Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc <p>The <em>Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation</em> accommodates articles addressing research findings of the current diverse and multidisciplinary approaches towards ecosystem conservation at national and global levels. The journal is published biannually and accepts research and review papers covering technological, physical, biological, social and economic aspects of management and conservation of tropical flora and fauna.</p> Faculty of Forestry & Nature Conservation, Sokoine University of Agriculture en-US Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2408-8129 <p>Copyright: © 2017 The College of Forestry, Wildlife and Tourism.</p><p>All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form, or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior permission from the College of Forestry, Wildlife and Tourism, SUA.</p> Provenance Variation in African Wall Nut (Plukenetia conophora Mull Arg) from Southwestern Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/216953 <p>Walnut is a multipurpose liana of high economic importance and vital potentials that are yet to be exploited due to lack of adequate germplasms. The study was aimed at documenting the variation in provenance in early growth in order to generate information necessary for its management and conservation. Seeds collected from four States: Ibadan in Oyo, Igbajo in Osun, Ijebu-Ode in Ogun and Akure in Ondo were sown directly into polythene bags filled with top soil. After germination, at the two-leaf stage, thirty uniformly growing seedlings from each provenance were selected and transferred into the open nursery, and laid out in a completely randomized design in six replications. Data on length, collar diameter, number of leaves, biomass and leaf area were subjected to analysis of variance and significant means were separated using Least Significant Differences p≤005. Net assimilation ratio (NAR), relative growth rate (RGR) and absolute growth rate (AGR) were also determined. Results showed that the effect of seed source on all the variables, except collar diameter, was not significant at p≤0.05. Ibadan source had the highest length, number of leaves, biomass, leaf area. NAR, RGR and AGR. The study concludes that Ibadan provenance could serve as superior gene pool</p> J.O. Amadi A.O. Adegeye V.I. Alaje Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2021-11-07 2021-11-07 90 3 1 9 10.4314/tjfnc.v90i3. Spatial and Temporal Variability in Hydro-Meteorological Selected Variable in the Southern Highlands, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/216999 <p>Continuous decline of natural vegetation cover has been claimed to adversely affect trends of rainfall and streamflow in Kilolo District. This study analyzed the extent of rainfall characteristics, streamflow and runoff for the period 1972-2019 at Kilolo District. Data were collected from various sources and collated. Linear regression, descriptive statistics and trend analyses techniques were used to analyze rainfall variability. Non-parametric rank-based Mann-Kendall test employed to detect trends in annual and seasonal rainfall. Rainfall patterns in Iringa Airport, Maji, Mtera and Msembe stations closely resembled each other. Rainfall characteristics follow unimodal pattern with rainfall starting in November through May. Analyses of long-term annual rainfall records from the four stations show that rainfall in the Kilolo District is highly variable. It received an average of 706 mm yr<sup>-1</sup> with years of high rainfall above the mean, and years of low rainfall below the mean. There is a significant declining trend of streamflow recorded in rivers draining the district. Decline of natural forest, bushland and wetland converted into cropland and plantation has played a great role to reverse this negative trend. This study recommends that efforts should be geared towards land cover conservation in order to enhance rainfall availability and improved streamflow.</p> N.A. Pima W.B. Mbungu C.P. Balama J. Maguzu E. Siwa M.J. Sangiwa Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2021-11-07 2021-11-07 90 3 10 23 10.4314/tjfnc.v90i3. The Effectiveness of Anti-Poaching Techniques in Combating Wildebeest Poaching in Serengeti National Park https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/217002 <p>Wildlife poaching is a global problem that has been resulting in the decline of the population of wildlife species. The objectives of the study were to examine techniques used by poachers to conduct wildebeest poaching, availability of anti-poaching techniques and to evaluate the obstacles in the efforts of effective anti-poaching techniques the Serengeti National Park (SENAPA). &nbsp;Purposeful sampling and documentary review were adopted for data gathering.&nbsp; Interviews were conducted to key informants from SENAPA as well as to the adjacent villages. Data were analysed by using SPSS, descriptive statistics and content analysis. Results revealed the persistence of wildlife poaching, wildebeest being highly poached species compared to other species. Poaching techniques used were hiding and killing and the major anti-poaching techniques were revealed to be patrols, intelligence-led, conservation education, de-snaring team and sniffer dogs. Political interference, budget limitation, inadequate manpower and the use of modern technology were identified as the main obstacles for successful curbing of the problem. The study concludes that fighting against poaching is difficult and always needs a combination of techniques. It is recommended that SENAPA management should increase effectiveness in patrols, rangers’ surveillance and deterrence of poachers by significantly investing in anti-poaching activities.</p> L.M. Matungwa A.I. Wawa Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2021-11-07 2021-11-07 90 3 24 39 10.4314/tjfnc.v90i3. The Silviculture of Woodlots of Smallholder Forest Producers in Mufindi District, Tanzania: Knowledge and Treatments https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/217004 <p>Smallholder forestry is experiencing many challenges like limited understanding of silvicultural treatments to impact the quality and performance of woodlots. This study determined the silvicultural treatments of smallholders in Mufindi district by interviewing 78 respondents then assessing the silviculture of 78 woodlots in 13 sampled villages.&nbsp; The study found out that more than 80% of smallholders had a certain level of understanding of some treatments like weeding and pruning. A major source of knowledge was personal experiences from fellow farmers and Sao Hill Forest Plantation. Based on market demand, <em>P. patula</em> and <em>E. grandis</em> were the most planted species in the woodlots. Smallholders reported planting trees at a spacing of 3 x 3 m without clear knowledge on factors to consider for initial spacing. Also, reported harvesting trees for sawn timber at 8 - 13 years and transmission poles at 6 - 8 years. Contrary to knowledge, the assessment found out that majority of woodlots had a spacing of 2.5 x 2.5 m. Many woodlots were poorly pruned and surrounded by shrubs which affected timber quality. Generally, woodlots management was unsatisfactory due to insufficient technical knowledge. Thus, more training is needed to strengthen smallholder forestry to ensure sustainable tree farming.</p> J.N. Mwambusi G Kapp S.A.O. Chamshama Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2021-11-07 2021-11-07 90 3 40 61 10.4314/tjfnc.v90i3. Modeling Productivity and Costs of Mechanized Tree Length Skidding Operations https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/217005 <p>Skidding operation constitute the entire process of moving felled trees from the stump site to the roadside landing. This operation normally bears substantial amount of the mill delivery costs. Thus, detailed information on productivity and cost is important for planning of cost-effective skidding operation. This study was conducted at Sao hill Forest plantation to quantify productivity and costs of tree length skidding operations. Continuous time study technique using snap-back method was used for time recording. Costs data were obtained from Mufindi Paper Mill logging department. Productivity and costs modeling, were performed using Microsoft excel. The analysis, showed that; the average productivity of the grapple skidder using tree length (TL) ranges between 398.423 m<sup>3</sup>/hr at a distance of 10 m and 49.862 m<sup>3</sup>/hr at a distance of 80 m. On the costs analysis, the unit skidding costs tends to increase with an increase of skidding distance (m) from 512.197 TZS/m<sup>3</sup> at a distance of 10 m to 4,092.675 TZS/m<sup>3</sup> at a distance of 80 m. Based on these findings it is recommended that variables distance and volume are the core factors to consider during planning to enhance efficient and costs effective skidding operation.</p> G.P. Temba E.W. Mauya D.T.K. Shemwetta Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2021-11-07 2021-11-07 90 3 62 73 10.4314/tjfnc.v90i3. Lumber Recovery and Production Rates of Small-Scale Mobile Sawmilling Industries in Northern Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/217006 <p>This study was carried out to quantify technical efficiency of mobile sawmills by determining the lumber recovery rates and production rates of two mobile sawmills namely as Wood-Mizer (band saw machine) and Ding-dong (circular saw machine). The study was conducted in Lushoto district, located in the Northern part of Tanzania. The results indicated that Wood-Mizer had lumber recovery of 51.3% and production rate of 0.64m<sup>3</sup>/hr., while Ding-dong had lumber recovery rate of 35.2%, and production rate 0.86m3/hr. Generally, results have shown that both sawmills have reasonable lumber recovery rates and production rates irrespective of the differences between the two, however Wood-Mizer had great conversion efficiency compared to the Ding-dong machine. Considering the reduced supply of saw logs for sustainable forest management, a machine with high conversion efficiency is highly encouraged than machine with high speed of production, thus Wood-Mizer stands to have more chances of applications as compared to Ding-dong machine which had relatively higher production rates. However, we encourage further studies to be conducted with diverse sets of factors associated with economic aspects as well as tree species to have more baseline information on the performance of these two mobile sawmilling machineries.</p> N.J. Lolila H.A. Mchelu E.W. Mauya S.D. Madundo Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2021-11-07 2021-11-07 90 3 74 83 10.4314/tjfnc.v90i3. Vegetative Propagation of Picralima nitida (Stapf.) by Leafy Stem Cuttings: Influence of Cutting Length, Hormone Concentration and Cutting Positions on Rooting Response of Cuttings https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/217007 <p><em>Picralima nitida </em>is a valuable tree species in the humid zone of West and Central Africa whose natural regeneration is threatened by seed dormancy and over exploitation. This study investigated the rooting ability of <em>P. nitida </em>using mature leafy stem cuttings. Two cutting length (6 and 8 cm), cutting positions (apical and basal) and three concentrations (0, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/l) of Indole-butyric acid (IBA) were evaluated using a split-split plot design. The result showed that cutting length of 8 cm significantly influenced percentage of rooted and callused cuttings than cutting length of 6 cm.&nbsp; Significantly higher number of roots occurred in 8 cm cutting length than 6 cm cutting length. Cutting positions significantly affected percentage of callused cuttings only. Cuttings treated with IBA significantly enhanced rooting percentage, number of leaves and shoot height than untreated cuttings. Interactive effect of cutting positions, cutting length and IBA concentration was significant for only rooting percentage. Mature leafy stem cutting of <em>P. nitida </em>can be propagated asexually using cutting length of 8 cm from any position on the shoot to improve the rooting success. &nbsp;Stem cuttings of <em>P. nitida </em>should be treated with IBA to enhance the rooting capacity of the species</p> A.A. Olaniyi F.B. Yakubu M.O. Nola V.I. Alaje M.A. Odewale O.O. Fadulu K.K. Adeniyi Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2021-11-07 2021-11-07 90 3 84 92 10.4314/tjfnc.v90i3. Plant Species Identification from Leaf Images Using Deep Learning Models (CNN-LSTM Architecture) https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/217008 <p>Species knowledge is important for biodiversity conservation. Identification of plants by conventional approach is complex, time consuming, and frustrating tor non-experts due to the use of botanical terms. This is a challenge for learners interested in acquiring species knowledge. Recently, an interest has surfaced in automating the process of species identification. The combined availability and ubiquity of relevant technologies, such as digital cameras and mobile devices, advanced techniques in image processing and pattern recognition makes the idea of automated species identification become real. This paper elucidates development of convolutional neural network models to perform plant species identification using simple leaves images of plants, through deep learning methodologies. Training of the models was performed by using an open database of 100 plant species images, containing 64 different element vectors of plants in a set of 100 distinct classes of plant species. Several state-of the- art model architectures were trained, with the proposed model attaining performance of 95.06% success rate in identifying the corresponding plant species. The significant success rate makes the model very useful identifier or/and advisory tool. The approach could be further expanded to support an integrated plant species identification system to operate in real ecosystem services.</p> J. Banzi T. Abayo Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2021-11-07 2021-11-07 90 3 93 103 10.4314/tjfnc.v90i3. Effects of Participatory Forest Management on Livelihoods of Communities Adjacent to Forests in Redd+ Pilot Areas of Mufindi, Iringa Rural and Mbozi Districts, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/217009 <p>Participatory Forest Management (PFM) has been introduced as a strategy for sustainable forest management. The extent to which forests managed under PFM strategies contribute to the livelihoods of its adjacent communities remains poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to (i) analyse socio-economic characteristic of respondents in the study area (ii) assess forest products accessed by the communities living adjacent to the forests, (iii) analyse the local communities’ perception on the importance of forests under PFM to their livelihoods and (iv) analyse socio-economic factors influencing the households’ perception on the importance of PFM. Methods of data collection were household survey, direct observations, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Data analysis was done using chi-square analysis and binary logistic regression. Findings revealed that χ<sup>2</sup> test on the importance of PFM forests (compared to non-PFM forests) was statistically significant. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that household size was a statistically significant factor influencing the household’s perception on the importance of PFM forests on livelihoods. We conclude that PFM forests are perceived to have positive effects on their livelihoods. Further studies are recommended explicitly to paint a picture on benefits attributable to PFM.</p> L.P. Lusambo F. Midtgaard G. Nyamoga Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2021-11-07 2021-11-07 90 3 104 116 10.4314/tjfnc.v90i3. Impacts of Community-Based Forest Management on Governance in Selela Village Forest Reserve, Monduli District, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/217013 <p>This paper is based on the analysis of the impacts of Community Based Forest Management (CBFM) on forest governance in the western part of Monduli District in Tanzania. The objective was to assess the impacts of CBFM on accountability, transparency, power relations and equitability. Primary data collection involved use of PRA techniques, governance assessment and mapping, multi-stakeholder analysis, checklists, structured questionnaire, and participant observation. Secondary sources such as government reports were used. Microsoft excel and SPSS software were used to analyze quantitative data.&nbsp; Content and Structural-Functional Analytical tools were applied on qualitative data. A logistic regression analysis model was developed to identify socio-economic factors, influencing performance of institutions in Selela Village Forest Reserve. Accountability, transparency, and equitability statistically (p&lt;0.05), increased the odds of good governance by factors of 5.575, 0.325 and 3.036 respectively. The findings revealed poor transparency in revenue collection and administration, which is attributed to an “elite capture”, which is a formation of a new ‘’social class’’ of corrupt and irresponsible elites. Strategic, institutional and structural powers were observed in the study area. The study concluded that CBFM has negative impact on forest governance; and recommended periodic assessment of CBFM activities.</p> G.E. Mbeyale N.M. Dugilo L.P. Lusambo Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2021-11-07 2021-11-07 90 3 117 129 10.4314/tjfnc.v90i3. Optimal Rotation Age of Pinus patula in Government Forest Plantations in Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/217017 <p>A study to determine the optimal rotation age of <em>Pinus patula</em> was conducted in five forest plantations in Tanzania, i.e., Kawetire, Kiwira, North Kilimanjaro, West Kilimanjaro and Meru. Growth and yield, and mechanical properties data were collected from compartments representing age from 5 to 25 years. In addition, revenues and management costs data were collected for the purpose of determining the economic rotation age. For the purpose of determining the optimal rotation age based on growth and yield, the following basic models were developed: 1) site index curves model, 2) height-D model, 3) Single tree volume model, 4) Basal area growth model 5) stand volume model, 6) mortality model, and 7) simulation of thinning. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was carried out to ascertain whether the wood properties vary across age classes. Economic analysis of rotation age data involved computation of Net Present Value (NPV). Growth and yield data revealed irrespective of site class, <em>P. patula</em> can be harvested at age of 18 years while mechanical wood properties show that harvesting ages range between 16 and 21 years. Based on NPV, the optimal age was 16 years. Therefore, it is recommended <em>P. patula</em> be harvested at age of 18 years irrespective of site class.</p> W.A. Mugasha F.F. Laswai R.E. Malimbwi S.A.O. Chamshama J.M. Abdallah E.W. Mauya Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2021-11-07 2021-11-07 90 3 130 145 10.4314/tjfnc.v90i3. Behavioural Activities of Two Sympatric Bird Species and Implications for Conservation and Birding Tourism in an Urban Landscape https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/217020 <p>The behaviours of most Afro-tropical birds inhabiting urban landscapes are still poorly understood making species conservation and utilization challenging particularly in increasingly changing cityscapes. This study investigated activity patterns of two sympatric bird species, the Zanzibar red bishop (<em>Euplectes nigroventris</em>) and Black-headed weaver (<em>Ploceus cucullatus</em>) inhabiting urban forest remnants to provide information to improve species conservation and potential plans for avitourism in urban Morogoro, Tanzania. A total of 60 individual Zanzibar red bishop and 28 individual weaver birds were observed, for three weeks to understand their diel activity patterns. Eleven activities were displayed by the birds with the mean time budgets for some activities varying significantly between species, bird sex and habitat types. Further, birds spent significantly longer time during morning than afternoon or evening on most activities probably to offset the energy demands for the survival and reproduction. Variation in activity budgets between the two species was probably due to the species intrinsic strategies such as group foraging by the weaver that enhance easy detection and access to the food resources. These data will be useful for planning bird conservation and utilization programs especially in cities where birds are increasing threatened by human persecution.</p> S.S. Dismas J.A. Mbilu A.A. Rija Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2021-11-07 2021-11-07 90 3 146 155 10.4314/tjfnc.v90i3. Power Relations Between Upstream and Downstream Common Pool Resource Users: Winners and Losers in The Uluguru Mountains, Morogoro Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/217022 <p>Power relations often determine who manage resources, who have access to and who makes important decisions. Understanding power relations is important considering its importance in mitigating resource use conflicts as the result of power imbalance. This study was conducted to analyse power relations between upstream and downstream Common Pool Resources (CPR) users in Uluguru Mountains (UMs), Morogoro Tanzania. The study was conducted in Ruvuma and Peko Misegese villages representing the upstream communities and Mafisa and Mlali Streets representing the downstream communities. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected using Participatory Rural Appraisal and structured questionnaire. Content analysis was used to analyse qualitative data while descriptive and inferential statistics were employed for quantitative data analyses using SPSS. Findings show that, strategic, institutional and structural powers embody people’s livelihoods in UMs. Strategic power was found to be dominant in the upstream while institutional power in the downstream. Furthermore, the results showed that conflictive power relations created winners and losers, whereby upstream dwellers were considered to be the winners due to virtue of their position and weakness of existing institutions in enforcing rules and regulations governing CPRs. To have a win-win situation, the study recommends the need of improving institutional arrangements.</p> N.S. Amanzi G.E. Mbeyale L.P. Lusambo Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2021-11-07 2021-11-07 90 3 156 166 10.4314/tjfnc.v90i3.