Tanzania Journal of Development Studies https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjds <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:PunctuationKerning /> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas /> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables /> <w:SnapToGridInCell /> <w:WrapTextWithPunct /> <w:UseAsianBreakRules /> <w:DontGrowAutofit /> </w:Compatibility> <w:BrowserLevel>MicrosoftInternetExplorer4</w:BrowserLevel> </w:WordDocument> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:LatentStyles DefLockedState="false" LatentStyleCount="156"> </w:LatentStyles> </xml><![endif]--> <!-- /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --> <!--[if gte mso 10]> <mce:style><! /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} --> <!--[endif]--><span style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial;" lang="EN-GB">The journal focuses on social, economic, political and cultural development. The target of the journal is researchers and policy makers.</span> Educational Publishers and Distributors en-US Tanzania Journal of Development Studies 0856-9622 Copyright is owned by the sister institutes: IDS, University of Dar es Salaam, DSI, Sokoine University of Agriculture and Department of Development studies, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences. Assessment of the Contribution of the Bus Rapid Transit Systems to Climate Change Mitigation and Sustainable Development: The Case of Dar Rapid Transit Project in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjds/article/view/209298 <p>This paper assesses the contribution of Dar-BRT3 System to climate change mitigation and sustainable development in the city of Dar es Salaam. As burning of fuel leads among the primary sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), this paper explores and compares estimated amount of fuel burned among the three modes of transport in the city: personal vehicles, “Daladala” buses and Dar-BRT buses. Looking at each mode of transport, the paper finds that the Dar-BRT buses are using the least fuel and hence offer the greatest potential to mitigate climate change leading to promoting sustainable development. In addition, the Dar-BRT Project improves public transport services in the city by shortening transport time, reducing transport costs and making it more convenient mode of transport in urban. This is in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), particularly goals number 8, 9, 11 and 13.</p> Jones J. Helberth Cuthbert Z.M. Kimambo Copyright (c) 2021-06-24 2021-06-24 18 2 1 11 Reflection on Education for Self and National Reliance: Challenges of Access, Equity and Quality in Higher Learning Institutions in Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjds/article/view/209299 <p>This paper argues that liberalization, and with it the introduction of Private Higher Education (PHE) institutions in Tanzania, has diluted the achievement of the Arusha Declaration, which tried to deal with issues of access, equity and quality in education. Though the PHE institutions in Tanzania outnumber public ones, they enroll less than 22 percent of the total number of students in a year. With majority of Tanzanians living below the poverty line, they cannot finance their higher education and that of their children. The paper contends that though quality is an elusive concept, the present liberalization system in higher education coupled with underfunding of higher education have threatened access, quality and equity in education. In addition, the considerable public subsidy for higher education in Tanzania benefits the already socio-economically well to do families with connections, and that the Universal Primary Education (UPE) needs reconstruction in order for it to deliver good graduates to higher education in the liberalization environment. To advance these arguments, this paper uses secondary data such as documentaries, journal papers and edited books to trace and reflect on the history of education in Tanzania in the lenses of Plato’s theory of education, with emphasis on the Arusha declaration as a landmark that introduced education for self and national reliance, to the present time of quasi-capitalism. The author concludes that though PHE institutions are good and needed, their modus operandi further increases the gap between the haves and the have-not and compromises the quality. The paper proposes a need to revamp the education system in the line of Ujamaa need-based Education for Self-Reliance (ESR) to prepare people to work among different classes as analyzed by Plato. Also, a need for Higher Learning Institutions to offer ethics and critical thinking that would make graduates responsible citizens who understand that what matters is what they can do for themselves and for the nation after acquiring education, and not only the titles and certificates that come in the process.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Private Higher Education, Self-reliance, access, equity and quality, Ujamaa</p> Shukrani K. Mbirigenda Copyright (c) 2021-06-24 2021-06-24 18 2 12 26 An Assessment of the Implementation of the Re-structured Community Health Fund in Gairo District in Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjds/article/view/209301 <p>While the government of Tanzania has been implementing community health fund (CHF) for more than two decades, the uptake of the scheme has been persistently low due to management and performance problems. As a response, from 2011 a new initiative was adopted that changed the overall structure, management and benefit packages of the CHF. This paper assesses the implementation of the newly re-structured CHF in Gairo District in Morogoro Region. This study employed a descriptive qualitative case study design using three types of data collection techniques, namely individual interviews (n=14), focus group discussions (n=4) and document review. A thematic approach was used to analyse the data. Findings show that the re-structured CHF has improved the pooling and provider payment mechanism compared to the old CHF. Benefit packages have been expanded to include referral services up to regional level. However, stakeholders, including community members, had negative perceptions of the restructured CHF owing to high annual premium rates, low incentive to enrolment officers, weak registration network and poor quality of health care services. In order to improve CHF performance and achieve universal health coverage, the central Government needs to invest more in the improvement of the quality of health care services, particularly the availability of drugs and medical supplies. Additionally, the government should make CHF scheme compulsory to all members of the community who do not have alternative health insurance.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Community Health Fund, Health Systems, Tanzania</p> Raphael Asantemungu Stephen Maluka Copyright (c) 2021-06-24 2021-06-24 18 2 27 41 Integrating Gender Norms in Economic Empowerment Projects https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjds/article/view/209302 <p>This article employs a critical gender empowerment framework to unpack the bearing of discriminatory gender norms on economic empowerment developmental projects that target young women. Informed by feminist theory, it shows how, being embedded in institutions, which carry particular social relations, cultural values, and power differentials, gendered norms around marriage, femininity/masculinity, and division of labour prevent young women from fully engaging in the projects. By drawing from ethnographic observation of two such projects in Mwanza and Dar es Salaam regions in Tanzania, the article also shows how gender norms can be enablers in achieving gender equality. As such, it argues that, for these projects to achieve their objectives of empowering young women to foster equitable development, they must integrate the critical gender empowerment framework in their overall design, implementation, and evaluation.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> Gender, Economic Empowerment, Development, Interventions, Young Women, Norms and Division of Labour</p> Jacqueline Halima Mgumia Copyright (c) 2021-06-24 2021-06-24 18 2 42 69 Nexus Between NGO’s Support and Women Entrepreneurs’ Socio-Economic Welfare in Tanzania: A Case of Care International https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjds/article/view/209304 <p>This paper assesses the role of support from non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in enhancing the socio-economic welfare of women entrepreneurs in Tanzania using CARE International – Tanzania as a study platform. Based on a study that was conducted on Dar es Salaam women entrepreneurs who have been supported by Care International at Bunju ward in Kinondoni district, the paper examines the extent to which entrepreneurship training, financial support and business networking influence the socio-economic welfare of women entrepreneurs. Data were collected from 74 randomly selected respondents using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Frequencies, Percentage, Mean and Standard deviations were descriptively computed for quantitative analysis whereas in-depth-interview quotes from key informants were used for qualitative data. The paper established that training and business network constructs had significant contribution on the socio-economic welfare of the women entrepreneurs. Nevertheless, the availability of meagre financial support from the NGOs was found to undermine entrepreneurial activities of women entrepreneurs and, thus, its influence was found to be weak. This paper recommends that specific training programmes, especially on areas of managerial, production and marketing skills are important for the improvement of socio-economic welfare. Moreover, much more strong networks need to be developed and nurtured for the betterment of socio-economic welfare of women entrepreneurs in Tanzania.</p> Omari K. Mbura Copyright (c) 2021-06-24 2021-06-24 18 2 70 93 Global Value Chains as a Stimulant for Innovation among Producers: Evidence from Avocado Farmers in Siha District Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjds/article/view/209306 <p>This paper examines the role of the Global Value Chain (GVC) in strengthening Agricultural Innovation System through the case study of avocado farming in Siha District, Tanzania. It is informed by 100 avocado farmers from Siha District and 14 purposively selected key informants who were engaged through questionnaires, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The paper revealed that against the pricing challenges and beyond promotion of access to international markets, the GVC has linked all 100 researched farmers and other local agricultural innovation system actors to new and improved knowledge and technologies. Such linkages have contributed in improving farmers’ capability and enabled them to produce the quality and quantity of avocado product needed by the market and as a result improved their income and livelihood. The paper recommends policy interventions to strengthen and harness the linkages between local innovators and their GVC counterparts in order to maximize technological capability building and strengthen the weak agricultural innovation systems like that of traditional avocado farming.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Global Value Chain, Agricultural Innovation System, Avocado, Technological Capability</p> Heric Thomas Hezron Makundi Copyright (c) 2021-06-24 2021-06-24 18 2 94 111 The Social Construction of Gender in Kiduo Dance Songs of the Wahehe in Iringa, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjds/article/view/209307 <p>This paper is an attempt to address the question of gender and the manner that it is constructed in the songs of Wahehe in Iringa, Tanzania. Kiduo dance songs are used as a case in point. The reason for picking Kiduo songs is grounded on familiarity. I participated in singing Kiduo songs as a child and later as a fully-fledged adult. Singing the aforesaid songs for such a long time and being exposed to gender issues I became conscious of the fact that some songs (not all) typecast women in different ways as reproductive devices, poor, weak, sexual outlets of men and individuals who cannot make proper decisions. As a member of the community and current a scholar, I strived to find answers to three questions: how women are constructed in songs of Wahehe; how the social construction is regarded as reality of women; and how this impacts lives of women. Findings for this research were collected through observations and focus group interviews. The paper uses the tenet of constructionism to argue that women in Kiduo songs are projected as dependents of men in decision-making. They are featured as poor and timid in a way that weakens their bargaining power. In some songs women are portrayed as sexual outlets of men and reproductive devices whose sense of purpose in life is void except for getting married and giving birth to children. Examining how women are constructed in Kiduo songs of Wahehe is a profound contribution this paper makes to the scholarship of gender and performance in Tanzania.2</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Gender construction, Kiduo dance, traditional dance, songs, Iringa.</p> Daines Nicodem Sanga Copyright (c) 2021-06-24 2021-06-24 18 2 112 125 Bishoftu Town Residents’ Perception on Economic, Environmental and Socio-cultural Impacts of Urban Tourism https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjds/article/view/209308 <p>The main purpose of this study is to explore the perception of Bishoftu town residents on the impacts of urban tourism. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were employed to achieve the objective of this study. Random sampling procedure was used for selection of respondents from the residents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. The result of factor analysis showed that three factors named as economic, socio-cultural and environmental impacts were explained as 53.24% of variation in the perceptions of residents. However, most of the local residents and stakeholders were unaware of negative impact of urban tourism. MANOVA analysis indicated that there was no significant difference between the mean of underlying dimensions of the perceived urban tourism impacts and socio-demographic characteristics. The concerned bodies and officials should take the issues into account while planning and devising various measures.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Urban tourism, Residents’ perception, Tourism impacts, Bishoftu town</p> Genet Abera Engdawork Assefa Copyright (c) 2021-06-24 2021-06-24 18 2 126 155 Book Review https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjds/article/view/209309 <p>Title: Studies in a Dying Colonialism.<br>Author: Frantz Fanon<br>Publisher: Earthscan Publications Limited, London, 1989.<br>ISBN: 1-85383-037-2, 181 pages<br>Reviewer: Chediel Nyirenda</p> Chediel Nyirenda Copyright (c) 2021-06-24 2021-06-24 18 2 156 159