 72.80±7.84 beats per minute, respectively). Adult WAD, Yankasa and Balami had similar (p&gt;0.05) respiratory rate (73.92±8.73, 71.20±7.73, 69.33±6.40 breath per minute, respectively). The values for the three breeds were higher than 67.76±8.16 breath per minute obtained for Uda sheep. The rectal temperature of adult Balami (39.29±0.21oC) and Yankasa (39.21±0.25oC) were similar but differed from the values obtained for adult WAD sheep (38.40±0.29oC). Malondialdehyde (MDA) is not a good marker for monitoring heat stress among breeds of sheep in Nigeria because breeds did affect (p&gt;0.05) the activity level of MDA. Metabolic markers like thyroid, cortisol hormones level and glucose could also be used in the future. Pulse rate had a high and positive correlation (0.452; P&lt;0.01) with an atmospheric temperature of Balami sheep. Moderate and positive correlations (0.265, 0.221; P&lt;0.05) were obtained between pulse rate and temperature of Uda sheep and WAD, respectively. Molecular markers of biochemical and heat stress such as like heat shock protein (HSP) should be used to study the diversity of sheep breeds in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Biochemical, Nigeria, physiological profile, sheep, heat stress.</p> R.O. Okeke B.I. Nwagu A.O. Iyiola-Tunji P.A. John Copyright (c) 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 22 3 38 47 Haematological and serum biochemical indices of male wistar albino rats fed raw and processed monkey cola (<I>Cola rostrata</I>) seed meal <p>This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of feeding processed and raw <em>Cola rostrata</em> seed meal (CRSM) on the haematological and serum biochemical indices of some organs (liver, kidney, duodenum, jejunum and ileum) of male wistar albino rats. Cola rostrata seed was processed using different methods; boiling, boiling/fermenting, fermenting, and toasting to eliminate the anti-nutritional factors in it. Six (6) experimental diets were formulated with diet 1 (Control) containing 0% CRSM, while diets 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 contained boiled, boiled/ fermented, fermented, toasted and raw CRSM respectively. Sixty (60) weanling male rats aged 6-7 weeks, were randomly divided into the six (6) dietary treatments groups, which were replicated twice with five (5) rats per replicate in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The experiment lasted for 21 days. The results indicated that there were significant differences (P&lt;0.05) in packed cell volume (PCV) and Haemoglobin among the treatment groups. The raw seed (diet 6) resulted in the reduction of the serum total protein, serum albumin and serum globulin. It is concluded that Cola rostrata seed boiled for 30 minutes can be used as feed ingredient in replacing maize in animal diets without adverse effects on haematological and serum biochemical indices studied.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Cola rostrata seed meal; haematology; serum biochemistry; and male wistar rats</p> Grace. I. Christopher C.E. Onukak I.M. Sam E.I. Evans E.U. Umoren Copyright (c) 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 22 3 48 55 Screening of seven poultry species for endoparasites in some live-birds markets within Kaduna metropolis <p>The study aimed to determine the prevalence rate, the level of endoparasites infestation among breeds of birds and most infested parasite in the birds in some live bird markets. 245 faecal samples were collected from some species of birds in 7 live bird markets in Kaduna metropolis undergo sedimentation and floatation for survey of endoparasites. The result showed that 14 (5.7%) samples were positive for endoparasites. There were prevalence variations among different endoparasites such as Ascaridia galli (2%), Raillietina tetragona (0.4%), Subular brumpti (0.4%) and Eimeria oocyst (2.9%). The endoparasites in local chicken revealed Eimeria oocyst and Ascaridia gallias 5.7% and 14.3% respectively, but layers reported Eimeria oocysts 8.6%. While Broilers recorded 2.9% of Eimeria oocyts, Raillietina tetragona and Subular brumpti each. Pigeon also recorded 2.9% of Eimeria oocyts. In Checheniya market, 1 (2.9%) was positive for <em>Ascaridia galli</em> and in Library market, <em>Eimeria oocyst </em>and<em> Ascaridia galli</em> had 1 (2.9%), while in <em>Kasuwan Barci, Eimeria oocyst </em>and<em> Raillietina tetragona</em> had 1 (2.9%), and Kawo market had 1 (2.9%) with <em>Subbular brumpti</em>., Railway market had 2 (5.7%) , with <em>Eimeria oocyst</em>, and in Sabo market,<em> Eimeria oocyst</em> and <em>Ascaridia galli</em> had 1 (2.9%) while in Station market, Eimeria oocyst and <em>Ascaridia galli</em> had 2 (5.7%). Conclusively, this study observed a less prevalence of endoparasitism of poultry with 5.7% prevalence rate and <em>Eimeria oocyst</em> was implicated as the most infested parasite in live bird markets within Kaduna metropolis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Screening, Endoparasites, Live-birds Markets, Species of birds.</p> F.B. Hassan P.A. Abdu J.J. Shamizillihi S.N. Minka A.A. Adeiza M.N. Bappa A.T. Tinau Copyright (c) 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 22 3 56 60 Prevalence of sheep and goat coccidiosis in different districts of Tigray region, Ethiopia <p>Prevalence study of coccidiosis was conducted in Mekelle, Regional state of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia, using a cross sectional approach. A total of 384 faecal samples were examined, the overall positive for the parasite was 86.19% of which, 87.31%, in sheep and 85.03% in goats. Sex and species did not significantly influence (p &gt; 0.05) the trend of infection. The prevalence of identified pathogenic species present in sheep were <em>Eimeria crandallis 5(3.22%), E. ovindallis 8(5.16%)</em> and mixed infection 142(82.59.6%). The prevalence of pathogenic species from goats were <em>E. arloingi</em> 27 (30 %), <em>E. ninakohlyakimovae</em> 12(13.33%), E. christenseni 8(8.89%) and mixed 43(47.78%) infections. There was significant (p &lt; 0.05) difference observed in prevalence of <em>coccidia spp</em>. in Mocharae compared with the other study sites. The overall prevalence of pathogenic Eimeria species was 63.8 %, while the prevalence of that in sheep and goats were 78.68% and 48.13% respectively. Species, sex and age of animals in this case significantly influenced (p &lt; 0.05) the prevalence of pathogenic Eimeria species. The females (74.87%) significantly (p &lt; 0.05) had higher infection rates than males (53.3%). Animals of age 3 months (91.13%) had significantly (p &lt; 0.05) higher prevalence rates than 4-6 months (59.86%) and 7-12 months (38.94%). Conclusively, prevention and effective control programs should be targeted towards the most predisposed females and younger animals.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Eimeria; Coccidiosis; Prevalence; Oocyst; Small Ruminant</p> K. Etsay S. Megbey H. Yohannes Copyright (c) 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 22 3 61 69 Productive and reproductive performance of local cows under farmer’s management in central Tigray, Ethiopia <p>The study was conducted on 408 indigenous cows maintained under farmer’s management in eight districts of central Tigray, Ethiopia. A total of 208 small-scale dairy farm owners were randomly selected and interviewed with structured questionnaire to obtain information on the productive and reproductive performance of indigenous cows. The results of the study showed that the mean age at first calving (AFC) was 43.3 ±2.7 months, number of services per conception (NSC) was 2.7±0.5, days open (DO) was 201.47±61.21 days, calving interval (CI) was 468.33±71.42 days, lactation length (LL) was 206.17±32.33 days, lactation milk yield (LMY) was 414.65±53.69 litres for indigenous cows. The estimated value for productive and reproductive traits had higher than normal range in indigenous cows. This calls for a planned technical and institutional intervention for improved support services for appropriate breeding programs, improved cows and adequate veterinary health services.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Productive and Reproductive Performance, Local Cows.</p> B.H. Abrha K. Niraj G. Berihu A. Kiros A.G. Gebregiorgis Copyright (c) 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 22 3 70 74 Effects of doses of ascorbic acid on physio-biochemical parameters of Sahel bucks exposed to stocking and 28 –hour road transportation (North Western – South Western, Nigeria) <p>Sahel bucks were used in evaluating doses of ascorbic acid exposed to long term transportation stress. Their ages ranged between 1.5-2 years, their body condition score was 3 out of 5 scale. Test groups were ascorbic acid at 400mg/kg orally administered; ascorbic acid at 300mg/kg PO; ascorbic acid at 200mg/kg PO and control group without ascorbic acid administration. Thus, 16 animals were used for high stocking rate and 16 stocked using low stocking rate in the experiment. Physiological and biochemical parameters were assessed. The heart rates of the bucks treated with 200mg/kg ascorbic acid midway into the journey were low (P&lt;0.05) compared to those treated with 300 and 400mg/kg, and the control group. High dose of ascorbic acid (400mg/kg) produced significantly higher values of sodium and chloride serum concentrations. Mg levels were significantly (P&lt;0.05) lowered with lower doses of ascorbic acid treatment compared to the control. In contrast, T4 values in all treated groups were lower than that of the control animals. Ascorbic acid caused a significant (P&lt;0.05) increase in red blood cells; the leucocytes and lymphocytes counts. Conclusively, ascorbic acid at 300 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg had better anti-stress property that could be used to improve animal welfare in bucks exposed to long road transportation.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Ascorbic acid; Doses; Stress; Sahel bucks.</p> K.T. Biobaku S.A. Ameen M. Jibir Copyright (c) 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 22 3 75 85 Antistress evaluation of xylazine and ascorbic acid doses using biomarkers and chevon characteristics sequel to stocking and 28-hours road transportation <p>Transportation of animals cannot be avoided in animal husbandry and when they are subjected to psychological and physiological stress could compromise product. Thirty-two apparently healthy Sahel bucks were subjected to an experimental journey. Four groups were randomly assigned into control none treated, xylazine (0.02 mg/kg) and ascorbic acid (200 mg/kg), xylazine (0.01 mg/kg) and ascorbic acid (400 mg/kg), xylazine (0.015 mg/kg) and ascorbic acid (300 mg/kg) each group had four animals each in both high and low stocking density sub-groups. The xylazine was administered intravenous while ascorbic acid was administered orally. Group (0.02mg/kg) xylazine and (200mg/kg) ascorbic acid at high stocking rate significantly (p &lt;0.05) increased the dressing percentage, while low stocking rate decreased using the same combination significantly (p &lt;0.05) decreased dressing percentage. Group of (0.015mg/kg) xylazine and (300mg/kg) ascorbic acid at high stocking rate significantly (p &lt;0.05) increased the excitatory score at slaughter. There were also interactions of treatment on excitatory score, dressing percentages and triiodothyronine. This means that the treatment using the two drugs influenced these parameters. It infers the antistress treatment influenced some meat characteristics. Conclusively, groups (0.02mg/kg) xylazine and (200mg/kg) ascorbic acid, and (0.015mg/kg) xylazine and (300mg/kg) ascorbic acid improved some meat characteristics in bucks, withdrawal period of xylazine must be considered.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Doses; Xylazine-ascorbic acid; Improved; Chevon; Stress</p> K.T. Biobaku S.A. Ameen M. Jibir Copyright (c) 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 22 3 86 96 Housing systems and type of supplemental vitamin-mineral premix in hens’ diets influenced deposition of vitamin in eggs at the late laying phase <p>Effects of five different proprietary vitamin-mineral premix (VMP) and two housing systems (HS) on deposition of vitamin B1 (thiamine), B6 (pyridoxine), D3 (cholecalciferol), and folic acid in eggs of hens at the late laying stage were investigated. Black Bovan Nera hen strain (n=480) aged 59 weeks were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments; each treatment was replicated six times with eight hens per replicate. The hens were raised in a conventional cage and an open-sided deep litter (DPL) HS. Five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated and each was supplemented with 0.25% proprietary VMP 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 for the hens in cage and DL in 2x5 factorial arrangement and completely randomized design. At age 71 weeks, six randomly selected eggs per treatment (n=60) were processed and assayed for vitamin B1, folate, B6 and D3. Significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) thiamine deposition (0.063 mg/100g) was in the eggs of hens on VMP5 with similar (p&gt;0.05) content of pyridoxine, folic acid and vitamin D. The HS had significant impact on vitamin D (93.969 IU) and foliate content (51.909 mg/100g) of the eggs in the DPL. Effect of interactions of HS x VMP on pyridoxine, folic acid and vitamin D3 deposition in egg were similar (p&gt;0.05) but was significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) for thiamine deposition. Hens from DPL had higher vitamins deposition in egg than cage, while vitamin depositions in eggs were influenced by different the proprietary VMP and HS.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Deep litter, Battery, Proprietary vitamin-mineral premixes, Vitamin composition</p> O.A. Ogunwole A.Y.P. Ojelade F.G. Adebiyi A.O. Mosuro M.D. Olumide Y.E. Akinloye Copyright (c) 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 22 3 97 106 Beyond COVID-19 pandemic period: Strategies for sustainable livestock feed and food production <p>Since the detection of first case in Nigeria on the 27th February, 2020, the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases has been risen exponentially. The prescribed guidelines to curb its spread including physical distancing, travel restrictions, partial or total closure of food production and market outlets further disrupt timely access to nutritious foods, thereby threatening food security. Achieving sustainable feed-food supply beyond this period calls for prompt implementation of reforms, policies and intervention responses across each sub-unit of feed-food production chain. Stern measures should be put in place to ensure that we produce what we consume while Nigerians should be willing to consume what we produce locally.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Agriculture, COVID-19, Food security, Livestock feeds, Supports, Welfare</p> A.O. Fafiolu J.O. Alabi Copyright (c) 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 22 3 107 121 Herbal effects of ginger in turkey poults <p>The study was conducted to investigate the effects of ginger supplementation on growth performance and serum biochemistry of turkey poults. A total of 96 two-weeks old American bronze turkey poults were randomly allocated into four dietary treatments. 24 poults per treatment replicated thrice with 8 turkey poults per replicate in a completely randomized design (CRD). The turkey poults were given a basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% ginger powder during the 42days of the experiment. Growth performance and serum biochemistry were determined. The final liveweight, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio improved in treatment groups especially among turkey poults fed diet containing 0.6% of ginger powder. The supplementation of ginger powder at 0.6% reduced cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, ALT, AST values and increased the high density lipoprotein value. Supplementing turkey poults with ginger enhanced the growth performance and reduced the cholesterol profiles. It was obvious that birds on treatment 4 (0.6%) ginger inclusion increased final liveweight and improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of turkey poults. It is therefore concluded and recommended that the dietary inclusion of ginger powder meal at 0.6% levels in turkey poults should be adopted by animal nutritionist and farmers.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: ginger, turkey poults, growth performance, serum biochemistry</p> O.T. Daramola O.A. Jimoh A.S. Akinnate Copyright (c) 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 22 3 122 127 Growth indices, dry matter yield and nutritive value of <i>Centrosema pascuorum</i> at four different cutting regimes in humid tropics <p>A study was conducted on growth indices, dry matter yield (DMY) and nutritive value of <em>Centrosema pascuorum</em> at four different cutting regimes of growth i.e. 8, 10, 12 and 14 weeks after sowing (WAS). Experimental design was a complete randomized design with three replicates on 4m by 12m bed. Results showed significant (P&lt;0.05) increase in the number of leaves (16.70 – 55.67), leaf length (7.63 – 11.34 cm), leaf width (1.00 – 1.68cm) and plant height (49.34 – 108.40cm) from 8 to 14 WAS. Higher significant (P&lt;0.05) DMY was recorded in 12 WAS (7.47t/ha) and 14 WAS (7.80t/ha). There was a significant (P&lt;0.05) difference in crude protein, crude fibre, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, non-fibre carbohydrate, ash, calcium and phosphorus. Significant (P&lt;0.05) values were recorded for dry matter intake, dry matter digestibility and relative feed value across the cutting regimes. Significant difference (P&lt;0.05) was also observed for the methane (CH4) gas production (18.00 – 21.33 ml) and methane reduction percentage (87.88 – 91.67%). Similar (P&gt;0.05) contents were observed for 24 hours’ gas production, in vitro dry matter digestibility, in vitro organic matter digestibility, short chain fatty acid and metabolizable energy across the different cutting regimes. Conclusively, growth pattern and DMY of <em>Centrosema pascuorum</em> across the different cutting regimes 8 – 14 WAS consistently increased, coupled with nutritive parameters and post in vitro characteristics. Centrosema pascuorum could be best harvested at 12 and 14 WAS for its effective and efficient utilization for livestock production especially ruminants.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: <em>Centrosema-pascuorum</em>; Cutting-regime; Dry-matter-yield; Growth-indices; Nutritive-value</p> A.A. Lamidi E.N. Osarobundo Copyright (c) 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 22 3 128 138 Comparative evaluation of three different energy sources on performance, carcass characteristics, hematology and serum biochemistry of rabbits <p>This study examined the effect of maize, sorghum and millet as three different energy sources on growth performance, carcass characteristics, hematology and serum biochemistry of rabbits. Eighteen seven-weeks old male rabbits were randomly distributed into three groups A, B and C each consisting of six rabbits, managed on deep litter and were given maize, sorghum and millet-based diets respectively as their sources of energy and were fed for a period of five weeks before data collection and analysis. Results obtained showed that the dietary treatments significantly (p&lt;0.05) affected the growth performance of rabbits, but not the carcass characteristics, hematology and serum biochemistry. Nevertheless, in all treatments, the red blood cells ranged from 3.52 to 4.61 ×106/mm3 and fell below the normal range (5 – 8 ×106/mm3), while the alkaline phosphatase ranged from 182.67 to 218.57 U/L, and was above the normal range (4 – 20 U/L). It is therefore concluded that the test materials were not toxic to the muscle, kidney and liver of rabbits at 52.21% inclusion level. This implies that sorghum or millet can completely replace maize in rabbit diet with no adverse effect on the hematology and serum biochemistry parameters of rabbits but it may compromise growth.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Animal protein consumption, Carcass, Energy sources, Growth performance, Hematology and Rabbits.</p> E.B. Ibitoye A.A. Jimoh A. Hussaini B.S. Sanni Copyright (c) 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 22 3 139 146 Carcass characteristics and organ weights of broiler chickens fed varying inclusion levels of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peel products-based diets <p>The effect of feeding four cassava peel products -based diets on carcass characteristics and organ weights of broiler chickens were investigated with 455, 10-day old Ross 308 broiler chickens randomly divided into thirteen groups of 35 birds each. Each group was replicated five times and a replicate comprised seven chicks. The design was 1+ (4 x 3) augmented factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design. The experimental diets were sundried cassava peel meal (SCPM), coarse cassava peel mash (CCPM), whole cassava peel mash (WCPM) and fine cassava peel mash (FCPM) each at three dietary inclusion levels to replace maize at 20, 40 and 60%, while the control diet was a maize-based diet. The diets were fed ad libitum to the respective grower (10-24 days) and finisher (25-46 days) experimental chickens. Results showed no significant effect (p&gt;0.05) of feeding chickens with cassava peel-based diets on carcass primal cuts and internal offals except breast meat and spleen. Breast meat yield (24.90%) of chicks on maize-based diet was significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) than others. Effect of interaction of cassava peel products and inclusion levels on eviscerated weight and breast weight was significant (p&lt;0.05). The eviscerated weight (80.86%) and breast meat yield (24.90%) of chickens on control were higher (p&lt;0.05). In conclusion, replacement of up to 60% dietary maize with cassava peel products had similar effect on broiler carcass yield and productivity but breast yield. Also, further processing of WCPM to FCPM and CCPM did not confer any advantage on chick productivity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Cassava peel, Internal offal, External offal, High-Quality Cassava Peel, Carcass yield</p> S.O. Oladimeji O.A. Ogunwole T.A. Amole O.O. Tewe Copyright (c) 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 22 3 147 157 Carcass and organ characteristics of broiler finisher chickens fed matured sun-dried nypa palm fruit (<i>Nypa fruticans</i>) nut meal <p>Graded levels of matured sun-dried nypa palm fruit nut meal (<em>Nypa fruiticans</em>) as replacement for maize in the diet of finisher broiler chicken was carried out in a feeding trial that lasted for 56 days. One hundred and eighty (180) eight weeks old broilers were used. The birds were assigned to six dietary treatments of three replicates each. The experiment was conducted using the Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Each diet represented a treatment. Diet I served as the control free of the test component. The remaining five (5) diets were formulated on 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent substitution levels of matured sun-dried nypa palm fruit nut meal for maize. The diets and water were provided ad libitum throughout the experimental period. Data generated on carcass and visceral organs were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Results revealed that dressing percentage decreased with increasing level of nypa palm fruit meal substitution. Carcass mean for the drumstick, breast, back and thigh were significantly (P&lt;0.05) different, while the relative weights of the neck and wings were not significantly (P&gt;0.05) different from each other. Weights of the visceral organs for the gizzard, heart, liver, proventriculus, abdominal fats and intestinal weights were significantly (P&lt;0.05) different. However, the relative organs of the kidney, lungs and crop were not significantly (P&gt;0.05) different. Conclusively, the low abdominal fat associated with increase substitution level of nypa palm fruit nut meal for maize is an assurance of good benefit for people with heart related problems.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Carcass and organs, characteristics, broiler finisher, matured sun-dried, nypa fruit meal</p> V.E. Ukam L.N. Agwunobi O.O.K. Oko Copyright (c) 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 22 3 158 164 Phytochemical properties of <i>Hibiscus sabdariffa</i> Calyx and the effects of its aqueous extract supplementation on haematological and serum biochemical indices of broiler birds <p>The study was carried out to examine the effect of dietary supplementation of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract on the haematological and serum biochemistry indices of broiler birds. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. Ninety six broiler birds of agro-tech strain were randomly assigned to four treatments each replicated three times with twenty four birds per treatment. The treatment groups are: T1 control (anti-biotic), T2 (50 ml of Hibiscus extract into 1litre of water), T3 (100 ml of Hibiscus extract into 1 litre of water), T4 (150ml of Hibiscus extract into 1 litre of water) respectively. Results showed that there were significant differences (P&lt;0.05) among the four treatment groups for all the haematological parameters studied except for PCV. However, all the values fall within the normal range for healthy chickens. The serum total protein, AST, ALP, ALT, creatinine and glucose values showed no significant difference (P&lt;0.05) among the treatment groups. There was a significant difference (P&lt;0.05) in the serum urea in T4 compared to T2. Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract from the present research have no harmful effect on the internal organs such as the livers and the kidneys.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Hibiscus sabdariffa</em>, blood profile, poultry, phytogenic compound and alternative antibiotics</p> D.O. Ugwu P.C. Jiwuba V.R. Ubogu R.C. Akazue Copyright (c) 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 22 3 165 172 Growth performance, blood profile and nutrients digestibility of broiler chickens fed <i>Enterolobium cyclocarpum</i> seed based diets with or without supplemental exogenous enzyme <p>A 63-day study using 150, seven day old broiler chicks was conducted to evaluate the effect of <em>Enterolobium cyclocarpum</em> seed meal (ECSM) based diets on growth performance, blood profile and nutrient digestibility in six dietary treatments containing 0, 5 and 10% ECSM with or without enzyme supplementation using 2×3 factorial layout in a completely randomized design. Results showed that the main and interaction effects of enzyme supplementation and inclusion level of ECSM did not significantly (p&gt;0.05) influence the growth parameters studied. Enzyme supplementation significantly (p&lt;0.05) increased glucose concentration. Birds fed 5% ECSM based diet recorded the highest globulin value (1.96g/dL). The albumin, globulin and glucose concentration significantly influenced by the interaction effect of enzyme supplementation and ECSM inclusion levels. Birds fed 5% ECSM based diet supplemented with enzymes recorded the highest globulin value (2.02g/dL). Birds fed ECSM based diet supplemented with enzyme had lower (62.22%) lymphocytes value. Interactive effect of ECSM and enzyme supplementation had no influence (p&gt;0.05) on the haematological indices of broiler chicken except the white blood cell and lymphocytes values. The white blood cell and lymphocytes values increased across the dietary treatments as the ECSM supplemented with or without enzyme increased. Main and interactive effects of enzyme supplementation and ECSM inclusion levels significantly (p&lt;0.05) affected the nutrient digestibility. Birds fed diet supplemented with enzyme and those fed 5% ECSM based diet had better nutrient digestibility values. The study concluded that ECSM could be used up to 5% supplemented with enzymes in broiler chickens’ diet without any adverse effect on broiler’s performance.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Broiler, Serum biochemistry, haematological indices, <em>Enterolobium cyclocarpum</em>, Nutrient digestibility, Enzymes</p> M.O. Yahaya O.O. Awodola-Peters B.O. Adetoro A.A. Saka Copyright (c) 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 22 3 173 183 Performance, apparent nutrient digestibility responses and the economics of feeding Nigerian rice milling by-products to weaner rabbits <p>An eighty-four (84) day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding rice milling by-products (rice offal, rice bran and rice grain rejects) on growth performance and production economics of crossbred (New Zealand white X Chinchilla) weaner rabbits with mean live weight of 347g. The rabbits were randomly allotted, 5 each, to five experimental diets, with each animal serving as a replicate. The diets were designated D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5. Diet D1 contained no rice milling by-products and served as the control, D2 contained 20% rice offal, D3 20% rice bran, D4 20% rice grain rejects and D5 10% rice bran + 10% grain rejects. Feed and water were provided ad-libitum. Daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio (67.94-79.42g, 13.50-15.97g, and 4.71-5.67 respectively) were not affected (p&gt;0.05) by inclusion of rice milling by-products in the diets. Apparent nutrient digestibility indices, except for Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE), were also not influenced (p&gt;0.05) by treatments. NFE digestibility was depressed by the feeding of rice offal (p&lt;0.05). Feed cost per kg of weight gain was highest for the rabbit fed the control diet (₦587/kg) and lowest (p&lt;0.05) for those on diet containing rice bran (₦436/kg). Gross margin between total production cost and revenue was highest for rabbits fed a combination of rice bran and rice grain rejects(₦701.18/rabbit), and lowest (₦561.62/rabbit) for the diet that contained no rice milling by-products. It was, therefore, concluded that the use of these rice milling by-products can be recommended for meat rabbit production. However, further studies should be carried out to elaborate the chemical properties and feed potential of this class of feed ingredients.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Feed intake, weight gain, Feed conversion ratio, Nutrients digestibility, Rice milling by-products</p> S.N. Carew D.T. Shaahu T.T. Anongo Copyright (c) 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 22 3 184 190 Chemical characterisation of palm kernel (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), shea butter (<i>Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn.</i>) and sesame (<i>Sesamum indicum L.</i>) seed oils as ingredients in breeding broiler diets <p>Lipids are important to both humans and livestock where they play important role as an excellent source of energy and enhances the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. However, oils are used in formulation without any considerations given to the peculiarities of their innate constituents particularly, vitamin, fatty acids and phytochemicals. Thus, the basis of these determinations. Three lipids: palm kernel oil (PKO), shea butter (SB) and sesame seed oil (SSO), were analyzed chemically in triplicate using standard methods. Results showed that SB had the highest (p&lt;0.05) peroxide value (meq/kg) of 7.4 while PKO (0.7) and SSO (0.3) were similar (p&gt;0.05). The iodine values (g/100g) of the lipids were not significantly different (p&gt;0.05). The saponification value (mgKOH) of PKO (249.9) was significantly higher than SBO (190.9) and SSO (15.8) while the acid value (mgKOH/g) of SBO (10.6) was significantly lower (p&lt;0.05). The α-tocopherol of SBO was 119.2 μg/mL which was significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) than 69.6 μg/mL in SSO and 24.4μg/mL in PKO while there were significant variations (p&lt;0.05) in the fatty acid composition of the oils. Analyses revealed the oils possessed variable chemical characteristics; while PKO would be most appropriate for soap production, SBO and SSO would be more susceptible to rancidity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: palm kernel oil, sesame seed oil, shea butter, pro-vitamin,</p> A.A. Adeyemi O.A. Ogunwole S.O. Oladimeji Copyright (c) 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 22 3 191 198 Locally-processed cowpea husk improved body weight gain of on-farm raised rabbits in Northeastern Nigeria <p>Nigeria as an agricultural country generates a large tons of crop residues. Crop residues and by-products could result in environmental burden or pollution if not recycled or consumed by livestock. Efforts are being geared towards harnessing crop residues or by-products into animal feed. An on-farm experiment was conducted to investigate if fermentation and/or enzyme supplementation would improve the growth response of locally-reared rabbits. The weaner rabbits of similar age were sourced locally and were randomly distributed to groups. The animals were fed ad libitum with commercial basal diet but each treatment group was daily supplemented with 20 g of wheat bran, fermented wheat bran, fermented and enzyme-treated wheat bran, fermented wheat bran and fermented and enzyme-treated cowpea husk accordingly in a completely randomized design. Specific contrasts were also performed. Fermented cowpea husk improved (P&lt;0.05) body weight (day 21) and body weight gain of experimental animals compared with the control group. Other treatments were statistically similar to the control group. The fermentation process improved body weight of experimental animals fed wheat bran diets. The fermentation process enhanced feed intake of experimental rabbits fed wheat bran over the animals fed unfermented wheat bran. Enzyme supplementation improved feed intake of the animals fed wheat bran-based diets. The small intestine of rabbits fed control diet showed normal mucosal layer with normal glands without inflammation (slender arrow), the villi appeared normal (white arrow). The small intestinal photomicrographs of rabbits fed fermented wheat bran-based diet showed mild necrosis and glandular degeneration (black arrow), and the circular muscle layer was normal (grey arrow). The photomicrographs of rabbits fed a fermented cowpea husk-based diet showed normal central venules. The study concluded that fermented cowpea husk could boost rabbit production.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: crop residue, nutrition, rabbit, sub-Saharan Africa</p> Isaac Oluseun Adejumo K.A. Badmus A. Maidala O.J. Makinde A.D. Maina I.C. Mohammed Abubakar Bomoi Copyright (c) 2020-12-10 2020-12-10 22 3 199 208 Evaluation of tiger nut (<i>Cyperus Esculentus</i>) waste as feed ingredient in broiler chicken diet <p>The poultry industry has been making valuable contributions to lessen the problem of malnutrition, particularly in the developing countries by providing consumers around the world with a cheap but high quality source of protein. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) waste (TNW) as feed ingredient on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chicken. One hundred and twenty day-old Arbor acre strains of broiler chicken were assigned to four treatments with thirty birds per treatment, each treatment had 3 replicates of 10 birds each in a Completely Randomized Design. Dietary treatment included: basal diet + 0.0% TNW (T1), basal diet + 5% TNW (T2) basal diet + 10% TNW (T3) and basal diet + 15% TNW (T4). The study lasted for 7 weeks. Data were collected on growth performance and carcass quality using standard method. Significant means were separated using Duncan multiple range test&nbsp; at p ≤0.05 level of significance. The final weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio varied significantly (P&lt;0.05) among treatments. Highest feed intake was obtained in T1 (3913.87g) and lowest value in T4 (3720.94g). However, highest weight was obtained in T2 (1825.33g), while the lowest value was obtained in T4 (1600.00g). No Significant (p&gt; 0.05) difference was observed in primal cut part. Highest drumstick value of 10.36% was obtained in T2 and lowest value of 9.00% was obtained in T3. Highest breast weight of 26.73% was obtained in T2 and lowest value of 23.88% in T4. However, there was no significant differences (p&gt;0.05) in organ weight. In conclusion TNW at 5% inclusion level in the diets of broiler chicken had no detrimental effect on performance and carcass quality.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Broiler, tigernut waste, performance characteristics, carcass characteristics.</p> M.D. Olumide O.G. Tayo O.A. Oyesanwen O.A. Ajayi Copyright (c) 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 22 3 209 215 Body weight asymmetry as an animal welfare concern on carcass yield, ham proximate composition, mineral and lipid profiles of growing pigs <p>The experiment was carried out to evaluate effect of weight asymmetry on carcass yield, ham proximate composition, minerals and lipid profiles of growing pigs. A total of fifty four (54) Large White growing pigs with mean weight of 15.33±0.02 kg was placed into three treatment groups based on weight range (Homozygous heavy weight, homozygous light weight and heterozygous weight) for a twenty week study. Eighteen growing pigs served as a treatment group which was further divided into 3 replicate groups of 6 pigs per replicate. At the end of 20<sup>Th</sup> week study, 6 pigs per treatment i.e. 2 pigs per replicate were selected, fasted and slaughtered for carcass yield evaluation. The ham muscle was excised and used to determine pork proximate composition, minerals and lipid profiles. Data collected were subjected 1-way Analysis of Variance utilizing SAS software while significant differences were separated using New Duncan Multiple Range Test as contained in the same statistical package. Result revealed that the prime cut parts (ham, shoulder and puck weights) were significantly higher in homogeneous light weight pigs. Most of ham proximate composition were positively influenced by weight asymmetry. Likewise, weight asymmetry affected total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein, potassium and magnesium values of growing pigs. Heterogeneous weight pigs had highest total cholesterol value of 94.67±2.77 mg/dl and the least value of 85.33±3.41 mg/dl was noted for homogeneous light weight pigs. It can be concluded from this present study that grouping pigs on uniform weight basis especially light weight groups enhanced the welfare of pigs as shown by improvement in pork characteristics and composition.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Animal; proximate composition; meat yield; pork quality; mineral contents</p> C.P. Njoku R.A. Olorunsola A.O. Osofowora S.D. Apata T.R. Ayano J.O. Omoniyi O.A. Adeyemi Copyright (c) 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 22 3 216 228 Evaluation of varying levels of Carica papaya leaf meal on growth, carcass, hematological parameters and its use as anticoccidial for broiler chicken <p>Medicinal plants have been traditionally used for treatments of various diseases in many countries. <em>Carica papaya</em> is one of potential feed supplements which have recently been reported as having a wide range of beneficial effects on production performance. A seven weeks trial was conducted to investigate the effect of graded levels of <em>C. papaya</em> leaf meal on broiler growth performance, carcass characteristics, hematological parameters and its anticoccidial properties. A total of one hundred and fifty day-old Marshal broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments with 30 birds per treatment, replicated thrice in a completely randomized design. The treatments were; diet with coccidiostat as a positive control (T1), diet without <em>C. papaya</em> leaf meal nor coccidiostat (T2), diet with 200 g of <em>C. papaya</em> leaf meal/100kg of feed (T3), diet with 400 g <em>C. papaya</em> leaf meal/100kg of feed (T4), and diet with 600 g of <em>C. papaya</em> leaf meal/100kg of feed (T5). The phytochemical component of the <em>C. papaya</em> leaf meal varied from positive to strongly positive. Significant differences (P&lt;0.05) were observed in the final weight, feed intake and the mortality percentage. The best liveability and final weight gain were obtained from the birds fed diets with 400 g of <em>C. papaya</em> leaf meal while non significance differences were observed on the carcass characteristics except on the live weight. The blood profiles were within the normal levels. It can be concluded that <em>C. papaya</em> leaf meal can be used at the rate of 400 g/100kg of feed for broiler chicken without any deleterious effect on the performance and carcass characteristics.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: <em>Carica papaya</em>, performance, coccidiostat, phytochemical, carcass, hematological.</p> O.J. Banjoko I.A. Adebayo I.B. Osho M.D. Olumide O.O.A. Fagbiye O.A. Ajayi O.E. Akinboye Copyright (c) 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 22 3 229 241 Effect of diets containing graded levels of Irish potato peel meal (IPPM) on carcass quality, haematological and blood biochemical profile of broiler chickens <p>In the search for alternative energy sources for poultry feeding, a 9-week experiment was conducted to ascertain the effect of diets containing graded levels of Irish potato peel meal (IPPM) for maize on haematological and blood biochemical profile of broiler chickens. Two hundred and forty (240) Anak-2000 broiler chicks aged 6 days were randomly assigned to 12 floor pens containing 20 birds each. Four experimental diets, based on 23 and 20% crude protein in the starter and finisher respectively, were formulated to contain 0, 5, 10,15 % IPPM replacement for maize grain. Each treatment was replicated thrice in a complete randomised design. Data were collected on growth indices, haematological and blood biochemical profile. During the starter period (7-28 days), daily feed intake and feed cost/kg gain were not adversely affected by feeding the test ingredient, but weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were depressed above 5% replacement of maize with the test material. In the finisher phase (28-63 days), feed intake was significantly increased on the 15% replacement diet compared to the control but did not differ statistically amongst the treatment based diets. The highest daily gain was recorded on the 5% replacement diet, but its values did not differ markedly amongst the control, 10 and 15% diets. Feed conversion ratio was significantly increased above 10% replacement of maize with IPPM/YPM. There was no adverse effect of the test material on haematological and blood biochemical parameters as their values all fell within normal range.</p> E.J. Kpanja S. Duru J.A. Kotso P.T. Gonjoh Copyright (c) 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 22 3 242 249 Evaluation of graded levels of cassava peels fortified with defatted moringa seed meal as replacement to wheat bran on performance, digestibility and blood profile of broilers <p>Evaluation of cassava peels fortified with defatted moringa seed at ratio 5:2 (C:MM) as a replacement to wheat bran at graded levels in broiler diet. Three diets were formulated, diet I with 0% C:MM and 20% wheat bran served as control, in diets II and III wheat bran was replaced at 50% and 100% respectively. Ninety 1 - day old broiler chicks were assigned unto these diets that lasted for nine weeks. The feed intake and body weight gain of birds on diet I and II were higher (P &lt; 0.05) than III at both starter and finisher phases. Feed conversion ratio and apparent digestibility of those fed diets I and II were similar and differ from III. Among the hematological parameters determined, the packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), Red blood cell (RBC) and lymphocytes were affected (P &lt; 0.05). Birds fed diets I and II had similar hematological values and these were higher compared to those fed diet III. The serum metabolites values of all the chicks were within normal range. Conclusively, fortified C:MM could replace wheat bran up to 50% without adversely affecting the broilers.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Moringa seed meal, cassava peels, wheat bran; broiler; performance; blood.</p> F.A. Aderemi P C.N Alikwe S.A. Oyetunde S.A Oyetunde Copyright (c) 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 22 3 250 260 Effect of replacing Nigerian brown beniseed cake for soybean cake in diets of broilers <p>This study was conducted to examine the effect of replacing Nigerian brown beniseed cake (BSC) for soybean cake (SBM) in diets of broilers. Replacement levels of BSC for SBM in diets were 0%, 25%, 75%, and 100%. 150-d old unsexed broilers were randomly assigned to five treatment groups of 20 birds each, with three replicates of 10 birds each in a completely randomized design. Body weights at 28 d, 56 d, average daily feed intake (ADFI), and carcass weight were significantly (P &lt; 0.05) higher for birds on control and 25% BSC diet compared to the other treatment groups; among which, 50% BSC and 75% BSC had no significant (P&gt;0.05) difference, while 100% BSC replacement for SBM had consistently least significant (P&lt;0.05) value. The hematological parameters showed no significant (P&gt;0.05) difference among all the groups. This study thus showed that the Nigerian brown beniseed cake had positive benefit on broiler performance at replacement level of 25% for soyabean meal without negative effects on the health status of the birds at any level.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Broiler, Beniseed cake (BSC), Soyabean meal (SBM), Growth performance, Carcass characteristics, Hematological indices.</p> C.I. Nwosu M.U. Ibrahim B.N. Marire Copyright (c) 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 22 3 261 270 Growth performance and hematological parameters of broiler chicken fed raw and boiled <i>senna obtusifolia</i> seed meal <p>This study was conducted to determine the growth performance and hematological parameters of broiler chicken fed raw and boiled Senna obtusifolia seed meal. Three hundred (300) Ross day old chicks were used for this study. Chicks were randomly allotted to five treatment groups in a complete randomized design having three replicate with twenty birds each. Birds were housed in a deep litter system where water and feed was provided ad-libitum for eight weeks. Five experimental diets were formulated with inclusion of raw and boiled <em>S. obtusifolia</em> seed meal at two different levels 5% and 10% each for raw and boiled respectively. Diets were coded as T1(Control), T2(5% Raw <em>S. obtusifolia</em> seed meal), T3 (10% Raw S. obtusifolia seed meal), T4 (5% Boiled <em>S. obtusifolia</em> seed meal; (BSOSM first user define) and T5(10% Boiled Senna obtusifolia seed meal), respectively. Data collected from this study on growth performance and hematological parameters were analyzed using general linear model of SAS, 2009. Differences among means were separated using Duncan multiple range test. Result obtained from this study shows that there were significant (P&lt;0.05) differences in final weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed cost/kg gain across treatment groups at the starter and finisher phases. On the other hand, there was no significant (P &gt; 0.05) difference recorded on feed intake, mortality record and all the hematological parameters measured. Birds fed 5% BSOSM had increased weight gain at the starter phase and improved feed conversion ratio in the finisher phase than other treatment groups. Also, birds fed control diet had increased weight gain at the finisher phase and improved feed conversion ratio in the starter phase than other treatment groups. Hematological parameters obtained in this study revealed that there were no significant (p &gt; 0.05) differences across treatment groups. This implies that <em>S. obtusifolia</em> seed meal is safe for feeding broiler birds either raw or boiled with inclusion levels of up to 10% without any adverse effect on the performance.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: Growth performance, hematology, broiler chicken, Senna obtusifolia, Ross breed.</p> R.S. Makama S. Duru P.A. Onimisi O. Moses Copyright (c) 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 22 3 271 278 Effect of ginger (<i>Zingiber officinale</i>) on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of finisher broiler chickens in semi-arid zone of Nigeria <p>A study was conducted to investigate the effects of addition of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) as feed additive on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of finisher broiler chickens. One hundred and forty four (144) finisher broiler chickens were individually weighed (325±6g) and randomly assigned to four dietary treatment groups of thirty six (36). Each group was replicated three times with each replicate comprising of 12 birds. The design was a complete randomized and the study lasted for eight weeks (8). The dietary treatment groups had T1 (0%), T2 (2%), T3 (4%) and T4 (6%) levels of ginger as feed additive. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and where significant differences occurred, means were separated using least significant difference (LSD). The results showed no significant (P&gt;0.05) difference for final weight, daily feed intake and daily weight gain among the dietary treatment groups. Feed conversion values however varied significantly (P&lt;0.05) among treatment. It is concluded that ginger can be included in finisher broiler diet as feed additive without detrimental effects on growth performance. However, finisher broilers fed 6% level as additive performed better compared to their counterparts and is therefore recommended.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Broilers, Ginger, Additive, productive performance and digestibility</p> H. Duwa I.B. Amaza I B. Amaza M.I. Dikko J.B. Raymond U.O. Paullyne Copyright (c) 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 22 3 279 286 Dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance of West African dwarf bucks fed <i>Andropogon tectorum</i> supplemented differently processed cocoyam (<i>Colocasia esculenta</i>) concentrate meal <p>The study aimed to evaluate the dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance by West African dwarf bucks fed Andropogon tectorum supplemented with concentrate diets using differently processed cocoyam based meal in a 4× 4 Latin Square Design. Diets A, 0% cocoyam meal (CM), Diets B, C and D with raw, soaked and toasted processing methods respectively. Four West African dwarf (WAD) bucks averaging 8.28 ± 0.47kg were used. Each buck was housed individually in a metabolism cage with specification for feed and water and also offered the experimental diets (A-D). Each animal received the diet for 24 days. Daily feed intake was determined; while urine and faecal samples were taken for analysis. Results show that among the processing methods, toasted (CM) significantly influenced (P&lt;0.05). Dry matter intake, nitrogen intake, N-balance and absorbed-N, and N-urine. The digestible crude protein (DCP) g-1d-1Wkg0.75, metabolic faecal nitrogen (MFN) (g-1100g DM) were significantly (P&lt;0.05) different among the experimental bucks. The diets promoted positive N-balance.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cocoyam, West African Dwarf goats, Processing methods, Digestibility.</p> G.D. Eyoh Copyright (c) 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 22 3 287 295 Performance and toxicological effects of cooked baobab (<i>Adansonia digitata</i> L.) seed meal on West African dwarf goats <p>Twelve West African dwarf bucks aged 5-7 months of age, and having an average weights 6.67 kg were used to evaluate the effect of cooked baobab seed meal (CBSM) on the performance and blood profile of West Africa dwarf (WAD) goats for 12 weeks. The bucks were distributed into four treatment groups (n=3), using completely randomised design. Baobab seeds were cooked in boiling water for one hour, sun-dried and crushed into a meal. Four diets were compounded and designated; A (0%), B (25%), C (50%) and D (75%) CBSM. Results showed that there were no significant differences (P&gt;0.05) in all the performance indices measured. The mean daily feed intake values (345.50-367.47 g/day) and mean daily weight gains (7.54-17.06 g/day) were similar (P&gt;0.05) across the treatments. Haematological parameters; packed cell volume, white blood cells, haemoglobin, lymphocytes and neutrophils all showed treatment effect (P&lt;0.05). Treatment effects (P&lt;0.05) were also observed in values of serum albumin, serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase and triglyceride among the treatments, however, all the treatment values were within normal ranges. Cooked baobab seed meal up to 75% could be used by farmers as replacement for soybean in the diets of WAD goats with no toxic effects on blood profile or performance.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: West African dwarf goats, <em>Adansonia digitata</em>, performance, toxic effects, blood profile.</p> J.1⃰. Oloche A. Ujor E.E. Oche J.J. Oloche Copyright (c) 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 22 3 296 306 Blood profile of West African dwarf bucks fed <i>Vigna unguiculata</i> L. (cowpea) husk and <i>Gmelina arborea</i> Roxb as basal diet <p>The health implication of Vigna unguiculata L. husk on 20 West African dwarf (WAD) bucks of weights averaging 9.64 kg was investigated in a completely randomized design. Haemato-biochemical profile of the bucks was evaluated in an 84-day study. Four dietary treatments were formulated and compounded to contain 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% of cowpea husk and these were designated T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. Results showed that the packed cell volume (PCV) which was between 29.80 - 34.80% showed significant differences (P&lt;0.05) among the treatment means. T4 (34.80%) was higher (P&lt;0.05) than T2 (29.80%), but similar to the rest treatments. The red blood cells (RBCs) also showed significant difference (P&lt;0.05) among the treatments with a value range of 9.96 - 12.02 x10<sup>6</sup>/μl. The RBCs and haemoglobin values of the bucks in T2 (9.96 x106/μl) and (9.94g/dl) respectively were lower (P&lt;0.05) than the rest treatments. White blood cells (WBC) also showed treatment effect (P&lt;0.05), T1 (11.64 g/dl) was significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) than all the other treatments. All the serum biochemical parameters evaluated were similar (P&gt;0.05) among the treatments. The study demonstrates that inclusion of 75% of cowpea husk in the diets of the buck did not compromise the health of the animals.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Cowpea husk, West African dwarf bucks, haematology, serum biochemistry</p> P.L. Dido J.A. Ayoade J⃰. Oloche Copyright (c) 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 22 3 307 314 Lameness and its associated hematological features among Nigerian breeds of goats in Ibadan, Nigeria <p>Clinical lameness manifesting in various form is one of the commonest condition often encountered in Nigeria with its adverse socio-economic consequences. A total of 96 lame goats were sampled at the livestock markets, Ibadan, Nigeria. Blood samples were aseptically collected into well labeled heparinized bottles from lame goats with signalment such as breed, age, sex and level of severity classified and recorded appropriately. Blood samples were analyzed by adopting standard hematological procedure (manual counts). Lameness was highest in Red Sokoto goats 79.2% and lowest 8.3% in Crossed bred goats. Majority 66.6% were males and 33.3% were females. Lameness was more in young than adult goats, 2-2½year 41.66% and &gt;4year 20.83%. Significant difference (P≤0.05) observed in the values of lymphocytes between breeds with higher values in crossed breed compared to others. There were significant differences (P&lt;0.05) in the values of RBC and platelet counts between age groups, with lower values of (7.13±0.39 and 3.82±0.2) respectively in adult goats. We therefore conclude that lame cross bred goats appeared more resilient with improved hematological features, significant reduction in RBC and platelet counts should be taken into consideration during management of lameness in adult goats in particular.</p> <p><br><strong>Key words</strong>: Breed; Goats; Haematology; Lameness; Nigeria</p> S.C. Olaogun T.E. Oyetoyinbo Copyright (c) 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 22 3 315 324 Comparative performance of West African Dwarf goats fed <i>Alchornea cordifolia</i> and <i>Gliricidia sepium</i> supplemented with <i>Pennisetum purpureum</i> <p><em>Alchornea cordifolia</em> and <em>Gliricidia sepium</em> leaves are widely found and available in Delta State Nigeria, Alchornea is a relatively unexploited browse plant, however much research has been carried out on gliricidia sepuim, with goats on free grazing randomly browsing on Alchornea leaves, thus making it necessary for a comparative study to access its nutritional potentials. Using Completely Randomised Design, Eighteen (18) West African Dwarf (WAD) goats were used to investigate the performance of goats fed Alchornea cordifolia and Gliricidia sepium leaves supplemented with Pennisetum purpureum. The experimental diet consist of <em>Alcornea cordifolia plus Pennisetum purpureum</em> as diet A, <em>Gliricidia sepium plus Pennisetum purpureum</em> as diet B, and a Concentrate plus Pennisetum purpureum as diet C which served as a control diet. All Data collected during this study were subjected to the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and means compared using the Duncan Multiple Range Tests. Goats fed diet A (Alchornea cordifolia plus Pennisetum purpureum) recorded a lower and significant dry matter intake (858g/day) when compared with goats fed Diet B (<em>Gliricidia sepium plus Pennisetum purpureum</em>) (955.33g/day), There was an encouraging weight gain in the various experimental groups. The average weight gain of goats on the experimental diet A (1.22kg), B (1.14kg) and C (1.43kg) were not significantly(p&gt;0.05) different, though goats on the concentrate diet recorded a higher weight gain. On the basis of average weight gain per day (g/day), goats on diet A (<em>Alchornea cordifolia </em>plus<em> Pennisetum purpureum</em>) (13.56g/day) were comparable to goats on diet B (<em>Gliricidia sepium </em>plus<em> Pennisetum purpureum</em>) (12.679g/day). The results from the study shows Alchornea cordifolia leaves as a potential feed for WAD goats</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> <em>Alchornea, Gliricidia,</em> Performance; Comparative;</p> E.P. Irikefe-ekeke G.O. Okagbare G.U. Sorhue Copyright (c) 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 22 3 325 330 Blood profile of Red Sokoto goats fed baobab seed meal fermented at different durations <p>The utilization of baobab seed meals in the diet of ruminants has continued to address the problem of search for non-conventional feed resources which may be available even in the dry season. The study was designed to assess the blood profile of Red Sokoto goats fed a 20 % level of inclusion of baobab seed meal fermented at different duration (24, 48, and 72 hours). Sixteen (16) Red Sokoto bucks with an average weight of 6.96±1.44 kg were used for the study. Four experimental diets were formulated (T1 – T4). T1 was the control diet, while T2, T3, and T4 were 24WFBSM (24 hours water fermented baobab seed meal), 48WFBSM (48 hours water fermented baobab seed meal), and 72WFBSM (72 hours water fermented baobab seed meal), respectively. The experiment lasted for 84 days and was laid in a completely randomized design with four replicates per treatment. The results obtained indicated that the duration of the fermenting period on baobab seed significantly (p&lt;0.05) reduced serum total protein, globulin, zinc, and sodium. Other blood metabolites measured were however not influenced (p&gt;0.05) by the duration period of fermentation. The findings of this study revealed that fermenting baobab seed meal beyond 24 hours is likely to impair some physiological activities of Red Sokoto goats.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: baobab seed, blood profile, fermentation, Red Sokoto goat</p> T.T. Ikyume T. Afele P.P. Kwakwah J.T. Ikyon Z. Shagari Copyright (c) 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 22 3 331 337 Effects of rigor state and muscle type on physicochemical properties, processing and storage stability of two different pig skeletal muscles <p>Twelve (12) growing male Large White x Landrace crossbred pigs, aged 12 weeks and weighing between 25 and 30 kg were used to assess the impact of rigor state on pork quality characteristics with respect to muscle position. Animals were fed on grower’s ration (crude protein = 18.06 %) for 10 weeks. Six pigs per treatment (pre- and post-rigor) were slaughtered at the age of 6 months to evaluate pH, shear force tenderness, water-holding capacity (WHC), cooking and storage losses. Data were subjected to General Linear Model in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. pH was higher (p&lt;0.05) at pre-rigor state than at post-rigor; while those of the back and thigh muscles did not differ significantly. Rigor state did not influence WHC. Higher shear force (p=0.014) of 2.08 kg were observed at pre-rigor state while a lower value (0.16 kg) was obtained post-rigor. Cooking losses were influenced (p=0.000) by rigor state. Thigh muscle had higher refrigeration and freezing thaw losses. It was concluded that pig meat in post-rigor state could yield better quality product in terms of pH value, shear force, tenderness while minimal cooking and storage losses could be achieved at pre-rigor state.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: pig meat; rigor state; muscle position; shear force; cooking loss; storage stability.</p> G.O. Kujero S.S. Abiola J. Daramola Copyright (c) 2020-12-11 2020-12-11 22 3 338 346