Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2021-03-01T04:58:06+00:00 Prof Dunstan T.K. Shemwetta Open Journal Systems <p>The <em>Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation</em> accommodates the current diverse and multidisciplinary approaches towards ecosystem conservation at national and global levels. The journal is published biannually and accepts research and review papers covering technological, physical, biological, social and economic aspects of management and conservation of tropical flora and fauna.</p> MODELLING AND PREDICTING MEASURES OF TREE SPECIES DIVERSITY USING AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING DATA IN MIOMBO WOODLANDS OF TANZANIA 2021-02-08T08:13:47+00:00 Ernest W Mauya <p>In the recent decade, remote sensing techniques had emerged as one among the best options for quantification of measures of tree species diversity. In this study, potential of using remotely sensed data derived from airborne laser scanning (ALS) for predicting tree species richness and Shannon diversity index was evaluated. Two modelling approaches were tested: linear mixed effects modelling (LMM), by which each of the measures was modelled separately, and the k-nearest neighbour technique (k-NN), by which both measures were jointly modelled (multivariate approach). For both methods, the effect of vegetation type on the prediction accuracies of tree species richness and Shannon diversity index was tested. Separate predictions for richness and Shannon diversity index using LMM resulted in relative root mean square errors (RMSEcv) of 40.7%, and 39.1%, while for the k-NN they were 41.4% and 39.1%, respectively. Inclusion of dummy variables representing vegetation types to the LMM improved the prediction accuracies of tree species richness (RMSEcv = 40.2%) and Shannon diversity index (RMSEcv = 38.0%). The study concluded that ALS data has a potential for modelling and predicting measures of tree species diversity in the miombo woodlands of Tanzania.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-01-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation VARIATION IN SOIL PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN THREE LAND USE TYPES OF OGUN RIVER WATERSHED 2021-02-08T08:15:30+00:00 Israel Asinwa S.O. Olajuyigbe A.F. Aderounmu O.A. Iroko F. Kazeem-Ibrahim <p>Conversion of watershed to other Land Use Types (LUTs) has implications on soil nutrients. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of three LUTs on soil physico-chemical properties of Ogun River watershed. The Ogun River watershed was stratified into Guinea Savannah (GS), Rainforest (RF) and Swamp Forest (SF) Ecological Zones (EZs). Three LUTs: Natural Forest (NF), Disturbed Forest (DF) and Farmland (FL) were purposively selected in GS: GSNF, GSDF, GSFL; RF: RFNF, RFDF, RFFL and SF: SFNF, SFDF, SFFL, respectively. Five out of sixteen plots laid along the transects lines were randomly selected in each of LUTs in the three ecological zones for soil sampling. In each of the selected plots, 5 soil samples were collected at the four corners and centre of the plot at two depths: 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm. Physico-chemical properties of soil samples were determined following standard procedures. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences in Physico-chemical variables of Ogun River soil samples using 3 x 3 x 2 factorial experiments. There were significant differences in Physico-chemical properties among land use types, Ecological zones and between soil depths of Ogun River watershed (P &lt; 0.05). Soil Cation Exchange Capacity ranged from 2.37±0.01 (GSFL) to 8.50±0.04 (GSNF); Total Nitrogen increased from 0.88±0.01 (RFFL) to 4.79±0.05 (GSNF) while Soil Organic Matter ranged from 1.48±0.01 (GSFL) to 13.12±0.21 (GSNF).&nbsp; It was found that continuous changes in land vegetative cover Ogun River watershed through human activities negatively affected soil physico-chemical properties. Therefore, other anthropogenic activities that will intercept nutrient cycling in the watershed ecosystem must be discouraged.</p> 2021-01-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation THE EFFECT OF AGRICULTURAL INTENSIFICATION ON ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AROUND IHEMI CLUSTER 2021-02-08T08:17:30+00:00 Agnes Sirima Japhet Kashaigili, J.J. F. Kamau <p>As the world population continue to increase, the demand for food also increases which necessitate the need for agricultural intensification. Agricultural intensification affects large parts of terrestrial area, therefore, assessment of its contribution to the decrease of ecosystem services is critical for successful conservation in the future. A study was conducted in five districts of Iringa and Njombe Regions, part of Ihemi cluster, to assess the effects of agricultural intensification on ecosystem services.&nbsp; A total of 607 household surveys and 19 Focus Groups discussions were conducted. Descriptive and cross tabulation were used for quantitative analysis while content analysis was used for qualitative data. Findings reveal that there are several benefits communities get from the ecosystem that play a great role on their livelihood. Across all villages, firewood is preferred due to its affordability and availability. Other ecosystems goods such as traditional medicine and mushrooms are hardly available due to clearing of land for agricultural activities, as well as settlement expansion.&nbsp; Community activities, such as valley bottom farming was mentioned as a practice that jeopardize the long-term sustainability of ecosystem resources within the Cluster. Agricultural intensification by investors was also mentioned as a sources of ecosystem depletion. Sustainable agricultural intensification, if adopted, might be one among the solutions to serve the ecosystem around the cluster.</p> 2021-01-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation COMPARISON OF CARBON STOCK ESTIMATION METHODS AND CARBON STORAGE IN A NIGERIAN STRICT NATURE RESERVE AND ENRICHMENT PLANTING FOREST 2021-02-08T08:19:44+00:00 A. Lawal V.A.J. Adekunle T.F. Akinkunmi <p>Forest ecosystem is a major biological scrubber of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforestation and forest degradation could lead to the depletion of the ozone layer by greenhouse gasses. Unfortunately, research efforts to estimate carbon stock potential in natural forest and forest regenerated through enrichment planting in Nigeria have not been intensified. More so, researches on the evaluation of non-destructive carbon stock estimation methods are scarce. In this study, systematic line transect was employed in the laying of the plots. A total of 8 sample plots under each of the selected forest types were used. For above-ground biomass estimation, two non-destructive methods were used. The amount of carbon stock obtained using model and densisty method was significantly higher in strict nature reserve (21,112.50 ton/ha, 161.93 ton/ha) than the forest established through enrichment planting (3,018.07 ton/ha, 88.96 ton/ha). Findings from this study revealed that the total above-ground life carbon stock obtained using model was significantly higher in the strict nature reserve and enrichment planted Forest than the total above-ground life carbon stock obtained using density method. Since the estimated carbon stock using density method is closer to the average aboveground biomass carbon estimated around 248 tC ha<sup>-1</sup> for tropical rainforest, it was considered more appropriate for non-destructive carbon stock estimation and therefore recommended.</p> 2021-01-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation PHYLOGENETIC DIVERSITY OF PLANT COMMUNITIES IN RELATION TO ELEVATION AND HUMAN IMPACT AT MOUNT KILIMANJARO, TANZANIA 2021-03-01T04:58:06+00:00 Neduvoto Mollel, Piniel Andreas Hemp Markus Fischer <p>Phylogenetic diversity (PD) of vascular plants in 30 natural communities along an elevation gradient (700 to 4600 m) at Mount Kilimanjaro compared with 30 human-influenced habitats was studied. Linear models were tested for phylogenetic diversity on elevational gradient while two-ways ANOVA was applied to compare phylogenetic diversity between human-influenced and natural habitats. PD was higher at intermediate elevation while its variation showed a unimodal increase with elevation up to 3500 m and slightly decreased in the alpine belt indicating uneven distribution of taxa at lower and highest elevations. At the angiosperm scale PD showed the same pattern while its variation decreased indication the significance of Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms to PD at this elevation. In the savanna and montane elevational belts, natural and human-impacted communities were equally affected by climate conditions and human activities thus similar PD pattern. In the lower montane zone, phylogenetic diversity was lower in human-influenced habitats than in natural forest. This study showed that elevation modified the patterns of phylogenetic diversity of plant communities while human-influence had negative impact. &nbsp;Conservation efforts should consider those communities with higher PD below the National Park.</p> 2021-01-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation SOCIOECONOMIC FACET OF FISHERIES MANAGEMENT IN HOMBOLO DAM, DODOMA - TANZANIA 2021-02-08T08:22:37+00:00 Leopody Gayo <p>Assessment of fisheries activities in socioeconomic context is paramount if to guarantee adaptive co-management of the resources. The study investigated the status of fishing activities and documented the drivers threatening fish stock in the Hombolo Man-made Dam between January and October 2019. Semi-structured interviews, Focus group discussion, Key informants interviews, direct field observations and documentary review were employed to collect data. Content analysis, Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20 and ERDAS software were used to analyze data. Results show the decline in amount of fish harvested (AFH) by 72.5% at β ± SE: -0.99 ± 0.14, t=-3.05, p = 0.003 between 2011 and 2019. Similarly, number of fishermen and fishing boats decreased by 67% at -0.36 ± 0.71, t=-0.24, p = 0.016 and 53% at -0.58 ± 0.21, t=-1.33, p = 0.006 respectively between 2005-2019. The observed decrease in AFH, fishermen and fishing vessels perceived to imply the decline in the dam fish stock. Overfishing, population increase, poverty and inadequate law enforcement were perceived as drivers of fish stock attenuation. The study recommends further assessment of the dam ecology for effective fish restocking and provisioning of environmental education along with effective law enforcement for sustainable management of the dam.</p> 2021-01-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation PINE RESIN PRODUCTIVITY AT SAO HILL FOREST PLANTATION, SOUTHERN TANZANIA 2021-02-08T08:24:08+00:00 Salehe Beleko <p>A study on resin productivity from <em>Pinus patula</em> and <em>P</em><em>. elliottii</em> was carried out at Sao Hill Forest Plantation. Four and three compartments for <em>Pinus patula</em> and <em>P</em><em>. elliottii, </em>respectively covering age between 5 and 25 years were selected. In each compartment, three plots (12m × 12m) were systematically established. All trees in each plot were measured for diameter at breast height (Dbh) and three trees (smallest, medium and largest in diameter) measured for total height and crown diameter. All trees in treatment plots were tapped for resin. Weighing and re-wounding of tapped trees was done after every ten days in ten sessions. The findings show that annual resin yield ranged from 0.56kg tree<sup>-1</sup> to 1.32kg tree<sup>-1</sup> and from 0.47kg tree<sup>-1</sup> to 1.98kg tree<sup>-1</sup> for <em>P. patula P. elliottii, </em>respectively. The Dbh and crown diameter were important predictors resin production. Over 31% of annual resin production was explained by stand level variables. It was recommended that integration of resin tapping into the current schemes of timber will improve the contribution of the forest sector in economic growth. Further, introduction of resin tapping may be an attractive option for early income generation while waiting trees to attain the rotation age.</p> 2021-01-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation STUMP DIAMETER: A POTENTIAL PREDICTOR OF REMOVED BIOMASS THROUGH TREE CUTTING 2021-02-08T08:25:31+00:00 Wilson Mugasha <p>Stump diameter (<em>SD</em>) has been rarely considered as an important tree parameter in forestry. It is until recently that <em>SD</em> has been found to be important predictor of tree diameter at breast height (<em>D</em>) and forest stand parameter such as volume and biomass. This study, developed <em>D-SD</em> relationships for nine different forest cover type in Tanzania mainland. A total of 32265 sample trees covering miombo woodlands, humid montane, lowland forests, bushlands, grasslands, mangroves, cultivated land, wetlands forests and plantations (<em>Pines</em> and <em>Eucalyptus</em> species) were used for fitting <em>D</em>-<em>SD</em> models. The findings revealed a linear relationship between <em>D</em> and <em>SD </em>for all forest covers. In addition, we found forest covers having similar <em>D-SD</em> allometry while others had unique <em>D</em>-<em>SD</em> allometry. This prompted fitting Generalised Linear Model where three forest cover groups were generated, i.e. group 1 (bushlands, woodlands, lowlands and grasslands); group 2 (mangroves, cultivated land, plantation and wetlands); and group 3 (humid montane). We fitted linear model to each forest cover group. Large variations in <em>D</em> were adequately explained by <em>SD </em>for each forest cover group. We further compared <em>AGB</em> values estimated from the measured <em>D</em> and estimated <em>D</em> from the <em>D</em>-<em>SD</em> equation. The estimated <em>AGB</em> from both approach did not differ significantly. We therefore, recommend the developed <em>D</em>-<em>SD</em> relationships models be applied to predict <em>D </em>of the missing trees for which their stumps still exist.</p> 2021-01-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation