Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc <p>The <em>Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation</em> accommodates articles addressing research findings of the current diverse and multidisciplinary approaches towards ecosystem conservation at national and global levels. The journal is published biannually and accepts research and review papers covering technological, physical, biological, social and economic aspects of management and conservation of tropical flora and fauna.</p> Faculty of Forestry & Nature Conservation, Sokoine University of Agriculture en-US Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2408-8129 <p>Copyright: © 2017 The College of Forestry, Wildlife and Tourism.</p> <p>All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form, or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior permission from the College of Forestry, Wildlife and Tourism, SUA.</p> Dynamics of Timber Value Chain in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/221519 <p>The dynamics of the timber value chain in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania well known. The study strove to identify key actors, their roles, functions, and interactions in various nodes along the timber value chain. Data were collected using key informants’ interview, focus group discussions and researchers’ direct observation. The study identified various value chain nodes: land, inputs, production, harvesting, processing, transportation, and marketing. Actors of the timber value chain identified were village government, villagers, tree growers, seedlings producers, middle-men, institutions, district government, traders, saw millers, and porters. The paper describes points out outstanding differences and similarities across the three study districts. Results revealed that there was a considerable variation (dynamics) in the study districts in terms of seedlings quality, tending operations, timber harvesting age, transportation modes, distance from the market, marketing aspects, government regulations and taxations. Further, the governance of value chain in the study areas was examined and issues related to regulations, quality and standard setting are described. The paper recommends that one-size-fits-all approach should not be used to address existing challenges of the value chain. The paper finds it prudent to use location-specific initiatives to improve timber value chain in the study area.</p> D.G. Mhando L.P. Lusambo S.S. Nyanda Copyright (c) 2022-02-17 2022-02-17 91 1 1 19 10.4314/tjfnc.v91i1. Tree Slenderness Coefficient Models for Biodiversity Conservation in International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Forest Ibadan, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/221523 <p>Tree Slenderness Coefficient (TSC) is the ratio of total height to diameter which is used to determine stability of trees to wind throw. There is dearth of information on suitable model for estimating TSC in enhancing species conservation. Suitability of TSC model for conservation was assessed at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) forest, Ibadan, Nigeria. Simple systematic line transect was used to demarcate 16 sample plots (50m x 50m). Tree height and Diameter at Breast Height of trees ≥ 10cm were measured on 389 trees and TSC was computed using standard method. Four TSC models were evaluated. Data were analysed using descriptive statistic and regression at 95% confidence limit. Suitable model was selected using least Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and highest coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>). It was observed that the percentage of tree susceptible to wind-throw damages in the area is 40.10% while moderate and low TSC were 30.59% and 29.31%, respectively. Both the low and moderate TSC totaled 59.9%, indicating that the forest stands have good vigour and has the ability to withstand wind throw. The selected TSC Model was T . The model is therefore recommended for tree slenderness coefficient prediction.</p> P.O. Ige O.O. Komolafe Copyright (c) 2022-02-17 2022-02-17 91 1 20 31 10.4314/tjfnc.v91i1. Socio-Economic Determinants of Household Dependency on Forest Resources in Masida Community Forest in Zambezi Region, Namibia https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/221526 <p>The purpose of the study was to assess the socio-economic determinants of household dependency on forest resources in Masida community forest in Zambezi, Namibia as one of the contributions to the national strategies to ascertain sustainability of the scarce forest resources. A cross-sectional study was conducted during December 2018 to April 2019 using a semi-structured questionnaire, Focus group discussion and key informant’s interview.&nbsp; A total of 185 randomly sampled household were interviewed. Logistic regression model was used to determine the socio-economic characteristics influencing household forest dependency and a multiple response was used to assess reasons for dependency on the forest. Results shows that age and education level of respondents together with the size of agricultural land owned are some of the socio-economic determinants that significantly (p&lt;0.05) influenced forest dependency. Though the indices of forest dependence are generally low, the forest’s provision of medicine natural ablution function and easy access are among the motives that influence people to depend on the forest in the study area. We recommend the provision of alternative livelihood income such as farming and animal husbandry to alleviate the dependence problem. This can be facilitated by the government and other stakeholders through projects, training and extension services.</p> R.M. Karupu G.E. Mbeyale L.P. Lusambo Copyright (c) 2022-02-17 2022-02-17 91 1 32 44 10.4314/tjfnc.v91i1. Production Rates of Mechanized Tree Felling Operations at Sao-Hill Forest Plantation, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/221529 <p>With the advancement of technology in forest operations, utilization of advanced machines in timber harvesting has been increasing in the last decades. However, in order to understand their contribution in harvesting operations, it is important to quantify their production rates. The findings will assist the development of timber harvesting plans. Therefore, this study was conducted at Sao-Hill Forest Plantation in Tanzania to determine time consumption and production rates of whole tree harvesting system using feller buncher. Regression models for predicting time consumption and production rates were also developed. The results showed that average productive felling time was 0.7 minutes per tree and production rates was 32.6 m<sup>3</sup>/h respectively. The production rates varied among tree size classes. For trees with diameter at breast height (<em>dbh</em>) of 10-19.9 the average production rates was 19.07 m<sup>3</sup>/h while for <em>dbh</em> class of 30-39.9 the production rate was 75.48 m<sup>3</sup>/h. Time consumption and production rates models were having Adjusted-R<sup>2</sup> of 50% and 56 % respectively. Their relative root mean square errors (RMSEr), computed based on the predictions from 10 - fold across validation results, were 28.69% and 45.37%, respectively. Applicability of the models should be limited within the ranges from which they have been developed.</p> E.W. Mauya Copyright (c) 2022 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2022-02-17 2022-02-17 91 1 45 57 10.4314/tjfnc.v91i1. Status of Biological Control as a Management Tool for Leucaena psyllid, Heteropsylla cubana, Crawford (Homoptera: Psyllidae) in Eastern Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/221531 <p>Biological control offers economic and environmental solutions against insect pests. Two Biological control agents <em>Tamarixia leucaena </em>and<em> Psyllaephagus yaseeni</em> were introduced from Trinidad to Tanzania for the biological control of the Leucaena psyllid (<em>Heteropsylla cubana </em>Crawford) which attack agroforestry fodder called Leucaena. We investigated status of biocontrol agents of <em>H. cubana</em> and indigenous predators of <em>H. cubana</em> in Morogoro and Tanga regions. &nbsp;Terminals of infested growing shoots were collected and treated to remove indigenous predators associated with <em>H. cubana</em>.&nbsp; Mean abundance of mummies, indigenous predators and parasitism percentage of <em>H. cubana </em>were quantified. The mean number of <em>T. leucaenae </em>and <em>P. yaseeni</em> mummies were 2.33 and 1.68 in Tanga and 2.64 and 2.10 in Morogoro per terminal shoot. Parasitism rate of <em>P. yaseeni</em> and <em>T. leucaenae</em> were 0.16% and 0.11% in Tanga and 0.15% and 0.14% in Morogoro respectively. The dominant indigenous predators were spiders followed by ladybird beetles. Therefore, introduced biological control agents and indigenous predators play a vital role in controlling <em>H. cubana</em>. However, there is a need to understand the interactions between indigenous predators and <em>H. cubana</em> in order to advice farmer on appropriate biological control measures.</p> P.J. Lyimo M.W. Mwatawala Copyright (c) 2022 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2022-02-17 2022-02-17 91 1 58 69 10.4314/tjfnc.v91i1. Effects of Fire, Grazing and Agriculture on Carbon Stocks and Biodiversity in the Ruaha-Katavi Landscape https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/221540 <p>The wildlife corridor between Ruaha and Katavi National Parks is under threat from cultivation and increased fire frequencies. This study evaluated the impacts of protection, fire, and habitat conversion on carbon stocks and biodiversity in the Ruaha-Katavi Landscape. Soil carbon, above-ground woody carbon stocks, herbaceous biomass and insect species richness were determined from 87 plots across a variety of land uses. There were significant differences in carbon stocks among different soil, and land use types (<em>p &lt; </em>0.001). Sandy soils featured significantly higher woody carbon (<em>p &lt; </em>0.001) than heavy clay soils. Conversion of woodlands to croplands significantly reduced aboveground woody carbon (<em>p &lt; </em>0.001) from an average of 72.4 Mg/ha for woodlands compared to 30.9 Mg/ha for croplands. Furthermore, croplands had significantly lower woody carbon than grazed woodland remnants in Open Areas (<em>p = </em>0.005). Herbaceous plants and Orthoptera species richness did not vary significantly with land use (<em>p</em> &gt; 0.05). Lepidoptera species richness significantly correlated with tree species richness. This study provides some key preliminary information that may justify feasible interventions to slow down conversion of woodlands into croplands to achieve climate-related benefits mainly reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by sequestering carbon in wood and soils.</p> G.E. Soka M.E. Ritchie Copyright (c) 2022 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2022-02-17 2022-02-17 91 1 70 88 10.4314/tjfnc.v91i1. The Effectiveness of Customer-Centric Approach in Understanding Tourist Behaviour: Selected Tour Companies in Arusha, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/221541 <p>Experience shows that the best way to attract and keep customers is by responding positively to their preferences. The best solution is to understand customer needs and behaviour. Customer-centric approach is predicted on successful understanding and management of customer preferences. However, there is no credible information on the effectiveness of this approach, especially in the East African tourist market. This study examined effectiveness of the approach in understanding tourist behaviour. It specifically assessed influence of customer preferences management and customer-business alignment on tourist behaviour. Out of 446 tour companies licensed in 2018 in Arusha, Tanzania, 210 were randomly selected and studied. Key respondents were sales/marketing managers purposively selected from the samples. The study adopted a quantitative research approach where a semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis and multiple regression for hypothesis testing Findings show that the approach was significantly effective in understanding tourist behaviour (p &lt; 0.001; r = 0.984) through customer preferences management (r = 0.334) as well as customer-business alignment both internally (r = 0.464) and externally (r = 0.318). This study recommends automation of tour operators’ business practices focusing on understanding and addressing new tourist expectations</p> B.D. Shemwetta D. Rotich J Kibe Copyright (c) 2022 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2022-02-17 2022-02-17 91 1 89 100 10.4314/tjfnc.v91i1. Institutional and land use dynamics of Chagga homegardens in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/221544 <p>This study examined the dynamics of institutions in managing homegardens and land use changes in the pre- and post-independence Tanzania, specifically by the Chagga people, dwellers of slopes of Mt Kilimanjaro. Socio-economic data were collected using household questionnaires, key informants, checklist and focus group discussions. Spatial data were analyzed by using ERDAS Imagine 2011 and ArcGIS 10.0 software programs. Qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed using content analysis and descriptive statistics respectively. Results indicate a decline in importance of informal institutions due to changes in political landscape from the pre- to the post-independence era. We observed, through land cover change between 1987and 1995 and between 1995-2013 that the Chagga homegardens declined in size by 70.42%, a trend that is likely to continue. We conclude that changes that have taken place in management of the home gardens is an alarm calling for strategies to protect the traditional agro forestry practices that have contributed significantly to livelihood and food security of the communities. We recommend that homegarden land use systems be identified, protected and promoted to tap the rich indigenous knowledge and skills that were used in balancing and sustaining agricultural production, food and livelihood security with environmental conservation.</p> G.E. Mbeyale N. Mcharo Copyright (c) 2022 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2022-02-17 2022-02-17 91 1 101 119 10.4314/tjfnc.v91i1. Local institutions and forest management: a case of Enguserosambu Community Forest, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/221546 <p>Governments are shifting the forest tenure systems to local and indigenous communities. This relatively new innovative approach serves as an opportunity for sustainable forest initiatives and economic development for some of the marginalized communities. This paper examines the role of local and indigenous institutions in the management of Enguserosambu Community Forest. One focus group discussion, 12 group interviews and seven individual interviews were conducted. A total of 46 individuals participated, out of these, 17 were females and 29 were males. Thematic analysis was conducted and several themes were generated during the analysis. Results indicate that Enguserosambu Community Forest, which is managed under a complex set of power structure, has five local/indigenous institutions actively engaged in the management of forest resources. There are internal conflicts among institutions, each questioning the role of the other. However, local institutions still play a strong role in the community by creating awareness and capacity building among the community members with regard to the forest and its benefits. Local institutions also ensure that users are identified and the benefits are shared among the right users.&nbsp; It is therefore important to build capacity of local institutions to enable them to effectively contribute to forest conservation and management.</p> A. Sirima Copyright (c) 2022 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2022-02-17 2022-02-17 91 1 120 131 10.4314/tjfnc.v91i1. Modelling Above Ground Biomass Using Sentinel 2 and Planet Scope Data in Dense Tropical Montane Forests of Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/221552 <p>Forest biomass estimation using field -based inventories at a large scale is challenging and generally entails large uncertainty in tropical regions. In this study, we investigated the performance of Sentinel 2 and Planet Scope data for above ground biomass (AGB) modelling, in the tropical rainforest of Tanzania. A total of 296 field inventory plots were measured across the west Usambara mountain forests. The results showed that, Sentinel 2-based model fitted using GLMs had better performance (cvRMSEr = 67.00 % and pseudo-R<sup>2</sup>= 20%) as compared to Planet Scope-based models (cvRMSEr = 72.1 % and pseudo-R<sup>2</sup>= 5.2%). Overall GLMs resulted into models with less prediction errors in contrast to random forest when using Sentinel 2 data. However, for the Planet Scope, there was marginal improvement when using random forest (cvRMSEr = 72.0%). Models that incorporated texture variables produced better prediction accuracy as compared to those with band values and indices only. The study has shown that, Sentinel 2 and Planet Scope remotely sensed data can be used to develop cost-effective method for AGB estimation in tropical rainforests of Tanzania.</p> E.W. Mauya S. Madundo Copyright (c) 2022 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2022-02-17 2022-02-17 91 1 132 153 10.4314/tjfnc.v91i1. Assessing population performance of hunted impala and wildebeest in Simanjiro Plains, Northern Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/221556 <p>Human exploitation of wildlife is driving some species to severe population decline but, few studies examine the combined effect of hunting, environmental variability and demographic traits on population dynamics of hunted species, making it difficult to design sustainable hunting practices. In this study forty-five model scenarios defined by varying levels of hunting, female breeding and mortality rates, were used under Vortex population viability modelling program to assess performance of impala and wildebeest populations and to explore the management options to improve their population persistence. The resident impala population was predicted to suffer severe decline under most hunting scenarios when &gt;2% per year of its population is killed, resulting in local population extinction within 15 years. In contrast, the wildebeest population did not decline at 5% current hunting rates due perhaps to its migratory behaviour that buffers the hunting impact but could go extinct within just 40 years when hunting rate in increased. Further, &lt;10% environmental variability associated with the female breeding and mortality rates had considerable impacts on the population change and size under most hunting scenarios. Improving habitats and reducing hunting could improve female breeding rates thus ensuring the long-term survival of the ungulates in the Simanjiro plains, Tanzania.</p> A.A. Rija Copyright (c) 2022 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2022-02-17 2022-02-17 91 1 154 168 10.4314/tjfnc.v91i1. Perception on the Causes and the Impacts of Climate Change on Ecosystem Services Provided by Cola nitida (Vent.) Schott & Endl in Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/221559 <p>Kolanut (<em>Cola nitida)</em> is a tropical multipurpose agroforestry tree species in Nigeria, the species receives little attention from studies geared towards assessing the impact of climate change on the services it provides. The study investigated farmers’ views on the impacts of current changes in climatic variables on the ecosystem services the species provides in Nigeria. This study was conducted by interviewing farmers cultivating <em>C. nitida</em>, using the purposive sampling method and focus group discussion (FGD). Data were obtained by using structured questionnaires and interview sections. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed that about 96% of respondents revealed that climatic factors such as a change in rainfall pattern, drought, and temperature influenced the survival and fruiting patterns of <em>Cola nitida</em> in Nigeria. The regressions showed that age, gender, marital status, education level, and household size significantly influenced farmers’ perception of climate change. The results revealed that climate change will have a significant influence on the ecosystem services (productivity, supporting, cultural and regulating) provided by this species. Rural farmers should be encouraged to domesticate this species in Nigeria as mitigating measure to climate change and maximize the ecosystem services provided by <em>Cola nitida</em> for improved livelihood.</p> O.P. Agwu A. Bakayoko S.O. Jimoh P. Stefan Copyright (c) 2022 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2022-02-17 2022-02-17 91 1 169 182 10.4314/tjfnc.v91i1. Households’ woodfuel consumption and deforestation in Morogoro and Songea Districts, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/221569 <p>There paucity of empirical evidence of deforestation attributable to household wood fuel consumption hampers effective strategy to reduce wood consumption and mitigate climate change impacts. &nbsp;The objectives of the study were to: (i) obtain households’ characteristics, (ii) determine quantity of charcoal consumption, (iii) determine quantity of firewood consumption, (iv) estimate deforestation due to charcoal consumption; (v) estimate deforestation due to firewood consumption, and (vi) estimate environmental cost of deforestation. Data were collected using household questionnaire survey, focus group discussion, key informant interview, direct measurements of household fuels and researcher’s direct observation. Data were analysed using <em>SPSS</em> and <em>Excel</em> statistical computer programmes. The findings reveal that charcoal consumption is estimated at 3.50±0.26kg/household/day (256±18/capita/year) and firewood consumption at 7.30±0.46 kg/household/day (533±33kg/capita/year). Deforestation attributable to charcoal consumption was 1.20–4.80 (× 10<sup>-4</sup>) ha/household/day [0.88–3.49 (× 10<sup>-2</sup>) ha/capita/year]. Deforestation attributable to firewood consumption was 6.85–33.07 (× 10<sup>-6</sup>) ha/household/day [5.01–24.12 (× 10<sup>-4</sup>) ha/capita/year].&nbsp; The net deforestation was 3.37-21.59 ha/household/day. Findings suggested that woodfuel contribute 49% of total deforestation. and cost of deforestation was US$ 6,252,012. &nbsp;The study recommends that woodfuel production and consumption technologies need improvements</p> L.P. Lusambo Copyright (c) 2022 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2022-02-17 2022-02-17 91 1 183 205 10.4314/tjfnc.v91i1.