Nigerian Journal of Animal Science <p>The <em>Nigerian Journal of Animal Science</em> (NJAS) is an official publication of the Animal Science Association of Nigeria (ASAN) that is published twice a year in two issues. The Journal publishes carefully peer-reviewed original research articles on various farm and laboratory animals covering diverse areas such as production, management, health, physiology, nutrition, feeds and feedstuff, breeding and genetics, reproduction, animal products, biotechnology, socio-economics, extension, farming systems and crop/livestock interactions within the context of sustainable livestock production among others.&nbsp; Review articles should cover new development in a field of livestock production.</p> Animal Science Association of Nigeria (ASAN) en-US Nigerian Journal of Animal Science 1119-4308 <p>Copy right of all published material rests with the<em> Nigerian Journal of Animal Science</em>.</p> Heritability and repeatability estimates of growth traits in FUNAAB Alpha and Noiler chicken genotypes <p><em>Genetic improvement of animals has greatly been encouraged as it has proved very efficient in improving productivity, health status and general management of animals. Hence, this research on heritability and repeatability of growth traits of FUNAAB Alpha and Noiler chickens. The study lasted for eighteen weeks and growth data were collected on weekly basis. Four hundred (400) day-old chicks, with 200 a piece for the two chicken genotypes were generated from parent stocks (5 cocks and 25 hens per genotype) with good pedigree data. Growth data were analysed using Generalized Linear Model of SAS and least significant difference (LSD) test was used to separate significant means. Computed variances and covariances of Generalized Linear Model of SAS were used to estimate heritability and repeatability of growth traits of interest. Noiler chicken genotype had a better body weight and linear body measurements from week ten to eighteen. Noiler male chickens were superior in all traits considered from week twelve to eighteen for genotype by sex interaction. Heritability and repeatability estimates were generally high in both chicken genotypes for all traits at the early stage while a decline was observed at the late stage. The highest heritability estimates for body weight observed at week seven in Noiler chicken and all linear body measurements (body circumference, breast girth, shank length, thigh length and wing length) observed at weeks 4, 12, 4, 2 and 4, respectively in FUNAAB Alpha is an indication that breeders can select for these traits at the aforementioned weeks. </em></p> A.J. Sanda M.N Beji M. Wheto A.O. Oso M.O. Sanda O. Olowofeso Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 1 17 Growth performance and carcass characteristics of F<sub>1</sub> progenies of local x exotic chicken crosses <p><em>Growth performance and carcass characteristics of F</em><em>1 </em><em>progenies of local hen (Black and Brown normal feathered) and exotic male (Ross 308 and Arbor Acre) strains were evaluated. Base population had 60 dams, 30 each of Brown and Black phenotype and 24 exotic sires, 12 each of Arbor Acre and Ross 308. The experiment had 4 genetic groups – Ross 308 sire x Brown dam (A</em><em>1</em><em>R</em><em>1</em><em>), Ross 308 x Black dam (A</em><em>1</em><em>R</em><em>2</em><em>), Arbor Acre sire x Brown dam (A</em><em>2</em><em>R</em><em>1</em><em>) and Arbor Acre sire x Black dam (A</em><em>2</em><em>R</em><em>2</em><em>). Growth performance traits measured were final body weight, daily feed intake, average daily weight gain (ADWG), FCR and mortality. Body weight (BW) and linear body traits (LBM) – thigh length (TL), shank length (SL), breast width (BWDT), body length (BL), wing length (WL), keel length (KL), drumstick (DS) were measured as well as carcass and organ traits. Results of growth performance traits showed significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher final BW, ADWG and better FCR in A</em><em>1</em><em>R</em><em>1 </em><em>progenies. Significant (P&lt;0.05) differences were observed among the four strains for BWDT, DS, BW. KL. SL and WL. It was also observed that F</em><em>1 </em><em>progenies of A</em><em>1</em><em>R</em><em>1 </em><em>recorded significantly (P&lt;0.05) longer TL, SL, KL, WL, and BL and weighed heavier. Carcass and organ traits showed significant (P&lt;0.05) differences among the genotypes. F</em><em>1 </em><em>progenies of A</em><em>1</em><em>R</em><em>1 </em><em>were significantly (P&lt;0.05) different from the other genotypes. It was concluded that genetic variation exists among the progenies for the traits and that Ross 308 x Brown local dams is best suited for improving the local stock in the study area. </em></p> O. M. Obike E. I. Chijioke K. L. Akinsola O. C. Ezimoha U. C. Isaac U. K. Oke Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 18 29 Comparative study of feeding frequencies on growth characteristics of four strains of broiler chickens <p><em>The poultry industry has evolved in recent years owing to the high demand for chicken meat. However, about 60 to 70% of broiler production cost is on feed. Thus, it becomes critical to make concerted efforts to reduce feed cost without compromising overall poultry productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding the birds twice (12 hourly) or thrice (8 hourly) on some growth characteristics of the birds. The birds were fed using commercially compounded broiler feeds [Starter (0-4 weeks) and Finisher (5-10 weeks)]. Data collected on weight was subjected to preliminary exploratory boxplot and normality analyses, and at the end of the study total of 211 of the original 304 birds were statistically evaluated. Strain, feeding frequency and sex all exerted significant (P&lt;0.05) influence albeit at varying levels, on growth parameters. The model explained 36.2 percent of total variation with each of the factors respectively accounting for 33.23%, 1.37% and 1.60%. The largest source of variation was from the differences in strain, while the least was recorded on the feeding frequency. The study revealed that twice daily (12 hourly) feeding had a better impact on the parameters studied, while the male had superior performance over the female and difference due to strain was only pronounced in the Marshall which had the least values in all parameters studied. It is therefore recommended that broiler birds are fed twice daily (12 hourly), thereby reducing labour cost and frequency of disturbance to the birds. </em></p> K. O. Kareem-Ibrahim O.T.F. Abanikannda S. Nwadialo M.F. Demehin Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 30 38 Modeling growth of Nigerian indigenous and tropically adapted chicken genotypes using developmental parameters <p><em>The possibility of modeling growth with the aim of visualizing growth patterns over time, and generating equations that can be used to predict the expected weight of the animal at specific age could be an impetus for optimization of farmer’s livelihood. The weekly body weight of 993 off-springs of seven genotypes of chicken, consisting of Nera Black-NB, White Leghorn-WL, Giriraja-GR, Naked Neck-NN, Frizzle Feather-FF, Normal Feather-NF and FUNAAB Alpha chicken-BA, were fitted to Logistic, Gompertz, Richards and Bertalanffy growth model using the procedure of NLIN (Marquart algorithm) based on Restricted Maximum Likelihood approach (ReML). The study revealed that GR chickens performed better than other genotypes, while BA had superior performance compared to the indigenous and the WL chickens. However, among the indigenous, the performance of NN chickens was best. There was a negative correlated relationship observed between asymptotic weight (A) and maturing rate (k). Gompertz model best fit the chicken data according to Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC) for FF, NF, and GR while Richards model on the other hand, had better fit for NN, NB and WL. Bertalanffy model was the best for BA chicken. The study concludes that high k will produce smaller A. Furthermore, mixing of improved exotic genes with the indigenous produces improved and better adapted genotypes in BA. AIC and BIC with ReML approach presented Gompertz model with wide applicability among the indigenous chickens while Richards model fit well for the locally adapted exotic chickens. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> O.S. Abe B.M. Ilori M.O. Ozoje Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 39 49 Effect of drinking magnetized water on immunity and carcass quality of broiler chicken <p><em>This study was conducted to determine the effect of drinking Magnetized Water (MW) on the immunity of broiler chicken. The problem which this study focused on was the mortality rate of broiler chicken which is common in some poultry farms in Nigeria due to some factors that could lead to loss of income. There is a need for economical methods for boosting the immunity of Broiler Chicken (BC) in order to reduce the mortality rate. BC (Arbor Acres breed) was given MW. The magnetized water was produced by passing water through the magnetic field in a pipe. The treatments were MW treated for 33s by passing the water through pipe surrounded with magnets one time(T</em><em>1</em><em>), MW treated for 66 s by flowing twice through the magnetic unit (T</em><em>2</em><em>), T</em><em>3 </em><em>was MW treated for 99 s and control (Non-Magnetized Water, NMW, T</em><em>0</em><em>). A total of 80 BCs (day old) with 20 BC for each treatment were given MW (T</em><em>1</em><em>, T</em><em>2 </em><em>and T</em><em>3</em><em>), NMW and monitored for 7 weeks. Blood samples were collected for hematology and analyzed using standard methods. </em>The values of white blood cell for T0, T1, T2 and T3 were 153.61×10-9/L, 133.20×10-9/L, 134.78×10-9/L and 101.12×10-9/L and for lymphocytes, were 137.08×10-9/L, 120.79×10-9/L, 125.49×10-9/L and 96.12×10-9/L, respectively. MW T1, T2 and T3 increased body weight gain of the BC by 410, 320 and 210g/broiler. Protein contents of the carcass for T1, T2, T3 and T0 were 13.13%, 13.23%, 13.18% and 12.80%, respectively. MW can therefore enhance production of healthy broiler chickens.</p> O. S. Akande K. O. Yusuf O. A. Iyiola Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 50 59 Sperm abnormalities and libido assessment of West African dwarf rams fed diets containing <i>Tetrapleura tetraptera (African Porridge</i>) fruit meal <p><em>The effect of Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit meal (TTFM) on the sperm abnormalities and libido test of West African Dwarf rams was assessed in a 20 week study. Thirty five (35) West African dwarf rams weighing between 12.80 and 13.20kg were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The diets formulated: 0% TTFM, 0.5% TTFM, 1.0% TTFM, 1.5% TTFM and 2.0% TTFM as treatments 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. Libido assessment was carried out at 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16</em><em>th </em><em>weeks of the experiment. Semen was collected twice at the beginning and at the end of the experiment from five replicates in each treatment using electro- ejaculator. The results showed that the libido increased progressively with the inclusion of TTFM which was only significantly different (p&lt;0.05) at 16</em><em>th </em><em>week. The best libido was observed with rams fed diets containing 1.5 and 2.0% TTFM. The sperm abnormalities were minimal in all parameters except in abnormal head which ranged from 0.4-1.20% with diet 4 exhibited the most abnormal head. It was therefore concluded that the TTFM can be incorporated between 1.5% and 2.0% into diet of rams to improve the sex drive and reduced sperm abnormalities. </em></p> K. B. Jinadu B.O. Oluwatosin O. A. Oderinwale A. O. Adekanbi A. O. Akingbade A. O. Adeosun O. T. Olagbaju T. A. Olaniyi T. A. Odefisayo Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 60 67 Mapping of beef cattle value chain actors in selected states of North-West Zone, Nigeria <p><em>This study was aimed at mapping of the various actors of the beef cattle value chain and their functional roles. A multi-stage sampling technique was employed in the selection of the respondents. A sample size of 576 value chain actors consisting of 120 beef cattle farmers, 60 beef cattle traders, 36 butchers, 60 raw beef marketers, 60 processed beef marketers and 240 consumers. The study made use of primary data which were obtained through the use of a computer-aided personal interview (CAPI) version of survey instrument rather than a paper-based questionnaire. Data were collected on production, marketing and consumption components of beef cattle value chain activities. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. The results revealed that beef cattle value chain actors do not perform only one primary value chain activity but perform other value chain activities as secondary activities. This multiplicity of functions carried out by some of the beef cattle value chain actors implies that the beef cattle value chain is not a linear and straightforward chain where each actor is specialized in one activity. It can be concluded that beef cattle value chain activities involve a complex interrelationship in the activities carried out by the different actors in the physical flow of beef from farm to fork. It is therefore recommended that government should intervene in the area of linking actors in the value chain to prospective markets in order for the actors to benefit from the various activities. </em></p> G. Z. Rekwot Z. Abdulsalam R. T. Sani D.D. Dung Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 68 80 Digestibility and nutrient intake of African Giant Land Snails (<i>Archachatina marginata</i>) hatchlings fed municipal organic waste with foliage and grass/legume <p><em>Snails are important kind of micro livestock in the animal industry with a wide range of economic value and significance, the study determined the digestibility and nutrient intake of African Giant Land Snails (Archachatina marginata) hatchlings fed municipal organic waste, foliage or grass/legume using Completely Randomized Design. The experiment had four (4) treatments with five (5) replicates each, the experimental diets were diet 1 (100% municipal organic waste), diet 2 (100% grasses), diet 3 (75% grasses and 25% legume) and diet 4 (100% foliage). There were 25 hatchlings per replicate. The experiment lasted for 120 days. Snail hatchlings fed experimental diet 4, maintained higher significant (P&lt;0.05) results for diet protein intake, digestible protein for growth, total digestible protein for gain, digestible protein, gross protein value, protein replacement value, and a better protein utilization efficiency. Dietary fibre intake was (P&lt;0.05) higher on diet 3, 2 and 1, lower on diet 4, digestible fibre for growth showed (P&lt;0.05) higher and similar values for diet 4 and 1, lower values for diet 3 and 2, digestible fibre and fibre replacement value decreased (P&lt;0.05) in the order diet, 2, 3, 1 and 4, for efficiency of fibre utilization, diet 2 and 3 showed better fibre utilization efficiency. Dietary fat intake, digestible fat, fat replacement value showed (P&lt;0.05) higher for diet 1, and with a better fat utilization efficiency. Snail’s micro-biota had high substrates dependency role on the quality of feed nutrient utilization in a symbiotic mechanism that helped in the breakdown and digestion of feed materials. </em></p> C. A. Agida E. A. Etim I. M. Aroh Z. A. Akanni H. C. Chime R. O. Adesola N. M. Anigbogu Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 81 90 Effect of finisher diets of different crude protein levels on carcass yield and abdominal fat pads of roaster chickens raised on tri-phase feeding regime <p><em>Excessive fat deposition in poultry carcass can reduce carcass and processing yields especially in broiler chickens, hence the need to reduce it through dietary manipulations. One hundred and twenty finisher broilers were used to investigate the effect of different crude protein levels on carcass yield and abdominal fat pads of roasters raised on tri-phase feeding regime. The feeding trial comprised of a starter phase (0-4 weeks), a grower phase (4-8 weeks) and a finisher phase (8-12 weeks) on broiler finisher diets of varying crude protein levels. Treatment (T1) (control) had no restriction but fed commercial finisher diet from 4-12 weeks after brooding. T 2 (four weeks growth restriction on grower diet after brooding and finishing to 12 weeks on 18% crude protein. T3 (four weeks growth restriction on grower diet after brooding and finishing to 12 weeks on 19% crude protein . T4 (four weeks growth restriction on grower diet after brooding and finishing to 12 weeks on 20% crude protein . Two birds per replicate were slaughtered at twelve weeks of age to evaluate the carcass and internal organs. Restricted groups on 18% CP had significantly higher carcass yield. Abdominal fat was significantly higher in the control. Carcass yield of growth-restricted roasters was influenced by crude protein levels of the finisher diets while abdominal fat was reduced by both restriction to retard growth and the high fiber content of the grower and finisher diets. 19 and 20% crude protein levels in finisher diets with high fibre content produced low carcass weight in nutrient/growth restricted broilers. </em></p> V. N. Meremikwu Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 91 96 Survey of cattle rearing by herdsmen in Lagos State, Nigeria <p><em>The incidence of clashes between herders and crop farmers elsewhere necessitated the survey of cattle rearing by herdsmen in Lagos State to obtain baseline information on the herders, their cattle and the commonly grazed forages. Self-administered questionnaires were administered on the herders in Epe, Badagry and Ikorodu Local Government areas being the agrarian zones of Lagos State. Data obtained were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results on the socio-economic characteristics showed that all the respondents that reared cattle were male and mostly (77%) married. About 70% of respondents have been in the business for over 20 years. 70% of the farmers attended only Quranic school. They mostly (63%) lived with their family who assisted in milk processing. The breeds of cattle reared were White Fulani (50%), Keteku (20%), Sokoto Gudali (20%) and others 10%. The herd size of respondents varied between 11-20 bulls (73%), 16-30 cows (57%) and 20 calves (50%). Most (57%) of the herders grazed their cattle for one to four hours daily. Respondents (67%) also reported incidence of clashes with crop farmers which were settled by the community leaders through restitution. Continuous grazing was mostly (70%) practiced. The commonest forages selected were; Panicum maximum, Chromolaena odorata, Sida acuta, Centrosema pubescens and Tridax procumbens. It is concluded that cattle herders and the residents cohabit in Lagos State. </em></p> A.R. Asafa T.A. Okeowo M.A. Buraimo Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 97 102 Blood profile of starter broiler chickens fed diet containing leaf meal composite as alternative to commercial broiler premix <p><em>The need to explore and harness the potentials of green vegetable plants as part replacement for the more expensive conventional vitamin-mineral premix is of great importance. One hundred and eighty starter broiler chickens were used in a four-week experiment to determine the effect of varying levels of Leaf Meal Composite (LMC) as an alternative to vitamin-mineral premix using Telfairia occidentalis, Vernonia amygdalina, Piper quinenses and Ipomea batata on the growth, haematology, and serum biochemical profile of starter broiler chickens. The chicks were allocated to six dietary treatments each having thirty birds, replicated thrice with ten birds each in a Completely Randomized Design. The composite leaf meal was blended at the ratio 1:1:1:1 and inclusion level was 0.00 (0.25% premix), 0.125 (0.125% premix), 0.063 (0.0% premix), 0.125 (0.0% premix), 0.188 (0.0% premix) and 0.25% (0.0% premix) at the expense of a commercial premix and designated diets 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 respectively.Treatment one (T1) served as the control. </em>The birds were weighed on a weekly basis. At the 4th week of the experiment, blood samples were collected from one bird randomly selected from each replicate per treatment for the evaluation of haematological and serum parameters. <em>Data was obtained for analysis. The growth performance result reveals that the Average Daily Feed Intake (ADFI), Average Daily Weight Gain (ADWG), Total Feed Intake (TFI) and Final Body Weight (FBW) were all significantly (P&lt;0.05) affected by the dietary treatments. Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) was not significantly (P&gt;0.05) different among all treatment groups including the control, although, the control was numerically lower than T2, T3 and T6 while T4 and T5 were lower than the control. The blood profile result reveals that the LMC was not toxic to the birds, had superior disease fighting ability and were not anaemic. All the treatment levels were significant for mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration, (MCHC). aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) reduced with increasing concentration of LMC, the test material was not toxic to the liver. Total Globulin and Glucose level reduced with increasing concentration of LMC. Leaf meal is effective in reducing fat deposition. It can be concluded conceivably within the limit of this study that this leaf meal composite had no detrimental effect on the growth, haematology and serum biochemical profile of starter broiler chicken and can be used to replace commercial Vitamin-Mineral premix. Hence, LMC could help to stem over dependence of broiler farmers on importation of commercial Vitamin-Mineral premix. </em></p> D. N. Onunkwo U. E. Ufot B. N. Ezenyilimba J. N Omumuabuike F. C Ezeoke Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 103 110 Effect of selenium supplementation on growth, haematological and serum biochemical profile of rabbit bucks <p><em>A study was conducted to determine growth, haematological and serum biochemical profile of rabbit’s bucks fed graded levels of selenium. A total of 20 mixed breed of rabbits aged between 6–8 weeks with an average weight of 756g were randomly assigned to four (4) dietary treatments with five (5) bucks per treatment with each rabbit as replicate in a completely randomized design. The rabbits were fed (0.0 mg/kg, 0.2 mg/kg, 0.4 mg/kg and 0.6 mg/kg) for a period of twelve weeks. The growth parameters were taken on weekly basis and blood samples were taken from ear vein via venipuncture from three bucks selected randomly from each treatment for haematological and blood chemistry in laboratory at twelfth week. The data collected were analysed using General Linear Model Procedure of SAS. The growth performance showed that those fed 0.4 mg/kg selenium had higher values except for feed conversion ratio (FCR) for those on 0 mg/kg selenium had the best FCR. The packed cell volume was significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher at 0, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg selenium compared to 0.6 mg/kg inclusion level. It was observed that lymphocyte count for rabbit bucks on 0.0 and 0.6 mg/kg were significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher than those on 0.2 mg/ and 0.4 mg/kg. Aspartate transaminase (16.00-39.33IU/l) and alkaline phosphatase (102.00-286.00) were significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher at 0.2 mg/kg selenium. It was observed that selenium inclusion improved growth parameters at 0.4 mg/kg addition while selenium inclusion increased alkaline phosphatase and Aspartate transaminase in blood serum biochemical profile of rabbit bucks. </em></p> B.A. Onoja I. Mallam Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 111 117 Effect of different feed types on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of male and female weaner rabbits <p><em>Feed components affect blood constituents and less consideration is often given to health status of the animals used in feeding trials either with conventional or non-conventional feedstuffs; hence, blood analysis is usually carried out in order to assess the degree of well-being of such animal. A total of ninety (forty-five males and forty-five females) weaner rabbits with weight ranging from 790-830 grammes were used to investigate the effect of different feed types on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of weaner rabbits in first and second phase, respectively. The rabbits were allotted into 10 treatments after weight equalization on the basis of sex and different dietary groups (100% mash, 100% pellet, 50% mash + 50% Sunflower leaf, 50% pellet + 50% Sunflower leaf, and 100% Sunflower leaf) in a 2x5 factorial arrangement, with each treatment consisting of 9 rabbits; each treatment was further subdivided into 3 replicates and 3 rabbits per each replicate. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. Data were collected on blood profile (haematology: packed cell volume – PCV, red blood cell counts – RBC, white blood cell counts – WBC, haemoglobin – Hb, lymphocytes, mean corpuscular and haemoglobin concentration – MCHC; serum biochemical indices: total serum protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, cholesterol, alkaline phosphate – ALP and aspartate transferase – AST) at the end of the 6</em><em>th </em><em>and 10</em><em>th </em><em>weeks of the experiment from one rabbit per replicate. All data generated were arranged in a 2 × 5 factorial layout and subjected to one-way analysis of variance in a completely randomized design. Results at 6</em><em>th </em><em>week revealed both male and female rabbits fed combinations of concentrate and sunflower had the highest (p&lt;0.05) red blood cell counts. Total protein and albumin were highest (p&lt;0.05) in male rabbits than female rabbits. Serum indices of male rabbits fed 100% sunflower had the highest (p&lt;0.05) values of total protein, albumin, urea, and creatinine. At the 10</em><em>th </em><em>week, Packed cell volume and red blood cell were highest (p&lt;0.05) in females fed 100% pellet. Red blood cells, neutrophils, urea, and creatinine were higher (p&lt;0.05) in males than females. Females fed 100% pellet had the highest (p&lt;0.05) values of urea, creatinine, and cholesterol. It was concluded that sex had no detrimental effect on haematological parameters and serum biochemical indices. However, feeding rabbits 100% forage reduced the ability of rabbits to fight infection resulting from reduced lymphocyte. </em></p> Olapeju Ayo-Ajasa Basheerat Akani Grace Falade Olajide Sogunle Lawrence Egbeyale John Abiona Adeboye Fafiolu Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 118 130 Nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed diets containing varying inclusion levels of acha offal supplemented with Maxigrain<sup>®</sup> enzyme <p><em>Conventional feed ingredients used in formulating feed most especially cereals and protein sources obtained from maize and soybean are scarce and expensive because they suffer stiff competition with channels in the food chain that commands higher priority and which can pay higher prices than the compound feed industry. Acha (Digitaria exilis) offal is one of the non-conventional feedstuffs and has been advocated to replace maize in the diet of rabbits. This study aimed at determining the nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed diets containing varying levels of Acha Offal (AO) supplemented with Maxigrain</em><em>® </em><em>enzymes. Forty eight (48) rabbits of mixed breeds and similar live weight (0.4-0.9kg) were used in two experiments consisting of weaner and grower phases which lasted 42 days each. Six treatments diets namely T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 were compounded to be isocaloric of 2700kcal/kg and iso-nitrogenous of (18% crude protein) for weaner phase while (15% crude protein) and isocaloric of 2500kcal/kg for grower phase. Each treatment was replicated 4 times with 2 rabbits each arranged in a 3x2 factorial fitted into Completely Randomized Design having AO (0, 15 and 30%) and enzyme (0 and 200ppm) as the main factors. Feed and water were provided to the rabbits daily and all standard routine management practices were strictly observed throughout the experiment. Similarly, at the end of the feeding trial of each phase, faecal samples were collected from two rabbits in each of the 6 units for proximate analyses. At weaner phase; Rabbits on 30% acha offal recorded higher digestibility of Crude Protein (CP) (75.55%) and Crude Fibre (CF) (30.73%) than those on 0 and 15% AO. There was significant (P&lt;0.05) increased digestibility of Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) in 0% (21.58%) and 30% (21.33%) diets than 15%. Rabbits fed 15% (11.25%) and 30% (10.80%) AO diets showed improvement in the digestibility of Acid detergent Fibre (ADF) than on 0%. Diets supplemented with 200ppm enzyme recorded higher (P&gt;0.05) digestibility of Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE) (36.50%) and acid detergent lignin (29.25%) but decreased CP (70.67%) and hemicellulose (36.67%) digestibility.T5 had significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher CP (81.10%) and lower NFE (13.05%) than the rest of the treatments. During the growing phase; 0% AO showed significant (P&lt;0.05) lower CF (28.69%) digestibility than 15(35.13%) and 30% (36.42%) diets. There was no significant (P&gt;0.05) effect of enzyme between the diets in all the parameters measured except in NFE where 0ppm (37.05%) had significant (P&lt;0.05) increased digestibility than 200ppm (36.73%) enzyme. There was significant (P&lt;0.05) higher digestibility of nitrogen free extract in T3 (37.35%) although not significant (P&gt;0.05) different from T1 and T2. However, T6 (36.58%) showed lower significant (P&lt;0.05) digestibility of NFE and was not different (P&gt;0.05) from T1, T4 and T5. Based on the results of this research; acha offal 30% and supplemented with 200ppm Maxigrain</em><em>® </em><em>enzyme in the diets of rabbits had no adverse effect in their ability to digest the nutrient therein. </em></p> J.A. Azi S.E. Alu Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 131 140 Effects of garlic (<i>Allium sativum</i>) and ginger (<i>Zingiber officinale</i>) powders on the growth performance and haematology of broiler chickens <p><em>Antibiotics have been in use as growth promoters and chemotherapeutics over the years in poultry production. This leaves antibiotic resistance in the microorganisms which invariably is transferred to animal and human end users of poultry. However, medicinal plants can substitute the orthodox antibiotics since they are less likely to constitute antibiotic resistance. Therefore, eight-week study was carried out to assess the effects of garlic and ginger on the growth and haematology of broilers. Ninety-nine day-old Abor-acre chicks were allotted in completely randomized design to three treatments of T</em><em>1 </em><em>(control), T</em><em>2 </em><em>(1% garlic) and T</em><em>3 </em><em>(1% ginger). Each treatment was replicated thrice with 11 chicks per replicate. Acclimatization to the environment lasted for 2 weeks. The birds received the experimental diets for 8 weeks during which growth performance parameters were measured and blood was collected from any three birds per replicate for haematology. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and means separated with Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. The results showed weight gain, FCR and mortality being significant (p&gt;0.05) in T</em><em>3 </em><em>and T</em><em>2 </em><em>but differed (p&lt;0.05) from T</em><em>1. </em><em>There was no significant difference (p&gt;0.05) in feed intake. The T</em><em>3 </em><em>and T</em><em>2 </em><em>were statistically similar (p&gt;0.05) but differed (p&lt;0.05) from T</em><em>1 </em><em>with respect to PCV, Hb, TWBC, neutrophil and MCHC. They were significant differences (p&lt;0.05) in RBC. Generally, the T</em><em>3 </em><em>outperformed the rest of the groups in growth and haematology. It can be concluded that garlic and ginger at inclusion levels of 1 % apiece enhanced the growth and haematology. </em></p> C.R. Unigwe I.R. Igwe Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 141 153 Effects of diet supplementation with copper sulphate on growth performance and heamatological parameters of broiler chickens <p><em>Diets of ninety-six day-old Abor-acre chicks were supplemented with different levels of copper sulphate (CuSO</em><em>4</em><em>) to assess the growth performance and haematological parameters. The birds were conventionally brooded for two weeks after which they got allotted to; T</em><em>1 </em><em>(control), T</em><em>2 </em><em>(100 mg CuSO</em><em>4 </em><em>kg</em><em>-1</em><em>), T</em><em>3 </em><em>(200 mg CuSO</em><em>4 </em><em>kg</em><em>-1</em><em>)</em><em>, </em><em>and T</em><em>4 </em><em>(300 mg CuSO</em><em>4 </em><em>kg</em><em>-1 </em><em>of diet), in a completely randomized design. Each treatment had three replicates (n = 8). The supplements were given for 49 days during which feed intake and weekly weight gain were recorded. At the 49</em><em>th </em><em>day (63 day old), blood was aseptically collected via the wing vein using sterile syringe and needle for haematological studies. All data were subjected to analysis of variance and means separated using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. The results showed that T</em><em>3 </em><em>had superior (p&lt;0.05) weight gain and best FCR with enhanced feed intake similar (p&gt;0.05) to T</em><em>1 </em><em>and T</em><em>2 </em><em>but differed (p&lt;0.05) from T</em><em>4 </em><em>that had the worst growth performance. PCV, Hb and RBC of treated groups differed (p&lt;0.05) from T</em><em>1 </em><em>that recorded the least haematological values. The WBC and its differentials did not statistically differ (p&gt;0.05) except eosinophils where T</em><em>3 </em><em>spiked above others though statistically similar to T</em><em>1 </em><em>and T</em><em>4 </em><em>whereas T</em><em>2 </em><em>was the least. It could be concluded that CuSO</em><em>4 </em><em>supplementations at 100 and 200 mg kg</em><em>-1 </em><em>diets had beneficial effects on growth performance whereas there was no detrimental effect of CuSO</em><em>4 </em><em>supplementations on all the haematological parameters of the broilers. </em></p> C.R. Unigwe C. Njoku O. Orakwue Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 154 162 Nutritional and industrial applications of broiler chickens feather – a review <p><em>Broiler chicken feather is one of the greatest protein-containing poultry by-products that has been scantily reused. Nigeria is reported to have the largest population of chickens in Africa. Consequently, enormous quantities of feathers are generated as by-products of the processing of these chickens. These feathers are often dumped at dump sites where they constitute environmental nuisance and thus pollute underground water. Broiler chickens feather has been reported to contain crude protein content of between 82-87% that could be incorporated into diets of broiler chickens as feather meal after subjecting them to appropriate processing procedures such as boiling at high temperature or enzymatic treatment in order to denature its anti-nutrient called keratins. The use of broiler chickens feather as organic fertilizer in crop production and as raw material in the textile industry has also gained relevance, especially in the developed world. This paper, therefore, reviews the nutritional potentials of broiler chickens feather in promoting better meat quality as well as other useful industrial applications that could enhance effective recycling of this major by-product of the poultry industry towards reducing or eliminating environmental pollution with the broiler chicken feathers. </em></p> M.H. Abu G.P. Okolo S. Eboh Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 163 174 Haematological parameters, lipid and hormonal profile of heat stressed broilers fed beniseed (<i>sesamum indicum</i>) oil <p><em>High ambient temperature (above 30°C) in the tropics has been reported to cause negative effect on growth, feed efficiency and survivability of chicks in poultry production leading to increased cost of production with consequent low profit for farmers as well as impacting negatively on the welfare of the animals. The effect of Sesamum indicum oil on haematological parameters and lipid profile of heat stressed broilers was examined in this study. One hundred and sixty day old Ross broiler chicks were assigned in a completely randomized design to five treatments and four replicate groups of eight (8) chicks each which were fed ad libitum for 42 days. The diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirement of the birds. Sesamum indicum (SSO) replaced dietary maize at 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8% on equi-energy basis throughout the feeding trial. From day 28 to 42, all broilers were challenged by heat stress of 29±1°C for 10h per day. Most of the hematology parameters measured were unaffected by SSO diets, except for heterophils, lymphocytes and their ratio at 4% SSO diet which thus showed superiority in coping with heat stress. </em></p> K. Y. Oganija D. F. Apata Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 175 181 Whole cassava root meal from TME419 cassava variety can support performance and health of growing rabbits as dietary energy source <p><em>A total of thirty-six (36) growing (6-8 weeks old) New Zealand and Haliquine rabbits of both sexes were used to evaluate performance and health status of rabbits fed fermented whole cassava root meal (WCRM, TME419 Cassava variety) with enzyme supplementation. The rabbits were allotted to experimental groups in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement comprising three fermentation durations (0, 3 and 5days) and inclusion of enzyme (0, 0.5%) as factors in a randomized complete block design. The diets were designated as D</em><em>0- </em><em>(Basal diet (WCRM) without ensiling and no enzyme supplementation), D</em><em>0+ </em><em>(Basal diet (WCRM) without ensiling with enzyme supplementation), D</em><em>3- </em><em>(Basal diet (WCRM) with three days ensiling without enzyme supplementation), D</em><em>3+ </em><em>(Basal diet (WCRM) with three days ensiling with enzyme supplementation), D</em><em>5- </em><em>(Basal diet (WCRM) with five days ensiling without enzyme supplementation) and D</em><em>5+ </em><em>(Basal diet (WCRM) with five days ensiling with enzyme supplementation). The performance, hematological and serum biochemical indices were not significantly (P&gt;0.05) influenced by fermentation and enzyme inclusion. It is therefore concluded that TME419 cassava variety can be fed to growing rabbits without fermentation or enzyme inclusion. </em></p> O. D. Olamilusi H. A. Awojobi D. B. Oke Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 182 191 Nutritional evaluation of cassava root meal fortified with roselle seed meal as a replacement for maize on growth response and blood profile of broiler chicks <p><em>A major challenge diminishing the profitability and sustainability of the poultry industry is the astronomic increase in price of feed ingredient such as maize which is progressively eroding off the expected profit margin of poultry farmers. A total of two hundred and forty (240), day-old broiler chicks were used in four weeks feeding trial to investigate the effect of fermented cassava root fortified with roselle seed meal as a replacement for maize on growth performance and blood profiles of broiler chicks. Maize is the main energy source for the control diet (T1) while the other five diets (T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 were partially replaced with varying levels of cassava root meal – roselle seed meal (CRM-RSM) mixture at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% inclusion rates respectively. The broiler chicks were weighed and allotted to six dietary treatments of 40 birds each. The groups were replicated four times in a completely randomized design of 10 birds per replicate. Parameters measured for growth response include: Initial weight, final weight, total weight gain, daily weight gain, total feed intake, daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio. Dietary treatments evoked significant (P &lt; 0.05) effect on final weight, total weight gain and daily weight gain. Higher statistical (P &lt; 0.05) values of 1153.33g and 1193.33g were recorded for final weight in the birds fed 0% and 10% CRM-RSM. Birds fed diets with 20% and 30% CRM-RSM, inclusion revealed similar statistical values 1133.33g and 1116.67g for final weight. With the exemption of neutrophil, graded level of CRM-RSM showed significant (P&lt;0.05) influence on haematological parameters determined. Values recorded for packed cell volume PCV ranged between 38.50 – 45.00% and did not follow any specific trend. In conclusion, inclusion of cassava – roselle seed mixture up to 30% replacement level for maize improved growth performance without hazardous effect on starter broiler chicks.</em></p> A. B. Tirmidhi M. A. Oguntoye B. A. Ardo A. R. Akintunde I. M. Joshua Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 192 200 Growth performance, carcass traits and cost benefits of feeding weaner rabbits with leafy multinutrient miniblock <p><em>Study on the formulation and production of leafy multi-nutrient blocks ((control, MNB1, MNB 2 and MNB 3) for feeding rabbits using Pawpaw and Tridax leaves at ratios 0:0, 1:1, 3:2, 7:3 was conducted. Ninety-six, 7-week-old weaner rabbits with average body weight of 406.67</em><em>+ </em><em>0.01 g were divided into four treatments. Treatments were replicated twelve times. Experimental treatments were arranged in a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) and the feeding trial lasted 10 weeks. Result revealed that final live weight, weight gains, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were significantly influenced by the dietary treatments.The lowest feed conversion ratio (4.79) was observed in the group fed MNB 3. Significantly (P&lt;0.05) highest carcass dress weight percentage was observed among the rabbits fed MNB 3. Diets significantly influenced legs, loin, thigh and gastrointestinal weights with MNB3 rabbits having the highest values except the GIT. The cost benefits revealed that N661.02 were incurred on MNB3 and N1344 on control. Furthermore N149.21 and N309.55 were the costs saved on MNB1 and MNB2 respectively as against control (N682.98) which is higher than MNB1 and MNB2 mini block. Feeding MNB formulation favoured rabbits fed MNB 3. It was evident in this study that inclusion of pawpaw and tridax leaves at ratio 7:3 in MNB diets encouraged better performance and carcass yield in rabbits. </em></p> O.P.A. Idowu L.T. Egbeyale A.T. Amos E.A. Adeyeye O.M.O. Idowu M.O. Ozoje O.M. Sogunle Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 201 211 Influence of manure application during cultivation on <i>in vitro</i> gas and post incubation parameters of nine <i>Pennisetum purpureum</i> varieties <p><em>Forages are generally available in the tropics yet the issue related with their utilization is low efficiency and nutritional contents whereby seasonal variations in pasture productivity were the significant constraint to their availability for use throughout the year. This research was carried out to evaluate the Influence of manure application during cultivation on in vitro gas production and post-incubation parameters of nine (9) different Pennisetum purpureum varieties. The experiment was a 9 x 3 factorial arrangement in split plot design which comprises of nine (9) P. purpureum varieties (Abeokuta 1, Abeokuta 2, F</em><em>1 </em><em>Hybrid, Green Local, Purple Local, Sugarcane, South Africa, S</em><em>13 </em><em>and S</em><em>15</em><em>) and three (3) manure types (control, swine and cattle). Results showed that the in vitro gas production of different P. purpureum varieties as affected by manure type were significant (p &lt; 0.05). Unfertilized varieties had the highest volume of gas produced (17.14ml/200mgDM) at the end of the 48 hours incubation periods and the green local variety recorded the gas volume of 18.33ml/200mgDM at the end of the 48hours incubation. The post incubation parameters showed that manure type (p&gt;0.05) had no effect on the short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and Metabolizable energy (ME) in the varieties of P. purpureum while the values for organic matter digestibility (OMD) was significantly (p &lt; 0.05) ranged from 33.68% in unfertilized varieties to 35.72% when swine manure was applied. It is concluded that green variety of P. purpureum will be the best for ruminant feeding in this study. </em></p> O. A. Okukenu A. A. Olajide P. A. Dele B. T. Akinyemi A. A. Amisu A. O. Jolaosho O. S. Onifade Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 212 220 Influence of seed varieties and harvesting regimes on growth indices, yields and nutritional values of hydroponics maize fodder <p><em>This study was conducted to assess the influence of seed varieties and harvesting regimes on growth indices, yields and nutritional values of hydroponics maize fodder in other to ensure sustainable fodder for livestock production. The experiment was 2 x 3 factorial scheme fitted into a completely randomized design (CRD), comprising of two (2) varieties of maize seeds (OBA 98 and Local white maize) and three (3) harvesting regimes (6</em><em>th</em><em>, 8</em><em>th </em><em>and 10</em><em>th </em><em>day). Growth indices, yields, nutritional values were assessed. Results shows a significant (P&lt;0.05) effects of maize seed varieties and harvesting regimes on the growth indices, yields, nutritional values. The OBA 98 maize hydroponic fodder (OHF) had the highest (P&lt;0.05) agronomic indices, yields, nutrients (CP (16.36 %), EE (4.41), CF (7.23), ash (7.13) and NFE (64.88)) than Local maize hydroponic fodder (LHF). The highest significant (P&lt;0.05) contents of the nutrients was observed at 10</em><em>th </em><em>day harvesting, while least (P&lt;0.05) was obtained at 6</em><em>th </em><em>day harvesting except NFE. The OHF had higher (P&lt;0.05) neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL) and hemicellulose (HEM). The cellulose (CEL) were similar (P&gt;0.05) in OHF and LHF. Similar (P&gt;0.05) ADL, HEM and CEL were recorded across the harvesting regimes. The OHF and 10</em><em>th </em><em>day harvesting regime had highest (P&lt;0.05) mineral, tannin, phytate and oxalate contents. Conclusively, OHF had superior growth indices, yields and nutritional values, 10</em><em>th </em><em>day harvesting was better than 6</em><em>th </em><em>and 8</em><em>th </em><em>day. Hence, OBA 98 seed variety and 10</em><em>th </em><em>day harvesting regime is recommended for better hydroponics maize fodder production. </em></p> A. A. Lamidi J. N. Ingweye L. Mene Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 221 230 Microbial approach to improving aerobic stability of silage <p><em>Aerobic deterioration of silage is a major challenge in the feed value chain. This review discusses microbial mitigations to improving aerobic stability of silages. Early detection of silage deterioration at the face of the silo is important to reduce further ingress of spoilage organisms into deeper layers of the silage. The traditional use of thermocouples to measure spot-temperature in aerobically-exposed silages is laborious. Thermal cameras are now used to instantly visualize heat distribution over the silo face by examining thermographs generated in real-time. Microbial mitigation of aerobic silage deterioration remains the safest and most reliable strategy of reducing losses during feed-out. Three generations of microbial additives that have been used to improve the aerobic stability of silages include first generation (1 G), second generation (2 G) and third generation (3 G) silage inoculants. Homolactic fermentation by 1 G produces the highest concentration of lactic acid but 1 G are less capable of reducing aerobic spoilage. Second generation and 3 G both have a dual benefit of improving aerobic stability, and ruminal fibre digestion and growth performance. Although heterolactic fermentation by 2 G and 3 G may cause minimal dry matter losses, improvements in fibre hydrolysis during ensiling and reduction in aerobic spoilage may outweigh these losses. Treatment of tropical forages which have higher concentrations of recalcitrant fibres, with 3 G inoculants could have benefits on ruminal fibre digestion. Development of fourth generation inoculants, possessing 3 G properties but capable of thriving intra-ruminally should be the focus of future research on silage inoculants. </em></p> W. Addah Copyright (c) 2022 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 231 244 Effect of wet season supplementation on growth and haematology of Djallonké sheep <p><em>Despite the numerous benefits derived from livestock, it is faced with several challenges denying livestock owners of maximum gains from this enterprise. There is availability of forage in the wet season however, farmers have to tether or stall feed their animals limiting them access to the available forage because of the cropping period. Supplement is required to rectify deficiencies of soluble nitrogen and minerals. The effect of wet season supplementation on growth and haematology of Djallonké sheep was investigated. A total of twelve (12) young Djallonké sheep (6 males and 6 females) were randomly assigned to two treatments groups: No supplemented (NS) T1 and Concentrate Supplementation (CS) T2. The results showed that final weight of sheep were not influenced (P&gt;0.05) by the diet. The average daily gain (ADG) of sheep was significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) in the CS group. The red blood cells (RBCs) was significantly different (P&lt;0.05) with recorded values of 6.89 (10˄</em><em>6</em><em>/l) and 5.15 (10˄</em><em>6</em><em>/l) for NS and CS, respectively. The nutritive value of native pastures during the wet season were adequate to support growth performance of the animals. </em></p> Halidu Mamudu Agolisi Emmanuel Asare-Agyapong Sylvester Jampana Abubakuri Abdul-Ganiyu Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 245 250 Comparative evaluation of carcass quality and sensory characteristics of meat of rabbits fed <i>Vernonia amygdalina</i> and <i>Mucuna pruriens</i> <p><em>Reduction of total fat and cholesterol contents as well as alteration of lipid profile to a more unsaturated kind are some methods for improving quality of meat. One of the safest strategies for achieving this is through dietary inclusion of natural occuring herbs. Therefore, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Vernonia amygdalina meal (VALM) and Mucuna pruriens meal (MPM) on performance, carcass and sensory quality of rabbits. Seventy-two weaned rabbits were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments, each replicated 3 times with 8 rabbits per replicate. Diet 1 was the control, diets 2 and 3 comprised of 15% each of VALM and MPM respectively each representing a treatment. At the end of 12th week, carcass evaluation, meat lipid profile and sensory evaluation were carried out. Results showed significant (P&lt;0.05) increase in feed intake and daily weight gain for rabbits fed diets 2 and 3 as well as lower feed conversion ratio for rabbits fed diet 3 compared to the control. Rabbits on diet 3 indicated significan (P&lt;0.05) increase in pre-slaughter weight, dressed weight as well as prime cuts (forelegs, thoracic cage, loin and hind legs). Meat lipid profile showed significant (P&lt;0.05) reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and VLDL while HDL increased for T</em><em>3 </em><em>and T</em><em>2</em><em>. Meat protein values showed significant (P&lt;0.05) increase in T3 followed by T2 while abdominal fat decreased as against the control. Sensory evaluation showed significant (P&lt;0.05) decline in tenderness from T3 to T2 without adverse effect on overall acceptability. Inclusion of the VALM and MPM in rabbit diets therefore improved performance, carcass quality and sensory characteristics. </em></p> J. S. Ekpo G. I. Christopher N. J. Okeudo U. M. Okon Copyright (c) 0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 24 2 251 259