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Glucose lowering effects and histomorphological changes ofVernonia amygdalina on pancreatic compromised wistar rats using alloxan monohydrate

K.K. Anachuna, C.J. Oyem, B.C. Nwogueze, J.N. Asiwe

Abstract


Vernonia amygdalina commonly known as bitter leaf is a medicinal plant used in trado-medicine for the treatment of various health conditions. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of graded doses of Vernonia amygdalina leaves extract on blood glucose levels in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats. Thirty five (35) adult male Wistar rats (170g - 200g) were randomly divided into 5 groups. Group 1 served as the control group while group 2 served as the diabetic group induced with alloxan only. Group 3 – group 5 animals were induced with 100mg/kg of alloxan and were further treated with 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg of extracts and 150mg/kg of metformin respectively for 14 days. Blood samples were collected by retro-orbital puncture at the end of 7 and 14 days into plain heparinized sample bottles and glucose analysis was carried out using standard hematological techniques. Experimental animals were euthanized by cervical dislocation; pancreas was harvested, fixed, processed and stained according to standard histological procedures. Stained tissue images were captured using digital micrometer eyepiece. Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results of data obtained were computed using SPSS version 20 and analyzed using one way ANOVA. A p<0.001 was considered statistically significant. The study showed a significant decrease in blood glucose levels of test animals and significant increase in body weight of experimental animals in a time and dose dependent manner. The extracts also showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, phenols and cardiac glycosides as major components of the plant. In addition, histopathological findings demonstrated a restorative effect of Vernonia amygdalina on the diabetic pancreas of experimental animals treated with this agent. Hence, acute administration of Vernonia amydalina on alloxan induced diabetic rats showed a time and dose dependant glucose lowering levels and pancreatic cell regeneration.

Keywords: glucose lowering, histomorphology, vernonia, amygdalina, pancreas, wistar rats


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