Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc <p>The <em>Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation</em> accommodates the current diverse and multidisciplinary approaches towards ecosystem conservation at national and global levels. The journal is published biannually and accepts research and review papers covering technological, physical, biological, social and economic aspects of management and conservation of tropical flora and fauna.</p> en-US <p>Copyright: © 2017 The College of Forestry, Wildlife and Tourism.</p><p>All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form, or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior permission from the College of Forestry, Wildlife and Tourism, SUA.</p> info-tjfnc@sua.ac.tz (Prof Dunstan T.K. Shemwetta) forestry@sua.ac.tz (College HRO) Tue, 20 Jul 2021 07:09:02 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TREE SPECIES DIVERSITY WITH SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN SEMI-DRY MIOMBO WOODLAND ECOSYSTEMS https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/210923 <p>In Miombo woodland ecosystems, soil nutrients play an important role in the formation of plant communities. This study hypothesized that soil nutrients have an influence on tree species richness and diversity in Miombo woodland ecosystems. Important Value Index (IVI) and Shannon Wiener diversity index (H′) were used to indicate tree species dominance and diversity respectively. Soil properties were determined using laboratory standard methods.&nbsp; Pearson correlation analyses were performed in R software. <em>Pterocarpus tinctorius, Pterocarpus angolensis, Brachystegia spiciformis</em> and <em>Julbernardia globiflora</em> were the dominant tree species in terms of IVI. We recorded 123 tree species with H′ value of 4.23. Tree species richness was significantly (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) direct correlated with total N, available P, Mg, Na and cation exchange capacity (CEC); and inversely correlated with Ca. Tree species diversity was significantly (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05) direct correlated with K, Na and total exchangeable bases (TEB); and inversely correlated with CEC. Kitulang’halo semi-dry Miombo woodland ecosystem is a typical miombo woodland and it is rich in tree species diversity. Its soil nutrients are also intact, suggesting that the woodland is not so much subjected to disturbances due to the current effective management measures imposed. Therefore, further studies in other ecosystems are recommended.</p> G.B. Bulenga Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/210923 Tue, 20 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 FOREST RESOURCES PERCEIVED IMPORTANCE AND DEPENDENCY IN MASIDA COMMUNITY FOREST, ZAMBEZI REGION, NAMIBIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/210907 <p>The purpose of the study was to examine the perception of people on forest dependency. Specifically, the study assessed the trend of availability and extraction of forest resources over a period of 10 years, since when the Masida Community Forest was established 2007 until 2017, and determined the level of dependence on identified products. A cross-sectional study was conducted in villages of Masida Community Forest using a semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 185 randomly sampled respondents were interviewed. Likert scale questions were used in examining the usefulness, availability and extraction of forest resources, and assessing the level of dependence on forest resources. Results indicate that people depend on the forest for poles, thatch grass, wild fruits, fodder, firewood and medicinal plants. The results on forest usefulness were subjected to the Pearson’s chi-square test which showed that all these four-scaling differed significantly (p &lt; 0.001) across the six villages. On forest products availability 36% of the respondent perceive firewood to be increasing over the past 10 years, 74% decrease of thatch grass while 85% perceive medicinal plants to have remained unchanged over the same span of years. Furthermore 63% of the respondents reported thatch grass and fodder (40%) as decreasing; 55% reported increasing pole and Wild fruits (56%) harvesting; while 79% and 56% of the respondents reported firewood and medicinal plants not to have changed respectively. Study revealed that people’s level of dependence on forest resource for building materials is perceived to be high (82.2%), high on Income (69.7%) and fodder (43.8%), medium on food (46.5%) and medicinal plants (58.4%). It is recommended that Agroforestry, brickmaking and Apiculture be an appropriate conservation intervention to curb the depletion of forest resources in the area.</p> R.M. Karupu, G.E. Mbeyale, L.P. Lusambo Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/210907 Fri, 23 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 EVALUATION OF LAND-USE AND LAND-COVER CHANGES CUM FOREST DEGRADATION IN SHASHA FOREST RESERVE, OSUN STATE, NIGERIA USING REMOTE SENSING https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/210925 <p>Sustainable forest management requires accurate information on forest covers and periodical changes. Availability and use of spatial data has become very helpful in x-raying structural changes in most tropical rain forest management options due to reliable accuracy of satellite images with readily-available image processing tools. Thus, we assessed forest drains and land-cover changes in Shasha Forest Reserve using Landsat TM, ETM+ and OLI/TC images acquired from USGS. The images were analyzed using ERDAS Imagine and Maximum Likelihood Algorithm in ArcGIS 10.5. Land-use/cover change-dynamics were characterized using Land Change Modeller. Classification accuracies were assessed using Kappa’s and confusion matrix. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index analysis was performed in ArcGIS. The distinguished LULC were forest, farmland, built-up and water bodies/swamp. The forest cover and water bodies/swamp shrank by 638.91 and 1653.48 ha at -23.66 and -61.24 hayr<sup>-1</sup>, respectively within the 27-year period. Meanwhile, farmlands and built-up areas increased by 1508.40 and 783.99 ha at 55.87 and 29.04 hayr<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. Results further showed that the reserve was better-vegetated in 1991 (0.39) than 2018 (0.05). The major drivers of forest degradation in the area were subsistence agriculture, illegal timber exploitation and overexploitation of non-timber forest products. Overall classification accuracy was 95.1% with Kappa’s coefficient of 0.9439. User’s accuracy ranged between 90.8 and 96.2%, while Producer’s accuracies were between 90.8 and 98.1%. The result of LULC change simulation showed that if the prevailing trends subsist without regeneration, and if other factors remained unchanged, forest and water bodies/swamp would dip further by -653.74 ha and -318.66 ha by 2050, while farmlands and built-up areas would increase by 622.62 ha and 349.78 ha, respectively, with potential negative consequences on environmental variables.</p> A.A. Adeyemi, H.A. Oyeleye Copyright (c) 2021 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/210925 Fri, 23 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 ESTIMATION OF HOUSEHOLD ENERGY CONSUMPTION INTENSITIES AROUND AND WITHIN MIOMBO WOODLANDS IN MOROGORO AND SONGEA DISTRICTS, TANZANIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/210921 <p>The aim of the study was to estimate households’ fuel consumption intensities. Stratified random sampling design was used to select a total of 568 respondent households. Data was collected using pre-tested and pilot-tested questionnaires, direct measurements, direct observations, interviews and focus group discussions. A statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) and Microsoft excel computer programmes were used to analyse data. Results showed that 79.8% - 83.2% of households use firewood as energy source at a rate of 6.734 – 6.746 kg household<sup>-1</sup> day<sup>-1</sup>, and they use c<em>harcoal</em> as energy source at a rate of 3.336 – 3.344 kg household<sup>-1</sup> day<sup>-1</sup>.&nbsp; It is concluded that the household wood fuel consumption is of a sizeable intensity and has the highest contributory effect on total household energy consumption. There was a notable difference in the inter-strata wood fuel consumption. It is recommended that strata (location)-specific strategies would be appropriate in addressing wood fuels issues in the study area: “one-size-fits-all” approach in addressing wood fuel issues in the study area, whenever feasible, should be discouraged.</p> L.P. Lusambo, G.E. Mbeyale Copyright (c) 2021 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/210921 Fri, 23 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Aboveground biomass and carbon stock of Usambara tropical rainforests in Tanzania https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/210926 <p>Forest Above ground biomass (AGB) and carbon stock (AGC) estimation is important for carbon budget accounting, sustainable forest management as well as for understanding the role of forest ecosystem in the climate change mitigation. In the recent decade, there has been a growing global interest on quantifying AGB and AGC in the tropical countries. However, the information on AGB and AGC at local and subnational scales in most of the tropical forests is scattered and not consolidated. In this study, we reviewed the existing information on AGB and AGC for tropical rainforests of northern Tanzania. We used both data published in the peer-reviewed literature and data from unpublished sources provided by various sources.</p> <p>Our results showed that, there are three types of data sources and methods used for estimation of AGB and AGC. These included, field, geographical information system and remote sensing. Of all the methods, field based method was applied to a large extent. The average reported minimum values of AGB and AGC are 177.00 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup> and 88.5 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup>, and the maximum average values are 872 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup> and 436 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup> respectively. Overall, the average values of AGB and AGC in the Usambara tropical mountain forests (UTMFs) are 351.08 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup> and 175.54 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup> respectively. Forest structure parameters, particularly tree sizes and number of tree stems, were the major structure parameters reported to affect the amount of AGB and AGC. To conclude, the study revealed that there is a progressive trend in the estimation of AGB and AGC in the UTMFs. However, more update and effective forest survey data and methods are needed particularly in west Usambara mountain forests block.</p> E.W. Mauya, S. Madundo Copyright (c) 2021 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/210926 Fri, 23 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 POPULATION AND CONSERVATION STATUS OF ENDANGERED ASHY RED COLOBUS IN UFIPA PLATEAU: UPDATES 10 YEARS AFTER FIRST REPORT https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/210927 <p>For centuries, forests in Africa have been converted into farm lands and human settlements leading into habitat loss for forest dwelling mammals especially primates. Last century witnessed an extensive decline of primate populations worldwide mostly through habitat destruction. Here we present findings on the current population and conservation status of Ashy Red Colobus monkeys in Ufipa Plateau, southwestern Tanzania after ten years of first report. Using complete animal count and plotless visual assessment, we conducted surveys in each forest assessing for presence or absence of ashy red colobus in these forests and quality of their habitats. There was much disturbance in unprotected Mbuzi forest, reducing the once continuous forest into forest fragments and patches with no primates. In Mbizi, forest has been converted into commercial forest of exotic pine trees leaving remnants of natural forests as habitat for primates. A population size of 528 individual Ashy red Colobus were counted in Mbizi forest, indicating about 56% decline in population size, and mean group size of 26.4 indicate a 35% decline in 10 years. These findings highlight threats to Mbizi population and envisage local extinction of Mbuzi population and recommend for urgent conservation interventions in the area</p> A.S. Kitegile, A.S. Mtui, K. Mwamende Copyright (c) 2021 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/210927 Fri, 23 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 ASSESSMENT OF THE CONSERVATION VALUES OF OSUN OSOGBO SACRED GROVE, OSUN STATE, NIGERIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/210928 <p>High Conservation Values (HCV) are unique biological, critical ecosystem functions, cultural significant features of an ecosystem. Paucity of knowledge on HCV of Osun Osogbo Sacred grove, South western Nigeria is a serious consideration for this study. Data was generated through field survey, interview and direct field observation. Interview was conducted for the priests, grove staff and traditionalists while systematic line transect was employed in the laying of plots to establish abundance and diversity of the flora species. Feeding point count was carried out for the observation of fauna species at a particular period of the study. <em>Cercopithecus mona</em> recorded the highest frequency compared to <em>Guenon cercopithecus erythrogaster</em>. A total of forty (40) tree species were found with Margalef and Shannon-Weiner index of 19.20 and 2.30 respectively. <em>Celtis zenkeri</em> had the highest relative density (13.04) followed by <em>Colla hispida</em> (9.42). Thematic analysis of the cultural significance revealed that use and non-use values were attached to the resources in the grove. Combined efforts of government officials, community guards and traditionalist were employed as conservation mechanism. It is recommended that assessment of high conservation value of the forest should be based on information on diversity of species, critical ecosystem functions and services.</p> S.O. Oladeji, G.D. Osanyinleye, A. Lawal Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/210928 Fri, 23 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 DEVELOPMENT OF WOOD FUEL CONSUMPTION PREDICTIVE MODEL IN TANZANIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/210929 <p>This study aimed to develop a wood fuel <em>predictive model</em> that could be used to give information which can be used to manage woodfuel supply with a view foster forest resources stewardship. The paper has briefly defined <em>predictive modelling </em>concepts, highlighted the significance of predictive modelling and described the salient steps involved in constructing predictive models. The paper has explicitly described how the predictive model was developed and validated. In light of the validation results, the paper also highlights the adjustment that has been made to the model to make it more plausible. It is concluded that in the current Tanzanian situation where there is no any model that can be used to predict and/or estimate wood fuel consumption, the developed wood fuel consumption predictive model can be useful in sustainable forest management strategies. Prior to its use, however, the constructed model needs to be further validated and adjusted accordingly using newly collected longitudinal data from the study area. Sufficient data should be collected from the <em>strata</em> (locations) commensurate with those used in the present study.</p> L.P. Lusambo, G.E. Mbeyale Copyright (c) 2021 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/210929 Fri, 23 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 HUMAN AND LANDSCAPE FACTORS INFLUENCING LION MORTALITIES IN THE MAASAI STEPPE ECOSYSTEM, NORTHERN TANZANIA https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/210930 <p>The demography of the African lion is increasingly shaped by interactions with humans. Habitat fragmentation and persecution by humans are both linked to the decline in lions in most of their historical ranges such that current populations are largely restricted to isolated protected areas. This study examined the spatial and temporal patterns of lion killings <a name="_Toc514171713"></a><a name="_Toc377303302"></a>in the Maasai steppe ecosystem. We used eighty-two lion mortality records for the last 13 years (2005 - 2017). Distances from the roads, river, lake, settlements, and the Normalized difference vegetation index value extracted for each lion killing location were the key landscape variables used to map the lion anthropogenic mortalities. There was a significant difference (p&lt;0.05) between female and male lions killed from 127 mortality records. The anthropogenic retaliatory killing caused 77.9% of female and 22.1% of male mortalities. About 58% of the lions killed were adults, 39.1% were sub-adults and only 2.9% were cubs. The majority of lion killings incidences took place during the wet season around the Maasai homestead. The lion killings incidences were rampant in the eastern side but slightly clustered in the northern part. Vegetation cover in the actual lion killings areas influenced lion killings incidences. Distances from the public roads, rivers, and human settlements significantly (p&lt;0.05) contributed to lion anthropogenic mortalities. It is anticipated that retaliatory killings of lions could intensify due to growing cattle herds in the ecosystem. To promote coexistence between humans and lions, conservation authorities should invest more in awareness and sensitization programs on the conservation of lions.</p> G. Soka, J. Lyimo Copyright (c) 2021 https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjfnc/article/view/210930 Fri, 23 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000