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Conservation and Development Options existing on Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania
Effective management of projects on Uluguru Mountains requires that both development and conservation options are weighed and that opportunities and challenges are considered. This study identified various conservation and development options existing on Uluguru Mountains and assessed the perceptions of the local communities toward conservation and development projects. Data were collected using questionnaire for household survey, checklists for focus group discussions and key informants. A random sample of 100 households representing 10% of all households in the study area was picked from Nyandira, Tchenzema and Kibuko villages. Data were analyzed using content analysis and descriptive statistics. Results show that, tree planting, agroforestry and terracing are major conservation options while agriculture, schools and dispensaries are the major development options that exist in the study area. Accordingly, most projects in the study area are integrating conservation and development though with little achievements. Hence, understanding and addressing these conservation and development options is of high significance in limiting biodiversity loss and improving livelihood of local communities on Uluguru Mountains. The study recommends that conservation options should be designed in ways that deliver direct and short term benefits that will motivate communities to practice them and improve their livelihoods. Moreover agriculture being the major development option to local communities on Uluguru Mountains, should integrate conservation options such as agroforestry and terracing to limit land degradation and deforestation.