Antiviral activity and mechanism of action of arbidol against Hantaan virus infection
Purpose: To investigate the activity and mechanism of action of arbidol against Hantaan virus (HTNV) activity by modulating inflammation via TLR-4 pathway.
Methods: HUVEC cells infected with HTNV 76-118 were treated with serially diluted arbidol solutions at -2h (2 h before viral infection, pre-treatment mode), 0 h (at the same time as viral infection, simultaneous treatment mode) or 2 h (2 h after viral infection, post-treatment mode). The transcript levels of TLR4 were detected by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) at 6, 12, 18, and 24 h later. The levels of iNOS and TNF-α were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results: Pre-treatment with arbidol, rather than simultaneous treatment or post-treatment, effectively inhibited up-regulation of cellular TLR4 expression (up to 40 ± 6.1 % inhibition) and activity of supernatant iNOS induced by HTNV infection(up to 44.1 ± 9.4 % inhibition), as well as in a LPSstimulated inflammatory endothelial cell. Arbidol decreased the elevated TNF-α levels induced by LPS
Conclusion: These results are the first evidence that arbidol modulates viral PRRs signaling and its consequential inflammatory cytokine/chemokine response during hantavirus infection.
Keywords: Hantavirus, Arbidol, Toll-like receptors, inducible nitric oxide synthase, Antiviral activity, Inflammation
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