Aqueous Extract of Flueggea leucopyrus Increases Urine Output in Rats
Purpose: To investigate the effect of Flueggea leucopyrus Wild aqueous extract (FLAE) on the urinary output of rats.
Method: Three different doses of FLAE (500, 1000 and 1500 mgkg-1), furosemide (13 mg kg-1 as diuretic reference) and distilled water (as control) were orally administered to healthy adult hydrated rats. Cumulative urine output was monitored hourly over 6 h. Selected urinary parameters were determined for 1500 mg kg-1 dose, furosemide, and water-treated groups to investigate the possible mode of action. Using these data, standard urine indices were calculated. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in terms of creatinine clearance, overt toxicity, renal toxicity, liver toxicity, as well as phytochemical screening were also determined.
Results: The highest dose (1500 mgkg-1) significantly increased urine output (control vs. treated: 0.74 ± 0.07 vs. 1.38 ± 0.09 mL/100 g) (p < 0.05) r2 = 0.925). The effect of FLAE was dose-dependent. Increase in urine output was observed from the 1st hour, peaked at 2nd hour and lasted till the 6th hour. Furthermore, 1500 mgkg-1 dose of FLAE caused a significant (p < 0.05) increase in urinary K+ level, aldosterone secretion index, thiazide secretion index and GFR at 24 h. However, significant decrease in urinary Na+ level (control vs. treated: 7915.2 ± 423.1 vs. 6611.2 ± 181.3 ppm) was noted with the highest dose (p < 0.05). Serum alanine transaminase (ALT), serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and urea levels were not altered significantly (p > 0.05). However, serum creatinine level was elevated significantly (p < 0.05). Phytochemical screening showed that FLAE contains primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary alkaloids/amine oxides, triterpenoids, unsaturated sterols, leucoanthocyanins, tannins of pyrogallol type and cyanogenic glycoside.
Conclusion: The results show that FLAE exhibits moderate oral aquaretic activity.
Keywords: Flueggea leucopyrus, Diuretic, Aquaretic, Urine output, Toxicity, Phytochemical
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