Tanzania Journal of Development Studies 2022-05-09T12:55:29+00:00 Prof. Elliott P. Niboye Open Journal Systems <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning /> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas /> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables /> <w:SnapToGridInCell /> <w:WrapTextWithPunct /> <w:UseAsianBreakRules /> <w:DontGrowAutofit /> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--> <!-- /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --> <!--[if gte mso 10]> <mce:style><! /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} --> <!--[endif]--><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial;" lang="EN-GB">The journal focuses on social, economic, political and cultural development. The target of the journal is researchers and policy makers.</span> Colonialism and Institutional Distortions: Rethinking African Development Predicaments 2022-05-09T10:36:49+00:00 Godfrey E. Sansa <p>Did colonialism lock Africa into a perverse institutional path of development? Why African countries remain in a jungle of development predicaments? What are alternative theoretical explanations of Africa’s continuing inability to move forward with the rest of the world? Numerous development analyses that the Continent has received since 1960s have tried to give answers to the presented questions. Focus has been on ideas, interests and struggles for resources between political leaders and bureaucrats at the expense of the continent’s development; ill-informed and unrealistic policies as well as strategies; anti-development behaviour of peasants together with their conservatism plus resistance to modernity; weak incentive structures of the economy; political disorder and chaos, which make development impossible; and colonial pre-emptive tendencies to the continent’s modernity. But why these regressive-development behaviours are predominant in Africa? This paper argues that the problem lies on distortion of the institutional foundation of African development processes.</p> 2022-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Local-based initiatives to adapt to climate variability and change in Tanzania 2022-05-09T10:47:09+00:00 Ronald Boniphace Ndesanjo Theobald Frank Theodory <p>This paper presents results from a study on impacts of climate variability and change on social and ecological systems in Arumeru district, Arusha, Tanzania. Broadly, the paper sought to assess local communities’ perception of climate variability and change; and to identify ways through which local people’s perception(s) are informed by climate change vulnerability and adaptation. Drawing on results generated from Key Informant Interviews (KII), observed climate variability and change is noted to have serious negative-and potential positive-impacts on social and ecological systems, especially in areas where adaptive capacities are still low. The findings unveiled that basic livelihoods, especially livestock keeping and farming are already affected negatively by climate variability and change impacts exhibited by, among other things, dwindling pasture and crop productivity as well as water scarcity. Subsequently, the study notes increasing scarcity of basic household necessities, especially food - including pasture - and water for both people and livestock, which were directly associated with frequent dry spells and altered rainfall patterns as observed by the local people in the study area.</p> 2022-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Knowledge Gain and Adoption among Farm Women through Interactive Multimedia in Kilosa and Sengerema Districts, Tanzania 2022-05-09T11:04:15+00:00 Edwin Ngowi Adam Mwakalobo Coletha Mathew <p>This paper examines knowledge gain and adoption among farm women with access to information and improved communication. This is because access to information and improved communication is a crucial requirement for agricultural development. In rural areas, group approach, “self-help groups (SHGs),” have been initiated among farm women using Interactive Multimedia Compact Disc (IMCD). The IMCD emerged as a potential learning tool to train farmers about a particular agricultural-knowledge. A theoretical and conceptual framework for an adoption pathway is reviewed in which farmers move from knowledge gain to adoption over time. This study was conducted in Sengerema and Kilosa districts with telecentres that train farm women in SHGs using IMCD. A total of 180 farm women were randomly and equally selected. Simple correlation and multiple regressions were used to assess association and influence of socioeconomic characteristics on knowledge gain and adoption. It was established that education status and mass media exposure exhibited a positive and significant relationship. Age and farm statuses showed negative association with knowledge gain. Farm status and innovativeness showed significant and positive relationship with knowledge adoption. Farming experience exhibited negative and significant relationship with knowledge adoption. Thus, while preparing IMCD, one should take care these variables for knowledge gain and adoption. The inferences on knowledge gain and adoption imply that longer periods will be required for majority of farm women to use the technology and to have the decision leading to adoption.</p> 2022-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The Uluguru Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) Programme in Tanzania: Can Livelihoods Benefits between PES Participants and Non-participants Go Beyond Implementation? 2022-05-09T11:21:05+00:00 Theresia Philemon <p>Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) is a market-based mechanism with potential incentives for managing natural resources while addressing livelihood issues. It operates both directly, through cash payments and indirectly, through adopted Sustainable Land Management practices. However, there is canty information on sustainability of these benefits. This paper, therefore, informs the extent to which PES benefits can be achieved beyond operationalization of the programme in Uluguru Mountains. The concurrent embedded design was adopted to collect and analyse quantitative as well as qualitative data from 335 households (both PES participants and non-participants). The PES nonparticipants were involved because they adopted SLM practices even though the programme was not implemented in their villages. Also, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and observations were employed to collect information for the study. Five livelihood assets, namely, human, social, physical, natural, and financial proposed by Sustainable Livelihood Framework (the DFID 1999 framework) were used as indicators to assess the livelihood benefits. Findings revealed few livelihood benefits, namely, strengthening social networks, access to better shelter as well as housing, increased farm productivity and financial savings. Therefore, local cultural aspects are recommended to sustain benefits of PES beyond the program duration.</p> 2022-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Gendered Determinants of Vulnerability to Food Insecurity in Chamwino District, Tanzania 2022-05-09T11:43:33+00:00 Emiliana A. Assenga Kim A. Kayunze <p>Chamwino District is vulnerable to food insecurity, but the extent of such vulnerability differs with household headship. However, gendered determinants of vulnerability to food insecurity remain to be explored. This paper is based on a study which was conducted in Chamwino District using a cross-sectional research design involving 400 households. Using multiple linear regression, amount of food stored and reducing meal size significantly influenced (p &lt; 0.05) FHHs’ vulnerability to food insecurity, while amount of food stored, total annual income per adult equivalent, distance to the nearest market place, reducing size of the meal and income generating activities significantly influenced (p &lt;0.05) MHHs’ vulnerability to food insecurity. The findings suggest that factors which determine vulnerability to food insecurity vary across gender. Therefore, interventions to reduce vulnerability to food insecurity in Chamwino District should focus on gender issues and markets within reach of farm households, among other things. Radical transformation of rural areas in order to create off-farm employments is recommended, and use of food storage structures in rural areas would help reduce vulnerability to food insecurity.</p> 2022-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Pastoralists’ Social Networks in Access to and Use of Antibiotics: Implication on Drug Resistance in Ngorongoro Conservation Area of Tanzania 2022-05-09T12:00:41+00:00 Benta N. Matunga Rehema G. Kilonzo <p>Social networks are important for enhancing sharing resources. However, access to and use of antibiotics without prescriptions through sharing can engender risk of antibiotic resistance problem. This paper examines actors involved in social networks and how they enable access to and use of antibiotics in livestock among Maasai Pastoralists in Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania. Descriptive cross-sectional research design was adopted involving purposive and random sampling techniques. Household survey involved 221respondents for quantitative data. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted for getting qualitative data. Quantitative data were coded using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 24 for descriptive analysis involving frequency and percentages. Content analysis was employed for qualitative data categorised into various themes. Results from the study revealed that social networks enabled sharing of knowledge, information and antibiotics without prescriptions from veterinary experts. Actors involved included neighbours, friends, relatives, interest groups and traditional dealers connected with social ties based on trust as well as reciprocity. However, limited knowledge on antibiotics handling and administration, engendered misuse of drugs resulted to risk of antibiotics resistance. Therefore, awareness creation and capacity building on proper access to and use of antibiotics is important.</p> 2022-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The Effect of Elderly Exemption Policy on Access to and Utilization of Health Care Services in Tanzania 2022-05-09T12:13:58+00:00 Joshua Edward Stephen O. Maluka <p>Exemption from and waiver of social service cost for elderly people have been implemented in Tanzania for the past three decades. In order to facilitate the exemption of the elderly from paying for health services, the then Ministry of Health directed all districts in Tanzania to issue identify cards (IDs) to the elderly in order to address the challenges already observed in the implementation of the exemption and waiver policy. Despite an increase in demand and popularity of the IDs among elderly people, it was not clear whether this new mechanism offered the elderly access to health services. This paper examines the implementation of this policy in Mbarali and Ubungo districts in Tanzania. The study adopted a mixed method approach using surveys (n=879) and semi-structured interviews (n=23). Quantitative data were analysed descriptively and qualitative data were analysed thematically. It was found that elderly identity cards have only improved physical access to health facilities through simplification of identification. Shortage of health care services, particularly medicines and medical supplies, long waiting time due to shortage of staff and the use of unfriendly language by the health care workers, have caused negative perceptions of the elderly towards the exemption policy. The use of elderly IDs has not solved the earlier observed challenges facing the exemption policy for the elderly population. It is recommended that the government needs to work more to improve the quality of health care services for the elderly in public health facilities.</p> 2022-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) A Constitutional ‘Ujamaa’ and a Practical Market Economy in Tanzania: A Potential Attribute to Poverty 2022-05-09T12:25:16+00:00 Victoria Makulilo <p>The practice of market economy in Tanzania is constitutionally unfounded and the constitutional Ujamaa (the philosophical framework) is practically impossible in the current context of globalized world. This dilemma has created an ideological vacuum that makes it easier for any leadership in power to change policies and laws to suit either constitutional Ujamaa, or the practice of market economy without consistency. This has led to unpredictable change of policies and laws that have adversely affected the country’s basic objective of eradicating poverty, ignorance and diseases. Tanzania is one among countries whose people are impoverished despite the fact that it is endowed with immense natural resources. This paper sets out to examine the extent to which the dilemma has bred increased poverty. Employing a qualitative approach through a review of documents, the paper argues that the absence of a clear connection between the Constitution and the economy has negatively impacted Tanzania’s economy.</p> 2022-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Distribution of Adaptation Climate Finance in Africa Region 2022-05-09T12:39:44+00:00 Shadrack E. Kibona Noah M. Pauline Aloyce S. Hepelwa <p>This study aimed at examining the distribution of adaptation climate finance flowing into the Africa region in order to understand the extent to which vulnerable countries and sectors are targeted. Developing countries receive adaptation climate finance in support of resilience to climate change and variability impacts. The anthropogenic drivers of climate change and variability are from all parts of the world with higher contribution from industrialized countries and less from poor countries - though the impacts are more intense within developing countries. Data were obtained from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and correlation analysis were used to understand the distribution of climate finance for adaptation by country and by sector. Adaptation climate finance flows in large amounts to the least developed countries most vulnerable to the impact of climate change and variability. Agriculture, forestry and fisheries; education; general environment protection; industry, minerals and construction; and transport and communication are the leading sectors in receiving adaptation climate finance. The findings reveal that social sectors are positively correlated with vulnerability while sectors related to infrastructure are negatively related with regard to vulnerability index. Optimal distribution of climate finance globally is expected to lead to the attainment of climate change solutions and sustainable development among countries and among sectors of the economy.</p> 2022-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)