Maternal and perinatal outcome of patients with preeclampsia in a teaching hospital in southwest Nigeria
Background : Preeclampsia is a multisystemic disorder of pregnancy associated with significant maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite advances in medical practice, the aetiology of the condition and optimal management strategies are yet to be fully elucidated. Early detection close surveillance and timely delivery are necessary to reduce complications associated with the condition.
Objectives: To detemine the prevalence of preeclampsia and examine its influence on maternal and perinatal outcome at the Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH). Sagamu.
Methods: This was a descriptive retrospective study of outcome of pregnancies in patients with preeclampsia in OOUTH, Sagamu. Obstetrics and perinatal variables from 127 women who presented with preeclampsia from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2013 were analysed. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20. The level of statistical significance was set at P less than 0.05(<0.05).
Results: The prevalence of preeclampsia was 6.7%. The mean age of the women was 29.7 ± 6.5years. Seventy three (57.5%) women were unbooked and 67 (52.8%) were nulliparae. Ninety seven (76.4%) of the women presented with severe disease with admission systolic blood pressure of ≥160mmHg and 80 (63%) had diastolic blood pressure of ≥110mmHg. The level of proleinuria was ≥3 in 76 (59.8%) of the cases. The mean gestational age at delivery was 34.9 ± 3.9 weeks and mean birth weight was 2.3 ± 0.9kg. Sixty three (52.5%) of the subjects had preterm deliveries, 66(83.5%) delivered babies with birth asphyxia while 60 (52.2%) had low birth weight babies. No maternal deaths were recorded among the subjects; however the still birth rate was 34.2%.
Conclusion: Preeclampsia still remains an important cause of adverse pregnancy outcome in Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu. Early identification of cases at the antenatal clinic and timely intervention will help in reversing this trend.
Keywords: Preeclampsia, Maternal morbidity, perinatal outcome, early detection and management
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