Feto‑maternal outcome of induced versus spontaneous labour in a Nigerian Tertiary Maternity Unit
Background: Induction of labour may be associated with postpartum haemorrhage, instrumental delivery, blood transfusion, longer hospital stay and admission into neonatal intensive care unit.
Objective: To assess the feto‑maternal outcome of induced labour compared to spontaneous onset labour.
Materials and Methods: Prospective comparative study involving 440 participants divided into induction (study) and spontaneous labour (control) groups. Data were collected on socio‑demographic data, maternal complications, blood transfusion and neonatal outcomes.
Results: A total of 1540 deliveries occurred during the study period, out of which 257 had induction of labour. Successful induction rate was 16.47%. Vaginal delivery was 67.6% in the study group compared to 83.4% in the control group. Postdated pregnancy and hypertensive diseases accounted for 56.8% and 28% of the indications for induced labour, respectively. Induced labour was associated with a significantly higher caesarean section rates (P < 0.001). Cephalo‑pelvic disproportion was the most common indication for caesarean section (P = 0.038). Maternal complications include primary postpartum haemorrhage, perineal lacerations and endometritis. The study group had longer duration of hospital stay compared to the control (P < 0.001). Five perinatal mortality occurred among the study group compared to three in the control (P = 0.848).
Conclusion: Induction of labour is associated with increased risk of caesarean delivery and postpartum haemorrhage compared with spontaneous labour, however, overall rates remain low.
Key words: Induced labour; maternal complications; neonatal outcome; spontaneous labour.