Histomorphological evaluation of wound healing - Comparison between use of honey and Vernonia amygdalina leaf juice
Vernonia amygdalina Del. crude sap has been used for wound management in ethnomedicine. Histological evaluation of Vernonia amygdalina leaf juice effect on wound healing was carried out. Female albino rats (150-200 g) were anaesthetized, shaved and induced a circular excision wound (10 mm diameter) at the dorso-lateral region. They were randomly assigned (n = 5) to honey, Vernonia amygdalina leaf juice and deionised water (negative control; NC) treated groups (topically treated twice/day with 20 µL each of the respective treatments). Wound size was measured using a digital camera (Canon Powershot 5.0MP, Canon, Tokyo, Japan) and Adobe photoshop CS5 software. Wound tissues were removed on days 3, 5, 7 and 10 post wounding for histomorphological examinations. Average time for complete wound closure in honey (11.00 ± 0.00 days) and Vernonia amygdalina leaf juice (11.20 ± 0.44 days) treated groups was significantly (p˂ 0.05) shorter when compared to NC (13.4 ± 0.90 days). Vernonia amygdalina leaf juice, similar to honey, enhanced fibroblasts recruitment, epithelia cells migration, neovascularization and reduced polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) infiltration as compared to the NC at the early phase of wound healing (days 3 and 5). Vernonia amygdalina might enhance cutaneous wound healing through mechanisms associated with activation/differentiation of skin cells and inhibition of PMNL infiltration of wound area.
Keywords: Histology, Vernonia amygdalina, Honey, Wound healing