Tropical Journal of Health Sciences <p><span lang="EN-GB">The <em>Tropical Journal of Health Sciences</em> (TJHS) is an international journal which provides a forum for exchange of ideas to those engaged in work in the Health Sciences and related fields. The journal intends to publish high quality papers on original research, case reports, short communications, commentary, review articles, editorials, correspondence and book reviews. TJHS is an official organ of the College of Health Sciences (A WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Manpower Development), University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria and will also serve as a medium for disseminating information on the activities of the College.</span></p> College of Medicine, University of Ilorin en-US Tropical Journal of Health Sciences 1117-4153 <p><span lang="EN-GB">Copyright for articles published in this journal is retained by the journal.</span></p> Editorial Comments <p>No abstract</p> AB Okesina Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-23 2023-08-23 30 3 A review of biological and pharmacological activities of <i>Crassocephalum crepidioides</i> (Benth.) S. Moore <p><em>Crassocephalum crepidioides</em> (Benth.) S. Moore is a green leafy vegetable and medicinal plant in West Africa. It belongs to the family Asteraceae and is&nbsp; known by various names; orphan crop, fireweed, thickhead, red flower, raglea for hawksbeard velvet plant in English; Ebolo, Bologi, Ebire in Yoruba, Obuinenawa in Ibo (Nigeria) and Gbolo in Benin Rep ublic. A review of this underutilized plant species shows it is of culinary, biological and pharmacological importance. Several studies have revealed the traditional uses of this underutilized vegetable. Its rich secondary metabolites are promising in drug&nbsp; development. Some of the metabolites have the potentials of being toxic to vital organs if consumed in large concentrations, hence there is the need for caution and proper understanding of this important leafy vegetable and its relevance in food security goal and health.</p> M.O. Ologe F.R. Adeniyi O.A. Adeoluwa Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-23 2023-08-23 30 3 01 06 Depression and associated educational and clinical characteristics among University of Ilorin Students. <p>Depression among undergraduates is a common mental health condition that can have a detrimental effect on their educational performance. However, its association with certain educational and clinical characteristics has not been well explored. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated educational and clinical characteristics of depression among the undergraduates seen at the University of Ilorin Health Centre. It was a cross-sectional study of 353 consenting students. Data were collected with the use of a semi-structured questionnaire to obtain socio-demographic and relevant educational information. Clinical data werecollected by physical examination for facial acne and anthropometric measurement for body mass index calculation. Depression was screened for with the use of Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Analysis was done with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. Chi square and t-test were used to test the association between categorical and continuous variables respectively. While multivariate logistics regression was used to determine the predictors of depression. Statistical significance was set at 95% CI and a p-value of 0.05. The overall prevalence of depression was 45.3%; 59.4% mild, 27.5% moderate, 9.4% moderately severe, and 3.7% severe depression Of the educational characteristics studied, only course of study' (χ<sup>2</sup> 15.411, p-value 0.009), and 'satisfaction with accommodation' (df 1; χ<sup>2</sup> 4.198; p-value 0.040),were statistically associated with depression Body Mass Index and facial acne were not associated with depression. In conclusion, the prevalence of depression was high among these undergraduates and associated with course of study and student's dissatisfaction with their accommodation. Further studies are recommended to explore these associated factors..</p> A.N. Alabi R.O Segun-Adelodun B.A Ayinmode B.A Issa L.O. Odeigah S.I. Ezemenahi U.E. Asibong Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-23 2023-08-23 30 3 07 12 Stroke survivors symmetric weight distribution and dynamic balance following a 12-week task-specific circuit training in addition to standard physiotherapy care <p>This study investigated the effects of adding circuit training (CCT) to standard physiotherapy care (SPC) on percentage weight bearing asymmetry (PWBA) and dynamic balance of chronic stroke survivors. Fifty-eight chronic stroke survivors (38 males and 20 females) were randomised into a control group (n = 27) who had SPC and an experimental group (n = 31) who received CCT in addition to SPC. Both groups were treated for 12 weeks. Dynamic balance was assessed using Berg's Balance Scale (BBS), while two weighing scales placed 10 cm apart were used to assess the weight distribution on both feet and PWBA was calculated. Significant time effect was found for BBS score (p &lt; 0.001) and PWBA (P=0.030) with large and moderate effect size (0.358 and 0.063) as both groups demonstrated significant changes in BBS score and PWBA from baseline to the end point of study respectively. However, the groups were not significantly different (p &gt; 0.05) in their effects on any tested outcome. Although, addition of task-specific CCT to SPC as employed in this study did not confer additional clinical benefits regarding the improvement of symmetric weight bearing and dynamic balance of chronic stroke survivors, our data suggest a short and long-term benefit of task-specific CCT for improved BBS and PWBA, respectively.</p> A. O. Davis J. F. Babalola B. O. A. Adegoke O. M. Olagbegi M. O. Ogunlana O. O. Oyewole Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-23 2023-08-23 30 3 13 19 The Ameliorative effects of melatonin on cannabis-induced liver toxicity in male and female wistar rats <p>Liver has an incontrovertible influence on several functions of many organs in the body. It is prone to xenobiotic induced injury due to its central role in xenobiotic metabolism and its portal location within the system. This study investigated and compared the effects of melatonin on cannabis-induced liver toxicity in male and female wistar rats. Twenty female rats (156g ± 1.05) and twenty male rats (192g ± 1.42) were separately assigned into four groups of five animals each, such that the rats in groups I, II, III and IV received orally 1mL of distilled water, 2mg/kg body weight (BW) of ethanolic extract of <em>Cannabis sativa&nbsp;</em>EECS, 2mg/kg BW of EECS plus 4mg/kg BW ofmelatonin and 4mg/kg BW of melatonin respectively for twenty one days. Creatinine, bilirubin, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP),lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), albumin andinducible protein were determined using standard methods.</p> <p><em>Cannabis sativa</em>(CS)significantly(p&lt;0.05) increased creatinine, bilirubin, GGT, ALP, LDH, ALT, and&nbsp; AST respectively. CS also decreased albumin and inducible protein significantly (p&lt;0.05). However, these increments and decrements were more in male than female rats. All these effects were ameliorated to the level comparable with the control when the CS was administered with melatonin</p> <p>CS showed alterations in liver biomarkers (enzymes) which were probably associated with liver toxicity. These alterations were more in male than in female. <em>However, these effects were ameliorated by melatonin</em>. Since the consumption of CS is increasing globally because of its medical uses, thus, consumption of melatonin as supplement may be recommended.</p> A. Oluwasola O.E. Ayoola Garba Saa'du M.A. Adepoju M.E. Balogun S.A. Biliaminu L.A. OLayaki Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-23 2023-08-23 30 3 20 26 Intimate partner violence among women living with human immunodeficiency virus attending a tertiary health facility in southwest Nigeria <p>Globally intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major health problem and disproportionately affects more women than men. In Africa, women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) face increased IPV risk, low record of disclosure and higher chance of tran smission of HIV to their spouse. This study determined the prevalence and pattern of IPV and its association with disclosure status to partner among women living with HIV(WLHIV).</p> <p>This was a mixed method study among WLHIV attending HIV Anti-Retroviral (ART) clinic at the University College Hospital, Ibadan. Data was collected from 316 participants selected by systematic random sampling using a semi-structured questionnaire developed by the researcher. In-depth interviews were conducted among 20 participants using a guide. Frequency, percentages and proportion were used to summarize categorical variables and means and standard deviation for continuous variables. The test of association was by Chi square and statistical significance was set at p&lt;0.05.</p> <p>Mean age of participants was 37.6 (+ 7.4) years and most, 146(46.2%) were aged 30-39 years. One and most, 146(46.2%) were aged 30-39 years. One hundred and sixty-eight (53.2%) of the participants had IPV. The most reported form of IPV was physical 92(54.7%) while emotional and sexual accounted for 59 (35.1%) and 17 (10.2%) respectively. Two hundred and seventeen (69.0%) had disclosed their status to their partner and 69(21.9%) of their partners were HIV positive. The participants' perspectives about IPV were appropriate. There was a statistically significant association between non-disclosure of HIV status and increased prevalence of IPV (p&lt;0.005).</p> <p>The study observed that there is high prevalence of IPV among WLHIV, especially where there is non-disclosure of HIV status to partner. There is need to encourage disclosure of HIV status to partners and more public enlightenment to reduce IPV.</p> Z.A Sanusi O.O Ogunbode I.O. Ajayi A.O. Arowojolu Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-23 2023-08-23 30 3 27 32 Bladder Stones in Women with Vesico-Vaginal Fistula in Kwara State, Nigeria: Two Case Reports and Review of Literature. <p>Women who have vesico-vaginal fistula can sociodevelop<br>bladder stones because of inadequate intake of water, stasis of urine, incomplete emptying of urine or infection. Bladder stones can also lead to vesico-vaginal fistula if the stone is large and embedded into the bladder wall. The irritating effect of the bladder stone is distressing, affects the social and mental wellbeing of women and it poses a challenge to repair options and outcome.</p> <p>This case report featured two cases of women with vesico-vaginal fistula (VVF) co-existing with symptomatic bladder stones. The two cases had history of previous caesarean section following prolonged obstructed labour and macerated stillbirth. They presented with suprapubic pain, offensive urine and psychological distress. They had examination and dye test in theater which showed juxtacervical vvf and bladder sound with metal catheter suggested bladder stones confirmed by ultrasound. One patient had IVU to rule out ureteric injury. They both had transvaginal&nbsp; removal of the stone and concurrent VVF repair with good outcome. The stones were large and of varied sizes ranging 4cm by 2cm and 3cm by 2cm. Both patients were closed and dry 14 days after repair, confirmed by dye test before discharge.</p> <p>Bladder stones canlead to urinary symptoms such as suprapubic pain and recurrent urinary tract infection in women with VVF. Stones canco-exist with VVF or could lead to VVF. Successful repair can be achieved when bladder stones are removed concurrently during VVF repair in well selected patients.</p> B.S. Okesina H.O. Raji I. Sunday-Adeoye I. Sunday-Adeoye Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-23 2023-08-23 30 3 33 36