Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc <p>The <em>Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation</em> accommodates articles addressing research findings of the current diverse and multidisciplinary approaches towards ecosystem conservation at national and global levels. The journal is published biannually and accepts research and review papers covering technological, physical, biological, social and economic aspects of management and conservation of tropical flora and fauna.</p> Faculty of Forestry & Nature Conservation, Sokoine University of Agriculture en-US Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation 2408-8129 <p>Copyright: © 2017 The College of Forestry, Wildlife and Tourism.</p> <p>All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form, or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior permission from the College of Forestry, Wildlife and Tourism, SUA.</p> Contribution of Improved Charcoal Kilns to the Households Income in Developing Countries: The Case of Kilindi District, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/243323 <p>About ninety percent of the country’s energy needs are satisfied through charcoal and firewood. This study was conducted to assess the contribution of improved charcoal kilns to the household income in Kilindi District, Tanzania. Simple random sampling was applied to select two wards from 21 wards, and one village from each ward. A total of 200 charcoal producers were randomly selected. The data collection tools were questionnaires and focus group discussion. The profit analysis was conducted using gross margins technique. The student t-test statistics was conducted to determine if there was statistically significant difference between the two values (improved and traditional kilns). The findings show that charcoal production activities contributed 82% of the total household income. The gross margin from using improved kilns was 52% while using traditional kilns was 26%.&nbsp; The <em>t</em>-test show that the difference in gross margin was statistically significant at p-value of 0.02 inferring that charcoal producers who used improved kilns in the study area generated more income than those who used traditional kilns. The study recommends that local governments should sensitise communities on advantages of using of improved charcoal kilns since it has shown a positive impact on the household income and reduces forest degradation.</p> P. Fitwangile F. Mombo S. Mariki Copyright (c) 2023 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-03-13 2023-03-13 92 1 1 9 10.4314/tjfnc.v92i1. Avifauna Community in a Threatened Conservation Landscape, Western Tanzania: A Baseline https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/243325 <p>Conservation of avian biodiversity in landscapes under immense anthropogenic pressures is dependent on sound population data that could guide informed conservation strategies. Using point count surveys, field observations and interviews, we assessed bird communities in Lake Rukwa, an anthropogenically threatened ecosystem in western Tanzania, to establish some vital parameters on this taxon. A total of 5840 bird individuals belonging to 85 species, 17 orders and 39 families were recorded. Of these, five were globally threatened and 19 were migrant species. Avian Shannon’s (H’) and Simpson’s (D) diversity indices were 2.936 and 0.8655, respectively. Bird species richness was different across foraging and habitat guilds (both <em>p</em> = 0.0001). Insectivores were the most species-rich foraging guild, while nectarivores were the least; similarly, non-forest birds were the most species-rich habitat guild, while forest generalists were the least. Grazing, bushfires, tree cutting, unsustainable fishing and bird harvesting are the major anthropogenic threats to bird biodiversity in the area. Regular provision of conservation-related education programs to local residents is a highly recommended conservation measure. This study serves as a baseline for avifaunal monitoring in Lake Rukwa and provides useful insights into the avifauna conservation planning in anthropogenically disturbed landscapes.</p> A.S. Mgelwa M.O. Mpita A.A. Rija Z. Kabalika S.N. Hassan Copyright (c) 2023 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-03-13 2023-03-13 92 1 10 24 10.4314/tjfnc.v92i1. Effects of Large-Scale Teak Plantation Establishment on Plant Species Composition and Diversity in Kilombero Valley, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/243329 <p>Kilombero Teak Company (KVTC) have cleared more than 7,500 ha of natural miombo woodland since 1992, to establish a teak plantation in Kilombero valley. Currently, less is known about how this large teak plantation supports the previous existed plants species before its establishment. This study, investigated the understory plant species found in teak plantation and made reference on natural remnants around the plantation. The main hypothesis was that, natural remnants around the teak plantation would be richer and diversified in species, than teak plantation. Nested plots of 40 m x 20 m, 20 m x 10 m and 1 m x 1 m were established and used to survey plant species within plantation and natural remnants. Results showed that, natural remnants and plantation were 58% similar in plant species recorded. Natural remnants observed to have a statistically significant higher plant species richness (<em>p </em>= 0.043), families (<em>p </em>= 0.049) and abundance (<em>p </em>= 0.004) but lower plant species diversity (<em>p =</em> 0.01) than the plantation. The higher plant diversity scenario in teak plantation, shows that a plantation can support a variety of non-teak plant species that existed in the valley before its establishment in any favorable condition.</p> G.D. Ngatena G. Soka P.K.T. Munishi Copyright (c) 2023 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-03-13 2023-03-13 92 1 25 37 10.4314/tjfnc.v92i1. Impacts of Recreational Infrastructure on Rodent Communities and their Associated Haemoparasites in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/243332 <p>Rodents are a vital component of ecosystems as they play an important role in community structure, stability, and diversity. Recreational infrastructure constructed in Protected Areas to support leisure and recreation activities for tourists, may disrupt the rodents’ natural environment and influence dynamism in their communities and in turn their associated haemoparasites. This may lead to transmission of the haemoparasites to the humans. Capture- Mark- Release was used to collect data where four transect lines of 100 meters; set 10 meters apart were used for setting traps in selected trapping sites; and capillary tubes were used to collect blood samples for assessment of haemoparasites’ prevalence. A total of 128 rodents belonging to 9 species were captured, of which <em>Mastomys natalensis </em>was the dominant species (53.1%). Generally, areas with less active infrastructure had higher diversity, but lower breeding patterns. <em>Bacillus spp</em> was the only haemoparasite observed to prevail in 24% of all captured rodents. The study concludes that the recreational infrastructure, does not directly impact rodent communities; but rather the communities are influenced by the general nature of their surrounding environment. Thus, we recommend further studies be done on rodents in relation to potential zoonotic haemoparasites around recreational infrastructure within protected areas.</p> H.C. Bupamba A. Kitegile J.T. Mgonja Copyright (c) 2023 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-03-13 2023-03-13 92 1 38 49 10.4314/tjfnc.v92i1. Impacts of Vegetation Losses over Time on Land Surface Temperatures in Borgu Sector of Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/243336 <p>The effects of vegetation-changes on land-surface temperature (LST) in Kainji-Lake National Park was evaluated. Hitherto, the possible interaction(s) between land-use/cover, vegetation-index (NDVI) and LST were unknown. This study utilized cloud-free Landsat images within five data-periods (i.e., 1986-1990-1999-2009-2020). The red and near-infrared bands of the images were processed using ArcGIS for NDVI (bands 4 and 3 of Landsat 5 and 7, and bands 5 and 4 of Landsat 8 OLI/TC). Emissivity and LST were determined using thermal-bands 6 for Landsat 5 and 7, and 10 for Landsat 8. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson-correlation. The results revealed that LST increased from 28.46±3.01°C (1986) to 34.13±2.07°C (2020). However, highest mean-temperature (41.35±1.16°C) was in 1999, with the lowest (28.46±3.01°C) in 1986. Area with highest temperature had NDVI of 0.120±0.071, while the NDVI of the area with lowest temperature was 0.436±0.062. Thus, there were inverse-correlations between NDVI and LST (r = -0.934, -0.931, -0.992, -0.942 and -0.972) for 1986, 1990, 1999, 2009 and 2020, respectively. With the decrease of NDVI (vegetation cover), the LST were found to increase. Therefore, there is need to discourage forest-conversions, as losses in vegetation-covers were consequent upon intense anthropogenic-activities such as overgrazing, illegal-logging, fuel-wood exploitation and mining.</p> A.A. Adeyemi K.O. Atere Copyright (c) 2023 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-03-13 2023-03-13 92 1 50 63 10.4314/tjfnc.v92i1. Assessing Community Perceptions about the Contributions and Impacts of Wildlife Tourism to Rural Livelihoods: Wildlife Management Areas Perspective https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/243337 <p>Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) refer to protected areas in a village land, set aside for conservation of wildlife and tourism activities. Existing studies on WMAs have focused more on the establishment, governance and conservation consequences of WMAs. Relatively few studies have been conducted on the contributions of wildlife tourism from WMAs perspectives to rural livelihoods in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to assess community perceptions about the contributions of wildlife tourism and conser­vation to livelihoods of communities re­siding in WMA, using Ikona and Makao WMAs as a case study. Crosstabs analysis using Chi-square (c<sup>2</sup>) was applied to analyse data collected using questionnaires. Overall, the findings indicate that most people (74.1%) are proud of their villages being in WMA, (59.8%) are aware of tourism activities in their WMA, (71.5%) accept wildlife conservation and (33.6%) agree that WMA increases livelihood options. Overall, the findings indicate that wildlife tourism contributes to local peoples’ livelihoods at a community level but not at a household level. The study recommends WMA authorities to integrate local communities at a household level in all facets of wildlife tourism in WMAs so as to enhance the contribution of WMAs and wildlife tourism to sustainable livelihoods.</p> J.T. Mgonja Copyright (c) 2023 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-03-13 2023-03-13 92 1 64 81 10.4314/tjfnc.v92i1. Thinning Compliance and its Effects on Growth, Yield and Stem Quality of Tectona grandis at Mtibwa Forest Plantation, Morogoro, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/243339 <p>Observing thinning schedule in commercial tree plantation is crucial if the final crop of desirable quality is required. However, there is limited information on thinning compliance to thinning schedule of <em>Tectona grandis</em> (Teak) in Tanzania. This study was undertaken to assess thinning compliance and its effects on the growth and yield of Teak at Mtibwa Forest Plantation, Morogoro, Tanzania. Ninety-two (92) circular plots of 9.78m radius were laid in 23 purposively selected compartments. Thinning history, heights of 3 fattest trees, breast height diameter (Dbh), and stem quality of trees in a plot were recorded. Results show that 57% of the thinned area is overstocked compared to the thinning schedule whereby the second and third thinnings had significantly higher (<em>P </em>&lt; 0.05) stems per hectare (SPH). Inadequate thinning affects Dbh growth by 6-10% but dominant height (Hdom) is unaffected. SPH, basal area (BA), and volume (Vol) are higher by 15-69%, 4-118%, and 3-149% respectively. Results indicate that 73-80% of trees in compartments have stem quality 2. Generally, thinning is delayed, and lighter than recommended in the thinning schedule with negative effects to stand growth and yield. Compliance with the thinning schedule is recommended to attain the projected growth at rotation age.</p> J. Gumadi J.N. Mwambusi S.A.O. Chamshama S.M. Andrew R.E. Malimbwi Copyright (c) 2023 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-03-13 2023-03-13 92 1 82 95 10.4314/tjfnc.v92i1. The Current Status of Wildlife Captive Facilities in Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/243351 <p>Wildlife captive facilities (WCFs) are accommodations for ex-situ conservation of wild animals, they include wildlife ranches, farms, breeding facilities, orphanage centers, sanctuaries and zoos. Tanzania harbours a number of these facilities, however, information on exact number, types, functioning status, size, composition and health is limited. This study employed key informant interviews, participatory observations and counts to generate information on the status of WCFs in Tanzania. Descriptive statistics and Gross Profit Margin were used to analyze data on WCF status and cost-benefit analysis respectively. Results showed that Tanzania has 28 active and 42 dormant WCFs. Most of WCFs were established mainly for business and community services. About 182 species from 33 families and 14 orders are housed in these facilities, attracting both local and foreign visitors. The visiting fees are the main source of income in WCFs. Generally, the active WCF meet the purpose of their establishment by having satisfactory species richness, diversity and abundance and good health. However, there is need to improve the overall standard. Reliance on fees make most WFC run under significant loss, especially zoos. Thus, this study recommends provision of education for both communities and investors, establishment of Private-Public Partnership investment mode and WCF consultancy.</p> Z.G. Mng'ong'o N.E. Mbije A. Kitegile Copyright (c) 2023 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-03-13 2023-03-13 92 1 96 109 10.4314/tjfnc.v92i1. Sustainability of Nundu Catchment Forests under Conventional Forest Management in Njombe, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/243353 <p>The catchment forests, which account for 398 million ha (equivalent to 9.8%) of the world forest, are threatened by anthropogenic influence. Despite the drawbacks of conventional forest management (CFM), which is top-down, it is adopted to manage the catchment forests in Tanzania. For a CFM to work successful, its strengths and weaknesses need to be explored. A study to investigate the performance of CFM on the long-term viability of catchment forests was conducted in Nundu, Njombe-Tanzania. With 97 respondents, a descriptive research design was chosen. Data were gathered through observations, surveys, interviews, and document reviews. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative data, whereas content analysis was used to analyse qualitative data. The research revealed that the sustainability of the Nundu catchment forest is threatened by a lack of community involvement, predominance of legal enforcement, and existing land conflicts. The findings demonstrate the inefficiency of the conventional approach to the management of catchment forests. It is recommended that the Tanzanian government review its policies and guidelines for managing catchment forests to ensure community involvement, work to resolve disputes, address managerial issues related to catchment forests, and provide adequate and timely funding for catchment forest management.</p> F. Manga F. Mahenge Copyright (c) 2023 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-03-13 2023-03-13 92 1 110 121 10.4314/tjfnc.v92i1. Assessment of Marketing and Distribution Channels of Bushmeat in Kwara State, Nigeria https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/243354 <p>Marketing and consumption of bushmeat has been part of rural livelihoods. This study therefore assessed the marketing of bushmeat in Ilorin, capital of Kwara State, Nigeria. The respondents targeted include the hunters, wholesalers and retailers of bushmeat. Purposive sampling technique was employed for selection of 15 wholesalers and 20 retailers of bushmeat, while snowball method was adopted for sampling of 20 hunters making 55 respondents. Majority of the bushmeat hunters were male (90.0%), while 80.0% and 85.0% of the retailers and wholesalers respectively were female. The people that engaged in hunting were local farmers and full-time local hunters. About 63.3% of the hunters processed their kills to prevent decay (46.6%) and for value addition (36.7%). From estimation, the increase in the average seasonal selling prices for the bushmeat was as high as 100% between the middlemen in some cases, while some was just about 10% or below. Marketing of the bushmeat is mainly driven by the final consumers, hence there is the need for proper public education and awareness creation on the implication of killing animals in the wild. Training on domestication of wild animals should be organized among the hunters, marketers and consumers with incentive provided for their establishment.</p> F.D. Babalola Copyright (c) 2023 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-03-13 2023-03-13 92 1 122 137 10.4314/tjfnc.v92i1. Woody Species Diversity, Composition, Structure and Carbon Storage of Esilalei Village Land Forest Reserve in North - Eastern Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/243355 <p>The biodiversity status of most forests found in village land area is lacking. This creates challenges in planning for sustainable management of these forests. This study therefore assessed woody species diversity, composition, structure and carbon stocks of Esilalei Village Land Forest Reserve located in Monduli district in the North-Eastern Tanzania. Vegetation data was collected from 20 concentric sample plots of 5m, 15m, and 20m radius laid out systematically in the forest of 2,800 ha. A total of 29 plant species were identified. Diversity indices indicated the forest to have moderate diversity of woody species. Stand structure comprised 77 ± 52 stems ha<sup>-1</sup>, basal area of 1.82 ± 1.42 m<sup>2</sup>ha<sup>-1</sup>and volume of 8.42 ± 6.96 m<sup>3</sup>ha<sup>-1</sup> while the mean above ground and below ground carbon stocks were 9.71 ± 8.03 Mg C ha<sup>-1</sup> and 0.98 ± 0.79 Mg C ha<sup>-1</sup> respectively. Despite the observed low structural attributes including carbon density, it is very important to legally protect this area as village land forest reserve to serve as a corridor and dispersal area for wild animals when moving between the surrounding national parks. Quantification of other carbon pools such as soil, dead wood and surface litter should be considered.</p> E.E. Mwakalukwa A. Mwakisu S. Madundo S.M. Maliondo Copyright (c) 2023 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-03-13 2023-03-13 92 1 138 158 10.4314/tjfnc.v92i1. Ecological Correlates of Population Abundance of a Pest Small Mammal Species (Mastomys natalensis) Inhabiting a Protected Area-Farmland Landscape in Western Serengeti, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/243356 <p>There is growing recognition of the negative impacts pest mammal species have on food security and the human health.&nbsp; Strategies to reduce these impacts could benefit from results of association of population of the pests to ecological aspects. We assessed how environmental and habitat attributes were associated population abundance of <em>Mastomys natelensis</em> in a landscape interspaced with farmland and protected areas in Western Serengeti.&nbsp; Rodents were trapped through Capture-Mark-Release method between April, 2020 and March, 2021 and estimated density of <em>M. natalensis</em> using the Minimum Number of Animals Known to be Alive (MNA) method. We found density to be significantly higher during dry season and in active farmlands; Both active farmlands and areas with sandy-clay-loam soils were strongly positively associated with higher abundance perhaps because of the increased species activity patterns during searching for food and favourable nesting soils thereby exposing the rodents to the traps. Also, the density tended to be significantly lower in areas with high plant species richness probably because <em>M. natalensis</em> is a pestrous species often in high abundance in areas cleared of vegetation for agricultural activities.&nbsp; These results provide useful inputs towards control strategies to reduce impacts associated with these pests in the rural landscapes</p> E.J. Rwebuga L.S. Mulungu A.A. Rija S.N. Hassan Copyright (c) 2023 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-03-13 2023-03-13 92 1 159 169 10.4314/tjfnc.v92i1. Assessment of the Effects of Uranium Exploration on Wildlife, Vegetation and Tourism in Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/243357 <p>Mineral resources are potential for economic development of any endowed country. However, mining is generally associated with serious negative impacts on existing ecosystems where operations are carried out. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of uranium exploration on wildlife population, vegetation, and tourists’ visitation in Selous ecosystem in Tanzania. Data collection took place in different periods from 2016 to 2017 through household questionnaire surveys, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, direct observations, nested plots, and secondary data reviews. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics in SPSS version 20 software. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis through systematic coding and theme identification. Findings show that poaching was a leading illegal activity (55%) in the area. Further effects reported and observed were habitat fragmentation, introduction of alien species, and noise pollution. About 478.57 trees (with dbh greater than 5 cm) per ha were removed to expand the main road to the mining site. However, the number of tourist visitation in the area was almost constant. This study recommends that the government, through its ministries, should address the weakness identified and put measures in place that will reduce adverse impacts during mining process.</p> S.B. Mariki A.F. Azihou E.P.S. Assede M. Sengelela R.M. Byamungu Copyright (c) 2023 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-03-13 2023-03-13 92 1 170 184 10.4314/tjfnc.v92i1. Decade of Climate Change and Tourism Research in Tanzania: Where are we? https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/243358 <p>Tourism is highly vulnerable to climate change impacts, yet many countries in the global South have the lowest capacity to adapt. Given the urgency of adapting tourism to climate change, this study brings to the fore the state-of-the-art on climate change and tourism research in Tanzania through a review of the literature published between 2014 and 2023, using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement 2020. The study is the first to comprehensively compile unsurpassed scholarly work on climate change and tourism covering the period between IPCC-AR5 and AR6. The assessment identified 85 publications, of which 16 addressed climate change and tourism. Of the 16 articles, 78 percent assessed impacts, 11 percent adaptations and 11 mitigations. The study exemplifies inadequacies in research on climate change and tourism linkages, builds a solid ground for research, and informs policymakers about the fate of tourism development in a data-scarce situation. With the vast land devoted exclusively to conservation and tourism, and numerous higher education institutions committed to research and consultancy, the assessment demonstrates that Tanzania's understanding of tourism in the face of climate change is insufficient. More adaptation and mitigation research are, therefore, pertinent.</p> H. Kilungu Copyright (c) 2023 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-03-13 2023-03-13 92 1 185 201 10.4314/tjfnc.v92i1. Effects of Different Pre-Sowing Treatments on Germination of Pericopsis angolensis Seeds of Tabora Miombo Woodlands, Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/243359 <p><em>Pericopsis angolensis</em> species survival is reported to be low in nurseries. Given the high dormancy tendency of Legume family, it is speculated that, pre-sowing treatment of <em>Perocopsis angolensis</em> seeds may result in improved germinability. Different attempts of breaking the dormancy to enhance germination have been done. However, the difference in environmental conditions - soil pH, temperature, and water availability - which parental plants experienced during their growth and seed maturation, have an impact on seed germination patterns. This study assessed the effects of pretreatments (soaking in cold and boiling water at different time intervals) on the germination of <em>Pericopsis angolensis </em>seeds collected in Tabora, Tanzania<em>. </em>Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was done to show differences in seed germination parameters under different pretreatments. Results show that, there was significant (<em>P&lt;0.001</em>) difference in germination parameters between the control and pretreated seeds except for the Mean Germination Time (<em>P&gt;0.05</em>). The highest Germination Value, Germination Percent and Germination Capacity were found under control. The findings prove that pretreating <em>Pericopsis angolensis</em> seeds by soaking in cold and hot water have no additional effect on germination. Thus, the study suggests that the restoration of the forests using <em>Pericopsis angolensis</em> species can be achieved even without seed pretreatments.</p> Y.S. Mbailwa S.A.O. Chamshama B.A. Mwendwa J.N. Mwambusi Copyright (c) 2023 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-03-13 2023-03-13 92 1 202 213 10.4314/tjfnc.v92i1. Assessing Factors Influencing Local Communities’ Compliance with Wildlife Conservation Regulations in Tanzania: A Case of Burunge Wildlife Management Area https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/243360 <p>Reducing conflict in wildlife resource use is critical to institutions overseeing community compliance with wildlife regulations. While understanding of community compliance to wildlife conservation regulations and the contributing factors is important, this area is yet to be adequately explored. We collected quantitative and qualitative data in villages adjacent to Burunge Wildlife Management Area using household surveys, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. We then used SPSS statistical software and NVivo as tools to analyse our quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Results showed that majority (77.5%) of the respondents complied with the wildlife regulations and the rest (22.5%) violated the regulations. The relative importance of the factors influencing compliance varied considerably between the observed regulations. The detection probability was statistically significant to influence the regulations. Moreover, descriptive norm in WMAs regulations and by-laws, compatibility of WMAs regulations and fisheries regulations, and participation in the formulation of regulations had significant influence on compliance with the regulations. Thus, the Burunge WMA establishment has contributed to deterioration of community’s conservation norms. Relevant government agencies should therefore enhance collaboration with other stakeholders to enhance communities’ compliance with the regulations, as well as ensuring community participation in decision making.</p> J. Tang'are I. Mwanyoka Copyright (c) 2023 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-03-13 2023-03-13 92 1 214 229 10.4314/tjfnc.v92i1.