Methotrexate nanoparticle delivery system for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease in pediatric patients
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of methotrexate (MTX) nanoparticles in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Methods: In this randomized, open-label clinical study, 28 pediatric patients with moderate to severe IBD were randomly assigned to treatment (MTX nanoparticles,15 mg/week) or control (azathioprine, AZA, 2 mg/kg/day) group. Nanoparticles were synthesized by adding calcium chloride to sodium alginate solution containing MTX, and was further treated with poly-L-lysine aqueous solution. The nanoparticles were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential and drug encapsulation efficacy. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, and disease activity scores were used to assess IBD remission.
Results: Nanoparticle size, zeta potential and encapsulation efficacy were 164.4 ± 6.9 nm, -32.6 ± 3.7 mV, and 97.8 ± 4.2 %, respectively. After 12 weeks of therapy, the mean Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index (PCDAI) scores for control and treatment groups were 22.3 ± 2.14 and 16.8 ± 1.87, respectively, while mean Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity (PUCAI) Index scores were 24.3 ± 1.47 and
18.7 ± 1.92, respectively. Eight patients in the treatment and five patients in the control group achieved remission. Biochemical parameters varied significantly between the groups.
Conclusion: MTX nanoparticles are safe and more effective than standard first-line IBD therapy. However, further studies are required to determine the suitability of the formulation for therapeutic use.
Keywords: Pediatric patient, Methotrexate nanoparticle, Inflammatory bowel disease, Azathioprine
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