Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: Editorial Policies

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Focus and Scope

The Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is an Open Access international journal devoted to the promotion of pharmaceutical sciences and related disciplines including biotechnology, cell and molecular biology, drug utilization, medical and other life sciences, and related engineering fields. It seeks particularly (but not exclusively) to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical and international relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among global scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and the healthcare professionals. Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal welcomes reviews and case reports on current topics of special interest and relevance.

All manuscripts are subject to rapid peer review and those of high quality (not previously published and not under consideration for publication in another journal) are published without delay.

The maximum length of manuscripts should be 6000 words (24 double-spaced typewritten pages) for review, 4000 words (18 pages) for research articles, 1,500 (6 pages) for case reports, commentaries and short communications.

Authors who wish to have their manuscripts reviewed by a company that specializes in medical editing and proofreading prior to journal submission, may send their documents to MedScience Editors ( or BioScience Writers ( for fast personalized editing services. 


Section Policies


Checked Open Submissions Checked Indexed Checked Peer Reviewed

Peer Review Process

Once a manuscript is received, the editorial office evaluates the manuscript to ensure compliance with the instructions to authors. Each manuscript that meets the conditions contained in the guidelines for authors is sent to two independent expert reviewers who are identified by the Editor and unknown to the author(s). One or more of these may be a member of the Editorial Board. Reviewers may recommend rejection, modification or acceptance of a manuscript. A manuscript is accepted for publication if recommended as such by at least two expert reviewers and manuscripts recommended for modification are returned to their author(s) for revision. When a manuscript earlier recommended for revision is revised and submitted by the author(s), it is still sent to at least one of the reviewers for recommendation for acceptance, further corrections, or rejection. In any case, all comments by the reviewers (unknown to the authors) are forwarded to the author(s), as appropriate.

We are committed to rapid editorial decisions and publication, and we believe that an efficient editorial process is a valuable service both to our authors and to the scientific community as a whole. We therefore request reviewers to respond promptly within a limited number of days. If reviewers anticipate a longer delay than expected, we ask them to let us know so that we can keep the authors informed and, where necessary, find alternatives.


Publication Frequency

Published bimonthly


Open Access Policy

Each article published in Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is an Open Access articles that uses a funding model which does not charge readers or their institutions for access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( and the Budapest Open Access Initiative (, which permit unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.


Editorial Board

Professor Augustine O Okhamafe, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
Professor Patrick O Erah,Department of Clinical Pharmacy & Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
Associate Editors
Professor NP Okolie,Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
Professor DN Onwukaeme,Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
Production Editor
Dr Matthew I Arhewoh,Department of Pharmaceutics & Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria


  • Professor Peter York, Institute of Pharmaceutical Innovation, University of Bradford, UK
  • Professor Mattheus FA GoosenNew York Institute of Technology (NYIT), Amman, Jordan.
  • Professor John O Ojewole, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000, South Africa
  • Professor PP Rai, School of Pharmacy, University of Papua New Guinea, Papua New Guinea
  • Professor Melgardt M de Villiers, School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA
  • Dr. Henk D. F. H. Schallig, Royal Tropical Institute/Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen, Department of Parasitology, Meibergdreef 39 1105 AZ Amsterdam
  • Professor Denis Poncelet, ENSAIA - INPL, Nancy, France.
  • Professor Joseph Fortunak, Schools of Pharmaceutical Sciences Chemistry, Howard University, Washington, USA
  • Professor HO Obianwu, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
  • Professor AB Ebeigbe, School of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
  • Professor Friday Okonofua, School of Medicine, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
  • Professor PG Hugbo, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger-Delta University, Wilberforce, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
  • Professor Ambrose Isah, School of Medicine, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
  • Professor Cyril O Usifoh, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
  • Professor (Mrs) Obehi Okojie, School of Medicine, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
  • Professor Patrick O Uadia, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
  • Professor John O Akerele, Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
  • Professor Samuel X Qiu, China Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China
  • Dr Emmanuel S Onaivi, Williams Paterson University, New Jersey, USA


Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement

Our ethic statements are in line with COPE's Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors.

Publication decisions

The editor of this journal is responsible for deciding which of the articles submitted to the journal is published. He or she is often guided by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as may be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. As he or she may consider appropriate, the editor may confer with other editors, reviewers or seek legal advice in making this decision.

Fair play

At any time a manuscript is submitted for review and possible publication in this journal, the editor will evaluate the manuscript for their intellectual content. This is usually without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author or authors.


As appropriate, the editor and any editorial staff do not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher.

Disclosure and conflicts of interest

As a policy, unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript is never used in any editor's own research without the express written consent of the author or authors.

Duties of Reviewers

Contribution to Editorial Decisions:  Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and through the editorial communications with the author may also assist the author in improving the paper.

Promptness: Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible is required to notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.

Confidentiality: Any manuscripts received for review is treated as confidential documents. They are never shown to or discussed with others except as authorized by the editor.

Standards of Objectivity: Reviews are conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. All referees express their views clearly with supporting arguments.

Acknowledgement of Sources: Reviewers may identify relevant published work that has not been cited or correctly cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which they have personal knowledge.

Disclosure and Conflict of Interest: Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.

Duties of Authors

Reporting standards:  Authors of reports of original research are required to present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Accurately representation of the underlying data in the paper is required. Each paper submitted should contain sufficient details and references to permit others to replicate the work as appropriate. Fraudulent or inaccurate statements deliberately provided constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable.

Data Access and Retention: As appropriate, authors are asked to provide the raw data in connection with any paper for editorial review, and should be prepared to provide public access to such data (consistent with the ALPSP-STM Statement on Data and Databases), if practicable, and should in any event be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time after publication.

Originality and Plagiarism: As part of the manuscript peer-review process, manuscripts are checked  online for plagiarism using Turnitin website. Excluding authors information and biblography, maximum plagiarism allowed is 15% at a string of seven (7) words. This plagiarism check is done even when minor corrections are made to manuscripts accepted for publication. Therefore authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works before submission. If authors have used the work and/or words of others, this should be appropriately cited or quoted. 

Multiple, Redundant or Concurrent Publication:  In general, an author should not publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and this is unacceptable.

Acknowledgement of Sources: The work of others provided in a paper must be properly acknowledged. Authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the work that is reported.

Authorship of the Paper:Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. In this sense, all those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be acknowledged or listed as contributors but not as co-authors. The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included on the paper. Furthermore, the corresponding author should ensure that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.

Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest:  All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should equally be disclosed.

Fundamental errors in published works: When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author's obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper as appropriate.


Editorial Policies


The Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research publishes Articles, Reviews, Case Reports, Commentaries, Technical Notes and Short Communications which are peer-reviewed. Correspondence and all forms of published correction may also be peer-reviewed at the discretion of the editors. At the discretion of the editors, other forms of articles that are not peer-reviewed may also be published.

We general adhere to the guidelines provided by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), as well as the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) Policy Statement on Geopolitical Intrusion on Editorial Decisions and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals.

Once a manuscript is submitted to us, we assume that the author(s) has/have read and agreed to its content, did the work and did not fraudulently obtain the data being presented. In addition, all liabilities pertaining to claims relating to the contents of the article will be borne by the author(s) if published in our journal.

(i)  Ethics approval

All research work involving human subjects, human materials, or human data, must have been performed in specified in the Declaration of Helsinki and must have been approved by an appropriate ethics committee. Thus, a statement indicating this, including the name of the ethics committee and the reference number (where appropriate) must appear in each manuscript reporting such research. Where a study has been granted an exemption from ethics approval, the exemption should also be detailed in the manuscript (including the name of the ethics committee that granted the exemption). The corresponding author should be ready to provide any further information and documentation to support this to the Editor on request. The Editor may contact the ethics committee for further information if necessary. A manuscript may be rejected if the Editor considers that the research has not been carried out within an appropriate ethical framework.

(ii)  Informed Consent

For all research involving human subjects, informed consent to participate in the study should be obtained from all participants (or their parent or legal guardian in the case of children under 16) and a statement to this effect should appear in the manuscript.

(iii)  Non-experimental Studies

Field studies and other non-experimental research involving humans must also comply with institutional, national, or international guidelines, and where available should have been approved by an appropriate ethics committee.

(iv) Animal Studies

Research work involving vertebrates or any regulated invertebrates must comply with institutional, national, or international guidelines, and where available should have been approved by an appropriate ethics committee. The fundamental principles to adhere to are outlined in Basel Declaration while the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) has also published ethical guidelines.

A statement detailing compliance with relevant guidelines and/or ethical approval (including the name of the ethics committee and the reference number, as appropriate) must be included in the manuscript. If a study has been granted an exemption from requiring ethics approval, this should also be detailed in the manuscript (including the name of the ethics committee that granted the exemption and the reasons for the exemption).

For experimental studies involving client-owned animals, authors must also document informed consent from the client or owner and adherence to a high standard (best practice) of veterinary care.

Field studies and other non-experimental research on animals must comply with institutional, national, or international guidelines, and where available should have been approved by an appropriate ethics committee. A statement detailing compliance with relevant guidelines and/or appropriate permissions or licences must be included in the manuscript.

(v) Research involving plants

Experimental research involving plants must comply with institutional, national, or international guidelines. Field studies should be conducted in accordance with local legislation, and the manuscript should include a statement specifying the appropriate permissions and/or licences. For each plant, the voucher specimen must be deposited in a public herbarium or other public collection providing access to deposited material, and information on the voucher specimen and who identified it must be included in the manuscript.

(vi) Consent for publication

For all manuscripts that include details, images, or videos relating to individual participants, written informed consent for the publication of these must be obtained from the participants (or their parent or legal guardian in the case of children under 16) and a statement to this effect should appear in the manuscript. If the participant has died, then consent for publication must be sought from the next of kin of the participant. The consent form must be made available to the Editor on request, and will be treated confidentially. In cases where images are entirely unidentifiable and there are no details on individuals reported within the manuscript, consent for publication of images may not be required.  

Clinical Trial Registration

We support initiatives to improve reporting of clinical trials, including prospective registration of clinical trials in suitable publicly available databases. In line with ICMJE guidelines, we require registration of all clinical trials that are reported in manuscripts submitted to this journal.

The ICMJE uses the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of a clinical trial, which is "any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes". This definition includes phase I to IV trials. The ICMJE defines health-related interventions as "any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome" and health-related outcomes as "any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants".

Recommended publicly available registries are available on the ICMJE website and the primary registries that participate in the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. The trial registration number (TRN) and date of registration should be included as the last line of the manuscript abstract.

For clinical trials that have not been registered prospectively, we encourage retrospective registration to ensure the complete publication of all results. Further information on retrospective registration is available from the AllTrials campaign, the Public Accounts Committee and the Department of Health. For retrospectively registration, the TRN, date of registration and the words 'retrospectively registered’ should be included as the last line of the manuscript abstract. 

Registration of Systematic Reviews

We encourage the prospective registration of systematic reviews and advise authors to register their systematic reviews in a suitable registry (such as PROSPERO). For authors who have registered their systematic review, the registration number should be included as the last line of the manuscript abstract.

Availability of Data and Materials

Submission of a manuscript to a this journal indicates that materials described in the manuscript, including all relevant raw data, will be freely available to any scientist wishing to use them for non-commercial purposes, without breaching participant confidentiality.

We strongly encourages that all datasets on which the conclusions of any paper rely should be available to readers. Where the datasets are not directly on the paper, the location of such datasets in public domains should be specified

Biological Materials

We encourage the deposition of biological materials, such as plasmids, mutant strains, and cell lines, in established public repositories. Authors are required to check the list of known misidentified cell lines maintained by the International Cell Line Authentication Committee (ICLAC).

Software and Code

Any previously unreported software application or custom code described in the manuscript should be made available for testing by reviewers in a way that preserves their anonymity using a link to the most recent version of the software or code and a link to the archived version referenced in the manuscript. The software or code should be archived in an appropriate repository with a DOI or other unique identifier. For software in GitHub, we recommend using Zenodo.

Where the software or code implementation is not made freely available, the manuscript should not discuss the tool in any detail but focus clearly on the development of the underlying method. 

Standards of Reporting

We also strongly recommend that authors should adhere to the minimum reporting guidelines for health research hosted by the EQUATOR Network when preparing their manuscript, and the BioSharing Portal for reporting checklists for biological and biomedical research, where applicable.

We advocate complete and transparent reporting of biomedical and biological research work. You may refer to the Minimum standards of reporting checklistwhen reporting your research. Authors should adhere to these guidelines when drafting their manuscript, and peer reviewers will be asked to refer to these checklists when evaluating such studies.

Authors of systematic reviews should also provide a link to an additional file from the ‘methods’ section, which reproduces all details of the search strategy. An example of how a search strategy should be presented can be seen in the Cochrane Reviewers' Handbook.

Statistical Methods

Authors should include complete information on the statistical methods and measures used in their research, including justification of the appropriateness of the statistical test used.  For p values, the number of tails reported (2-tailed or 1-tailed) should be specified. 

Resource Identification

For effective tracking of the key resources employed to produce the scientific findings reported in the biomedical literature, authors are advised to include a complete description of all resources to allow them to be uniquely identified. To support of the Resource Identification Initiative (RII), we advise authors to use unique Resource Identifiers (RRIDs) within their manuscript to identify their model organisms, antibodies, or tools.

Cell Line Authentication

If human cell lines are used, authors are strongly advised to include the following information in their manuscript:

(i) Source of the cell line, including when and from where it was obtained,
(ii) Cell line authentication status (recent or not) and method used,
(iii) Recent testing of the cell line for mycoplasma contamination.

Gene Nomenclature

Standardized gene nomenclature should be used throughout. Human gene symbols and names can be found in the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) database; requests for new gene symbols should be submitted to and any enquiries about gene nomenclature can be directed to Any alternative gene aliases that are commonly used may be reported, but should not be used alone in place of the HGNC symbol. Nomenclature committees for other species are listed at 

Reporting of Sequence Variants

We endorse the recommendations of the Human Variome Project Consortium for describing sequence variants (Human Genome Variation Society) and phenotypes (Human Phenotype Ontology).

We recommend that authors should submit all variants described in a manuscript to the relevant public gene/disease specific database (LSDB): a list is available here. The database URL and the unique identifier should be reported in the manuscript.

Competing Interests

We require authors to declare all competing interests in relation to their research work. All submitted manuscripts must include a ‘competing interests’ section at the end of the manuscript listing all competing interests, whether financial or non-financial. A competing interest exists when the authors’ interpretation of data or presentation of information may be influenced by their personal or financial relationship with other people or organizations.

Where authors have no competing interests, the statement should read “The author(s) declare(s) that they have no competing interests”. 


To give appropriate credit to each author, we require that the individual contributions of authors should be specified in the manuscript. Details of this information are provided in the Guidelines for Contributors.

Please note that an 'author' is generally considered to be someone who has made substantive intellectual contributions to a published study. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group, alone, does not usually justify authorship. According to the ICMJE guidelines, to qualify as an author one should have:

(i) made substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data;
(ii) been involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content;
(iii) given final approval of the version to be published. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content; and
(iv) agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Authors should understand that removal or addition of any name of an author cannot be made after acceptance of a manuscript.


All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship may be listed in an ‘Acknowledgements’ section. The source of funding should also be acknowledged. For research grants, the name of the funding body and the grant number may be specified, as appropriate.

Any involvement of scientific (medical) writers or anyone else who assisted with the preparation of the manuscript content should be acknowledged as described in the European Medical Writers Association (EMWA) guidelines

Duplicate publication

Any manuscript submitted to this journal for review must be original and the manuscript, or substantial parts of it, must not be under consideration by any other journal. Generally, the manuscript must not already have been formally published in any journal or in any other citable form.  If the abstract of the manuscript has been published previously, the same title earlier published must not be used. In any case where there is the potential for overlap or duplication, we require transparency of authors. Authors are expected to declare any potentially overlapping publications on submission and any overlapping publications should be cited. Articles “in press” and unpublished work should not be cited.

We do not accept plagiarised work and we take seriously all cases of publication misconduct. Any suspected cases of covert duplicate manuscript submission will be handled as outlined in the COPE guidelines and we endorses the policies of ICMJE guidelines in relation to overlapping publications.

Corrections and Retractions

On rare occasions, it may be necessary for us to publish corrections to, or retractions of, articles published in this journal, in order to maintain the integrity of the academic record. Correction or retraction of any published article will be made by publishing an Erratum or a Retraction article and adding a prominent link to the Erratum/Retraction article. For PDF files of retracted articles, the word “Retracted” will be marked clearly on the article. It is only in the exceptional event where that material is considered to infringe certain rights or is defamatory, that we may have to remove it from our site and archive sites. We follow follow the COPE guidelines(

Appeals and Complaints

All authors reserve the right to appeal or complain against editorial decisions on manuscripts submitted to us. We adhere to COPE guidelinesin respect of appeals to editorial decisions and complaints.

ISSN: 1596-9827
AJOL African Journals Online