A five‑year survey of cesarean delivery at a Nigerian tertiary hospital
Background: Caesarean section is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in obstetrics and certainly one of the oldest operations in surgery; the incidence of caesarean section is steadily rising. The increasing use of CS as a mode of delivery is due to improved safety of the procedure because of increasing use of antibiotics, blood availability, and improved anesthetic techniques. Despite all these, problems of safety and cost still pose some concern, particularly in resource‑poor countries.
Objective: To evaluate the incidence, indications, and outcomes of caesarean section in this hospital during the period under review.
Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive analysis of all the caesarean sections carried out at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada from 1st January 2012 to 31st December 2016. The labor ward delivery register and theatre operation register were also reviewed. The nature and indications for the procedure were analyzed. Other parameters reviewed included booking status of the patient, parity, and fetal outcome. Results were presented using simple percentages and ratios.
Results: Out of 9,604 deliveries during the study period, 2,053 cases were by caesarean section, giving a caesarean section rate of 21.4%. Most cases 1647 (80.2%) were by emergency caesarean sections and elective caesarean section accounted for 406 (19.8%) cases. The rate of caesarean section was higher among unbooked patients 1304 (63.5%) than booked patients 749 (36.5%). Cephalopelvic disproportion was the most common indication 633 (30.8%) followed by fetal distress 484 (23.6%) and severe pre‑eclampsia/eclampsia 224 (10.9%). Anemia was the most common postpartum morbidity and there were 17 maternal deaths and the maternal case fatality rate was 0.8%, and there were 62 (2.9%) perinatal deaths due to birth asphyxia following emergency caesarean section.
Conclusion: The rate of caesarean section has been increasing gradually and is associated with maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. There is need for education of the populace to reduce late presentation.
Keywords: Cesarean section; incidence; indications; outcomes